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Encyclopedia > Cannibalism (zoology)
Three Mormon crickets eating a fourth Mormon cricket

In zoology, cannibalism is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1500 species (this estimate is from 1981, and likely a gross underestimation). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1349x815, 966 KB) Summary Three female Mormon crickets feeding on another Moromon cricket. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1349x815, 966 KB) Summary Three female Mormon crickets feeding on another Moromon cricket. ... Binomial name Anabrus simplex Haldeman, 1852 The so-called Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex) is actually a shieldbacked katydid, and not a cricket at all. ... Zoology (rarely spelled zoölogy) is the biological discipline which involves the study of non-human animals. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Unlike previously believed, cannibalism is not just a result of extreme food shortage or artificial conditions, but commonly occurs under natural conditions in a variety of species. In fact, scientists have acknowledged that it is ubiquitous in natural communities. Cannibalism seems to be especially prevalent in aquatic communities, in which up to ~90% of the organisms engage in cannibalism at some point of the life cycle. Cannibalism is also not restricted to carnivorous species, but is commonly found in herbivores and detritivores. A dung beetle rolling a ball of dung Detritivores (also known as saprophages, detrivores or detritus feeders) are organisms that recycle detritus (decomposing organic material), returning it into the food chain. ...

Contents

Sexual cannibalism

This female Stagmomantis carolina is eating her mate. Sexual cannibalism occurs in roughly one quarter of all intersexual encounters of this species.[1]
Main article: Sexual cannibalism

Sexual cannibalism is a special case of cannibalism in which a female organism kills and consumes a conspecific (same species) male before, during, or after copulation. Rarely, these roles are reversed.[2][3] Sexual cannibalism has been recorded in the female red-back spider, black widow spider, praying mantis, and scorpion, among others. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 298 KB) This female mantis was photographed on my terrace devouring a male which I had been previously watching eat crickets in the morning. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 298 KB) This female mantis was photographed on my terrace devouring a male which I had been previously watching eat crickets in the morning. ... Binomial name Stagomantis carolina The Carolina mantis or mantid (Stagomantis carolina) is the state insect of South Carolina. ... Sexual cannibalism is a special case of cannibalism in which a female organism kills and consumes a conspecific (same species) male before, during, or after copulation. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... Binomial name Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870 The redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti) is a potentially dangerous spider native to Australia. ... Species L. mactans Fabricius, 1775 L. hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 L. variolus Walckenaer, 1837 Wikispecies has information related to: Latrodectus mactans The black widow spider () is a spider notorious for its neurotoxic venom. ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ...


Size structured cannibalism

Size structured cannibalism, in which large individuals consume smaller conspecifics, is more common. In such size-structured populations, cannibalism can be responsible for 8% (Belding's Ground Squirrel) to 95% (dragonfly larvae) of the total mortality, making it a significant and important factor for population and community dynamics. Such size structured cannibalism has commonly been observed in the wild for a variety of taxa, including octopus, aardvarks, wolves, foxes, lynx, sheep, horses, cattles, moose, bears, pandas, cheetahs, tigers, parrots, rabbits, hippopotamuses, llamas, kangaroos, sealions, koalas, iguanas, orangutans, dolphins, hedgehogs, orcas, bats, toads, fish, monitor lizards, red-backed salamanders and several stream salamanders, crocodiles, spiders, crustaceans, birds (crows, ostriches, eagles, Barred Owls), mammals, and a vast number of insects, such as dragonflies, diving beetles, back swimmer, water strider, flour beetle, caddisflies, and many more. Binomial name Spermophilus beldingi (Merriam, 1888) The Beldings Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus beldingi, is a squirrel found in the mountains of the western United States. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... Suborders †Pohlsepia (incertae sedis) †Proteroctopus (incertae sedis) †Palaeoctopus (incertae sedis) Cirrina Incirrina Synonyms Octopoida Leach, 1817 The octopus (Greek , eight-legs) is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... Binomial name Orycteropus afer (Pallas, 1766) Aardvark range map The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) (Digging foot), sometimes called antbear[1] is a medium-sized mammal native to Africa. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Type species Felis lynx Linnaeus, 1758 The overall range of Lynx species. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... cow and ox, see Cow (disambiguation) and Ox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America, derived from Eastern Abenaki moz)[1] or elk (in Anglophone Europe), Alces alces, is the largest extant member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Panda may refer to: // Giant Panda Panda (plant), a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae PANDAS or P.A.N.D.A.S. is Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptoccal infections Qinling Panda, a subspecies of the Giant Panda. ... Binomial name (Schreber, 1775) Type species Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 (= Felis jubata, Schreber, 1775) by monotypy The range of the Cheetah The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a vulnerable member of the cat family (Felidae), a poor climber that hunts by speed and stealth. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green). ... It has been suggested that True parrots be merged into this article or section. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy Hippopotamus). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. ... Genera Eumetopias Zalophus Otaria Neophoca Phocarctos A sea lion rookery at Monterey, California A sea lion is any of several marine mammals of the family Otariidae. ... Binomial name (Goldfuss, 1817) The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore native to Australia, and the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae. ... Species Lesser Antillean Iguana, Green Iguana, Iguanas are lizards native to tropical areas of Central and South America and the Caribbean. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... Genera See article below. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Families At least 9, see article. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 species of amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The nauplius larva of a dendrobranchiate Porcellio scaber, the common rough woodlouse, a terrestrial crustacean Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid The crustaceans (Crustacea) are... “Aves” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Binomial name Strix varia Barton, 1799 The Barred Owl, Strix varia, is a large typical owl. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Notonectidae or backswimmers is a family of insects of the Hemiptera order. ... Genera Aquarius Gerris Halobates Limnogonus Limnoporus Metrobates Neogerris Rheumatobates Trepobates The water strider, also known as the Magic bug, pond skater, skater, skimmer, water scooter, water skater, water skeeter, water skimmer, water skipper, or water spider, is any of a number of predatory insects in the family Gerridae (Leach, 1815... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ...


Cannibalistic infanticide

Further information: Infanticide (zoology), savaging

Another common form of cannibalism is filial cannibalism (a form of infanticide) where parents eat their own young. Classical examples include the chimpanzees where groups of adult males have been observed to attack and consume conspecific infants, and cats[1], elephants, dogs, baboons, lions, where adult males commonly kill infants when they take over a new harem after replacing the previous dominant males. In agricultural settings, pigs are known to eat their own young, accounting for a sizeable percentage of total piglet deaths. A lioness may have her cubs destroyed if the prides males are overthrown. ... Proper care of the piglets by a mother gilt depends on sanitary conditions and a comfortable environment. ... A lioness may have her cubs destroyed if the prides males are overthrown. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Proboscidea is an order including only one extant family, Elephantidae or the elephants, with three species: the Savannah Elephant and Forest Elephant (which were collectively known as the African Elephant), and the Asian Elephant (formerly known as the Indian... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Proper care of the piglets by a mother gilt depends on sanitary conditions and a comfortable environment. ...


One, perhaps surprising, example is the bottlenose dolphin, which has been reported to kill its young through impact injuries.[4] Another example is hamsters eating their young. Dominant male langurs tend to kill the existing young upon taking control of a harem.[5] There has been sight of infanticide in the Leopard and Lion population[6]. Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is the most common and well-known dolphin, recent molecular studies showing it is in fact two species, Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), and Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (). It inhabits warm and temperate seas worldwide and may be... Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger, the lion and the jaguar. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ...


Male Seahorses have been known to eat their young if they hang around too long after birth


Particularly in fish, one can discern

  • total filial cannibalism, where a parent eats the whole brood
  • cases where a parent eats only part. E.g. sand gobies can eat 40% of their eggs without reducing the outcome of their reproductive efforts.[7]

Genera See text. ...

Intrauterine cannibalism

Intrauterine cannibalism is a behaviour in some carnivorous species, in which multiple embryos are created at impregnation, but only one or two are born. The larger or stronger ones consume their less-developed siblings as a source of nutrients.


In adelphophagy, the fetus eats sibling embryos, while in oophagy it feeds on eggs.[8] Oophagy (egg eating) is the practice of embryos feeding on eggs produced by the ovary while still inside the mothers uterus. ...


Intrauterine cannibalism is known to occur in lamnoid sharks[9] and in the Fire Salamander,[10] as well as in some teleost fishes.[8] The Carboniferous chimaera, Delphyodontos dacriformes, is suspected of having practiced intrauterine cannibalism, also, due to the sharp teeth of the recently born (or possibly aborted) juveniles (adults are unknown), and the presence of fecal matter in the juveniles' guts.[11] Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Great Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as the mackerel sharks. ... Binomial name Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is probably the most well-known salamander species in Europe. ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Families See text for families, genera and species. ... Binomial name (Lund, 1980) Delphyodontos (meaning womb tooth) was a prehistoric holocephalid fish from the early Carboniferous, from the Bear Gulch Limestone Lagerstätte, in Montana. ... Feces (also spelled faeces in British English, or fæces) are semi-solid waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


References

  1. ^ Mike Maxwell. Sexual cannibalism, mate choice, and sperm competition in praying mantids.
  2. ^ Kenwyn Blake Suttle (1999). The Evolution of Sexual Cannibalism. University of California, Berkeley.
  3. ^ Min-Li Tsai & Chang-Feng Dai (2003). Cannibalism within mating pairs of the parasitic isopod Ichthyoxenus fushanensis. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 662–668. DOI:10.1651/C-2343. 
  4. ^ Milius, S. (July 18, 1998), "Infanticide Reported in Dolphins", Science News 154 (3): 36. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  5. ^ The evolution of infanticidal mechanisms in male langurs. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  6. ^ Fildes, Jonathan, Cheating cheetahs caught by DNA. Retrieved on 2007-05-30
  7. ^ Susan Milius (2007). Honey, I ate the Kids, Science News vol. 171 p. 200-204 (references)
  8. ^ a b Crespi, Bernard; Christina Semeniuk (2004). "Parent-Offspring Conflict in the Evolution of Vertebrate Reproductive Mode". The American Naturalist 163 (5): 635-654. DOI:10.1086/382734. 
  9. ^ Hamlett, William C.; Allison M. Eulitt, Robert L. Jarrell, Matthew A. Kelly (1993). "Uterogestation and placentation in elasmobranchs". Journal of Experimental Zoology 266 (5): 347-367. DOI:10.1002/jez.1402660504. 
  10. ^ Stebbins, Robert C.; Nathan W. Cohen (1995). A Natural History of Amphibians. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 9. ISBN 0-69110-251-1. 
  11. ^ Lund, R. 1980. Viviparity and intrauterine feeding in a new holocephalan fish from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana. Science, 209: 697‑699.

Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Journal of Crustacean Biology is the worlds leading carcinology journal, with an impact factor of 0. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Science News is an American weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • M. A. Elgar and Bernard J. Crespi (eds.). 1992. Cannibalism: Ecology and Evolution of Cannibalism among Diverse Taxa Oxford University Press, New York. (361pp) ISBN 0198546505

 
 

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