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Encyclopedia > Canning
This article is about commercial canning. For home canning, see Home canning.

Cannery redirects here. For the casino in North Las Vegas, Nevada, see Cannery Casino and Hotel. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Canning may refer to: Canning, a process for preserving food. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... North Las Vegas is a city in Clark County, Nevada, United States. ... Cannery Casino and Hotel is a locals casino located in North Las Vegas, Nevada on 28 acres and is a joint venture between Millennium Management Group and Oaktree Capital Management. ...

A can of preserved food.
A can of preserved food.


Canning is a method of preserving food by first sealing it in air-tight jars, cans or pouches, and then heating it to a temperature that destroys contaminating microorganisms that can either be of health or spoilage concern because of the danger posed by several spore-forming thermo-resistant microorganisms, such as Clostridium botulinum (the causative agent of botulism). Spores of C.Botulinum (in a concentration of 104 /ml) can resist boiling at 100°C (212°F) for more than 300 minutes; however, as temperature increases the times decrease exponentially, so at 121°C (250°F) for the same concentration just 2.8 minutes are required. From a public safety point of view, foods with low acidity, i.e., pH > 4.3 need sterilization by canning under conditions of both high temperature (116-130°C) and pressure. Foods that must be pressure canned include most vegetables, meats, seafood, poultry, and dairy products. The only foods that may be safely canned in a boiling water bath (without high pressure) are highly acidic foods with a pH below 4.6[1], such as fruits, pickled vegetables, or other foods to which acid has been added. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 591 KB) tin can, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canning Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 591 KB) tin can, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canning Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Binomial name van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... “Pressure cooker” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pickle. ...

Contents

History

During the first years of the French Revolutionary Wars, the notable French newspaper Le Monde, prompted by the government, offered a hefty cash award of 12,000 Francs to any inventor who could come up with a cheap and effective method of preserving large amounts of food. The massive armies of the period required regular supplies of quality food, and so preservation became a necessity. In 1809, the French confectioner Nicolas François Appert observed that food cooked inside a jar did not spoil unless the seals leak, thus developed a method of sealing food inside glass jars. The reason why food did not spoil was unknown at the time, since it would be another 50 years before Louis Pasteur demonstrated the role of microbes in food spoilage. However, glass containers presented challenges for transportation. The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... Nicolas François Appert (1750 - 1841) : French inventor of airtight food preservation. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ...

Preserved food.
Preserved food.

Glass jars were largely replaced in commercial canneries with cylindrical tin or wrought-iron canisters (later shortened to "cans") following the work of Peter Durand (1810). Cans are both cheaper and quicker to make and much more resilient than fragile glass jars. Glass jars have, however, remained popular for some high-value products and in home canning.[1] Tin-openers were not to be invented for another thirty years — at first, soldiers had to cut the cans open with bayonets or smash them open with rocks. The French Army began experimenting with issuing tinned foods to its soldiers, but the slow process of tinning foods and the even slower development and transport stages prevented the army from shipping large amounts around the French Empire, and the war ended before the process could be perfected. Unfortunately for Appert, the factory which he had built with his prize money was burned down in 1814 by Allied soldiers invading France. Image File history File linksMetadata Pudliszki-wyroby. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pudliszki-wyroby. ... In 1810, Peter Durand (also known as Pierre Durand) was granted a patent by King George III of England for his idea of preserving food in vessels of glass, pottery, tin, or other metals or fit materials. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...

1914 magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning.
1914 magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning.

Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the canning process was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Based on Appert's methods of food preservation, Peter Durand patented a process in the United Kingdom in 1810, developing a process of packaging food in sealed airtight wrought-iron cans. Initially, the canning process was slow and labour-intensive, as each can had to be hand-made and took up to six hours to cook properly, making tinned food too expensive for ordinary people to buy. In 1824 meats and stews produced by the Appert method were carried by Sir William Edward Parry in his voyage to find a northwestern passage to India. cast-iron iron enamel stainless steel The cooking pan is a type of food preparation utensil commonly found in the kitchen which includes many more specific cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans (or fry pans). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... William Edward Parry Sir William Edward Parry (December 19, 1790 – 8 or 9 July 1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. ...


Throughout the mid-nineteenth century, tinned food became a status symbol amongst middle-class households in Europe, becoming something of a frivolous novelty. Early methods of manufacture employed poisonous lead solder for sealing the tins, which had disastrous consequences for the 1845 Franklin expedition to the Arctic Ocean. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A novelty is a small manufactured adornment, especially a personal adornment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ... Sir John Franklin FRGS (April 15, 1786 – June 11, 1847) was an English sea captain and Arctic explorer whose expedition disappeared while attempting to chart and navigate the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. ...


Increasing mechanisation of the canning process, coupled with a huge increase in urban populations across Europe, resulted in a rising demand for tinned food. A number of inventions and improvements followed, and by the 1860s, the time to cook food in sealed cans had been reduced from around six hours to only thirty minutes. Canned food also began to spread beyond Europe — Robert Ayars established the first American canning factory in New York City in 1812, using improved tin-plated wrought-iron cans for preserving oysters, meats, fruits and vegetables. Demand for tinned food greatly increased during wars. Large-scale wars in the nineteenth century, such as the Crimean War, American Civil War, and Franco-Prussian War introduced increasing numbers of working-class men to tinned food, and allowed canning companies to expand their businesses to meet military demands for non-perishable food, allowing companies to manufacture in bulk and sell to wider civilian markets after wars ended. Urban populations in Victorian era Britain demanded ever-increasing quantities of cheap, varied, good-quality food that they could keep on the shelves at home without having to go to the shops every day for fresh produce. In response, companies such as Nestlé, Heinz, and others emerged to provide shops with good-quality tinned food for sale to ordinary working class city-dwellers. The late 19th Century saw the range of tinned food available to urban populations greatly increase, as rival canning companies competed with each other using novel foodstuffs, highly decorated printed labels, and lower prices. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... This article is about the company. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demand for tinned food skyrocketed during World War I, as military commanders sought vast quantities of cheap, high-calorie food to feed their millions of soldiers; food which could be transported safely, would survive trench conditions, and which would not spoil in between the factory and the front lines. Throughout the war soldiers generally subsisted on very low-quality tinned foodstuffs, such as the British "Bully Beef" (cheap corned beef), pork and beans and Maconochies Irish Stew, but by 1916 widespread boredom with cheap tinned food amongst soldiers resulted in militaries purchasing better-quality food, in order to improve low morale, and the first complete meals in a tin began to appear. In 1917 the French Army began issuing tinned French cuisine, such as coq au vin, whilst the Italian Army experimented with tinned ravioli and spaghetti bolognese. Shortages of tinned food in the British Army in 1917 led to the government issuing cigarettes and even amphetamines to soldiers to suppress their appetites. After the war, companies that had supplied tinned food to national militaries improved the quality of their goods for sale on the civilian market. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... Corned beef, (also bully beef in the UK), is a cut of beef (usually brisket, but sometimes round or silverside) cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. ... Pork and beans is a dish largely thought of as a part of American cuisine. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... A pot of coq au vin, a well-known French dish French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... The coq au vin (cock with wine) is a French stew of chicken (theoretically, rooster) cooked with wine. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... Lemon dill shrimp ravioli Ravioli is a popular type of pasta, comprised of a filling, commonly (though not always) meat-based, sealed between two layers of pasta dough. ... Fettuccine with bolognese sauce Bolognese sauce (ragù alla bolognese in Italian, also known by its French name sauce bolognaise) is a meat based sauce for pasta originating in Bologna, Italy. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ...


Today, tin-coated steel is the material most commonly used. Laminate vacuum pouches are also now used for canning, such as those found in an MRE. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... An MRE packet, containing a spaghetti with meat sauce main course. ...


Double seams

Modern double seams provide an airtight seal to the tin can. This airtight nature is crucial to keeping bacteria out of the can and keeping its contents sealed inside. Thus, double seamed cans are also known as Sanitary Cans. Developed in 1900 in Europe, this sort of can was made of the traditional cylindrical body made with tin plate; however, the two ends (lids) were attached using what is now called a double seam. A can thus sealed is impervious to the outside world by creating two tight continuous folds between the can’s cylindrical body and the lid at each end. This eliminated the need for solder and allowed improvements in the speed of manufacturing, thereby lowering the cost. A Can seamer is a machine used to seal the lid (End) to the can body such as in paint or food cans. ... A hermetic seal is an airtight seal. ... For the American naval slang term, see destroyer. ... Tinning is the process of making tinplate, which consists of sheets of iron or steel that have been thinly coated with tin by being dipped in a molten bath of that metal. ... A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180-190°C (360-370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering. ...


Double seams make extensive use of rollers in shaping the can, lid and the final double seam. To make a sanitary can and lid suitable for double seaming, manufacture begins with a sheet of coated tin plate. To create the can body rectangles are cut and curled around a die and welded together creating a cylinder with a side seam. Sanitation is a term for the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste materials, particularly human excrement. ... Look up die in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Rollers are then used to flare out one or both ends of the cylinder to create a quarter circle flange around the circumference. Great care and precision are required to ensure that the welded sides are perfectly aligned, as any misalignment will mean that the shape of the flange is inconsistent, compromising its integrity.


A circle is then cut from the sheet using a die cutter. The circle is shaped in a stamping press to create a downward countersink to fit snugly in to the can body. The result can be compared to an upside down and very flat top hat. The outer edge is then curled down and around approximately 140 degrees using rollers creating the end curl. Duke Ellington wearing a top hat. ...


The final result is a steel tube with a flanged edge. And a countersunk steel disc with a curled edge. A rubber compound is put inside the curl. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Seaming

The body and end are brought together in a seamer and held in place by the base plate and chuck, respectively. The base plate provides a sure footing for the can body during the seaming operation and the chuck fits snugly in to the end (lid). The result is the countersink of the end sits inside the top of the can body just below the flange. The end curl protrudes slightly beyond the flange.


First operation

Once brought together in the seamer, the seaming head presses a special first operation roller against the end curl. The end curl is pressed against the flange curling it in toward the body and under the flange. The flange is also bent downward and the end and body are now loosely joined together. The 1st operation roller is then retracted. At this point during manufacture five thicknesses of steel exist in the seam. From the outside in they are; a) End, b) Flange, c) End Curl, d) Body, e) Countersink. This is the first seam. All the parts of the seam are now aligned and ready for the final stage.


Second operation

The seaming head then engages the second operation roller against the partly formed seam. The second operation presses all five steel components together tightly to form the final seal. The five layers in the final seam are then called; a) End, b) Body Hook, c) Cover Hook, d) Body, e) Countersink. All sanitary cans require a filling medium within the seam as metal to metal contact, otherwise such an arrangement would not maintain its hermetic seal for very long. In most cases a rubberized sealing compound is placed inside the end curl radius, forming the actual critical contact point between the end and the body.


Probably the most important innovation since the introduction of double seams is the welded side seam. Prior to the welded side seam the can body was folded and/or soldered together, leaving a relatively thick side seam. The thick side seam meant that at the side seam end juncture the end curl had more metal to curl around before closing in behind the Body Hook or flange, leaving a greater opportunity for error.


See also

Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ...

Incidents and accidents related to tinned foods

Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painters colic caused by increased blood lead levels. ... Sir John Franklin FRGS (April 15, 1786 – June 11, 1847) was an English sea captain and Arctic explorer whose expedition disappeared while attempting to chart and navigate the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...

Famous canned foods

This article is about the canned meat product. ... Opened can of Vienna sausage Vienna sausage is a variety of canned sausage. ... Baked beans and scrambled egg on toast. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Tomato soup is a soup made from tomatoes. ...

References

  1. ^ See Wikipedia article, "Mason jar".

N.N. Potter, J.H. Hotchkiss. Food Science. 5th ed. Springer, 1999 P.J. Fellows. Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition . Woodhead Pub. 1999 FDA 21CFR113.3 Thermally processed low acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers. Revision Apr.2006 [2] Glass canning jars, also known as fruit jars or mason jars (named after its inventor not masonry) have been around since the early 1850s and today are eagerly sought after by collectors. ...


External links

  • National Center for Home Food Preservation
  • The history of the Norwegian Canning Industry
  • Handling Canned Food
  • USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning
  • Richard Roller Papers, documents the history of glass manufacturing, with an emphasis on fruit and vegetable canning jars at the Ball State University Archives and Special Collections Research Center
  • Aseptic filling fundamentals

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