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Encyclopedia > Cannibalism
Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557 as alleged by Hans Staden.
Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557 as alleged by Hans Staden.
A Woman-Cannibal, by Leonardo Kern, 1650
A Woman-Cannibal, by Leonardo Kern, 1650

Cannibalism (from Spanish caníbal, in connection with alleged cannibalism among the Caribs), also called anthropophagy (from Greek: ἄνθρωπος, anthropos, "human being"; and φαγειν, phagein, "to consume") is the act or practice of humans consuming other humans. In zoology, the term cannibalism is extended to refer to any species consuming members of its own kind, see cannibalism (zoology). Look up cannibal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Download high resolution version (981x835, 306 KB)from www. ... Download high resolution version (981x835, 306 KB)from www. ... Hans Staden (with beard) watching an indigenous tribe in Brazil practicing cannibalism. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 340 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1285 × 2264 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 340 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1285 × 2264 pixel, file size: 1. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Three Mormon crickets eating a fourth Mormon cricket In zoology, cannibalism is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom and has been recorded for more than 1500 species (this estimate is from 1981, and likely a gross underestimation). ...


Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism.[1][2] Among humans it has been practiced by various groups[3] in the past in Europe,[4][5] South America,[6] New Zealand,[7] North America,[8] Solomon Islands,[9] New Caledonia,[10] New Guinea,[11] and Fiji,[12] usually in rituals connected to tribal warfare. Fiji was once known as the 'Cannibal Isles'. Evidence of canniblism has been found in the Chaco Canyon ruins of the Anasazi culture. For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North American redirects here. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... Chacoan corner doorway in Pueblo Bonito. ... Ancient Pueblo People, or Ancestral Puebloans is the preferred term for the group of peoples often known as Anasazi who are the ancestors of the modern Pueblo peoples. ...


Cannibalism, as sanctioned by a cultural norm is often distinguished from cannibalism by necessity occurring in extreme situations of famine or under a plea of insanity. There are fundamentally two kinds of cannibalistic social behavior; endocannibalism and exocannibalism. See also norm (sociology). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Endocannibalism (from Greek Endo- internal or from within and Cannibalism), as opposed to Exocannibalism is the term which describes the practice of eating the flesh (or other body parts) of members of ones own culture, tribe or social group; The rationale for such practices is usually that in consuming... Exocannibalism (from Greek Exo-, from outside and Cannibalism, to eat humans), as opposed to endocannibalism is the practice of eating human corpses, most notably their flesh and some organs such as the heart, from people outside ones own community, tribe or social group. ...


There is little evidence that cannibalism was ever practiced as a routine source of nutrition. It is generally agreed the practice always carried a ritual meaning for its practitioners.[citation needed]

Contents

Overview

The social stigma against cannibalism has been used as an aspect of propaganda against an enemy by accusing them of acts of cannibalism to separate them from their humanity. The Carib tribe in the Lesser Antilles, for example, acquired a longstanding reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends by Fr. Breton in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ... Look up Humanity, humanity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ...


According to a decree by Queen Isabella of Castile and also later under British colonial rule, slavery was considered to be illegal unless the people involved were so depraved that their conditions as slaves would be better than as free men. This legal requirement may have led to conquerors exaggerating the extent of cannibalistic practices, or inventing them altogether, as demonstrations of cannibalistic tendencies were considered evidence of such depravity.[13] Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Slave redirects here. ...


The Korowai tribe of southeastern Papua could be one of the last surviving tribes in the world engaging in cannibalism. Marvin Harris has analyzed cannibalism and other food taboos. He argued that it was common when humans lived in small bands, but disappeared in the transition to states, the Aztecs being an exception. The Korowai, also called the Kolufo, are a people of southeastern Papua ( the southeastern part of the western part of New Guinea). ... Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also Western New Guinea). ... Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ... This article is about practices and beliefs in relation to various animals as food. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


A well known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea which resulted in the spread of the disease Kuru. It is often believed to be well-documented, although no eyewitnesses have ever been at hand. Some scholars argue that although postmortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not. Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. The Fore are a highland people of Papua New Guinea. ... Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. ... Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ...


In pre-modern medicine, an explanation for cannibalism stated that it came about within a black acrimonious humour, which, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh.[14] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ...


Some now challenged research received a large amount of press attention when scientists suggested that early man may have practiced cannibalism. Later reanalysis of the data found serious problems with this hypothesis. According to the original research, genetic markers commonly found in modern humans all over the world suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brains.[15] Later reanalysis of the data claims to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion.[16] Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of humans and animals and are transmitted by prions. ...


Because of the stigma against the practice, it is likely that in some cases blame for incidents claimed as evidence has been given to 'primitive' local cultures, where in fact the cannibalism was practiced by explorers, stranded sea-farers or escaped convicts, see Cannibalism - Some Hidden Truths for an example documenting escaped convicts in Australia who initially blamed natives, but later confessed to conducting the practice themselves out of desperate hunger. In some cases, it logically follows that local tribes may have been credited as cannibals, and the historical record never truly established after the tribe has been eradicated or culturally destroyed with no adequate discourse ever occurring in which the members could have set the record straight.


Historical accounts

Early history era

  • Anthropologists such as Tim White suggest that cannibalism was common in human societies prior to the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic based on the large amount of “butchered human" bones found in Neanderthal and other Lower/Middle Paleolithic sites.[17] Cannibalism in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic may have occurred because of food shortages.[18]
  • In Germany some experts have observed 1,891 signs of cannibalism in the caves at the Hönne (BC 1000 - 700).
  • Cannibalism is reported in the Bible during the siege of Samaria (2 Kings 6:25-30). Two women made a pact to eat their children, but after the first mother cooked her child, the second mother ate it but refused to reciprocate by cooking her own child. Almost exactly the same story is reported by Flavius Josephus during the siege of Jerusalem by Rome in 70AD.
  • Cannibalism was documented in Egypt during a famine caused by the failure of the Nile to flood for eight years (BC 1073-1064).
  • St. Jerome, in his letter Against Jovinianus, discusses how people come to their present condition as a result of their heritage, and then lists several examples of peoples and their customs. He says that he has heard that Atticoti eat human flesh; that Persians, Medes, Indians, and Ethiopians have intercourse with their mothers and grandmothers; that Massagetae and Derbices (a people on the borders of India) kill and eat old people; that Tibareni crucify loved ones before they grow old; and that several other peoples engage in similar customs. The tenor of St. Jerome's writing does not imply that any of this should be taken literally.[19]
  • In 2001, archaeologists at the University of Bristol found evidence of Iron Age cannibalism in Gloucestershire.[20]

Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The outside world viewed from a cave A cave is a natural underground void. ... The Hönne is a tributary river to the Ruhr, flowing through the northern Sauerland hills in Germany. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... The name Attacotti (also Atecotti, A(t)ticotti, Ategutti) appears in several late Roman texts. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Mede nobility. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Tabal (Bib. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

Middle Ages

  • Reports of cannibalism were recorded during the First Crusade, as Crusaders reportedly fed on the bodies of their dead opponents following the Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan. Amin Maalouf also discusses further cannibalism incidents on the march to Jerusalem, and to the efforts made to delete mention of these from western history.[21]
  • During Europe's Great Famine of 1315–1317 there were many reports of cannibalism among the starving populations.
  • The canto 33 of Dante's Inferno ambiguously refers to Ugolino della Gherardesca eating his own sons while starving in prison.
  • Among the Aztecs, cannibalism was a ritual activity and not one driven by nutritional needs.[22] In the siege of Tenochtitlan, there was a severe hunger in the city; the Aztecs reportedly ate lizards, grass, insects, and mud from the lake, but there are no reports of cannibalism.
  • The friar Diego de Landa reported about Yucatán instances, Yucatan before and after the Conquest, translated from Relación de las cosas de Yucatan, 1566 (New York: Dover Publications, 1978: 4), and there have been similar reports by Purchas from Popayán, Colombia, and from the Marquesas Islands of Polynesia, where human flesh was called long-pig (Alanna King, ed., Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas, London: Luzac Paragon House, 1987: 45-50). It is recorded about the natives of the captaincy of Sergipe in Brazil, They eat human flesh when they can get it, and if a woman miscarries devour the abortive immediately. If she goes her time out, she herself cuts the navel-string with a shell, which she boils along with the secondine, and eats them both. (See E. Bowen, 1747: 532.)
  • In the Middle Ages, in Europe, "thousands of Egyptian mummies preserved in bitumen were ground up and sold as medicine".[23] The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. This "fad" ended because the mummies were revealed to actually be recently killed slaves. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form (see human mummy confection).[24]

Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ), born 25 February 1949 in Beirut, is a Lebanese author. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... Ugolino della Gherardesca (c. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... This article is about the state. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Flag of Sergipe See other Brazilian States Capital Aracaju Largest City Aracaju Area 21,994 km² Population   - Total   - Density 1. ... In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to the placenta. ... A display of seashells, mostly of marine Mollusca, including an abalone, nautilus, ark shell, scallop, pearl oyster, auger shell, cone shell, two cowries, a hammer oyster, and a fossil clam, but also including the shell or test of a sand dollar (an echinoderm). ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Mellified Man, or human mummy confection, refers to a legendary medicinal substance from Arabia described by 16th-century Chinese pharmacologist Li Shizhen in his Bencao Gangmu. ...

Early modern era

  • The German adventurer Hans Staden describes his nine-month captivity in 1550 among the Tupi Indians of Brazil, whom he accuses of cannibalism. His True History is an important document for historians and anthropologists debating the existence of cannibalism among South American tribes.
  • In the Dutch rampjaar (disaster year) of 1672, when France and England attacked the republic during the Franco-Dutch War/Third Anglo-Dutch War, Johan de Witt (a significant Dutch political figure) was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hung and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited. His brother was shot, stabbed, eviscerated alive, hanged naked, brained and partly eaten.
  • Howard Zinn describes cannibalism by early Jamestown settlers in his book A People's History of the United States.
  • An event occurring in the western New York territory ("Seneca Country") U.S.A., during 1687 was later described in this letter sent to France: “On the 13th (of July) about four o’clock in the afternoon, having passed through two dangerous defiles (narrow gorges), we arrived at the third where we were vigorously attacked by 800 Senecas, 200 of whom fired, wishing to attack our rear whilst the remainder of their force would attack our front, but the resistance they met produced such a great consternation that they soon resolved to fly. All our troops were so overpowered by the extreme heat and the long journey we had made that we were obliged to bivouac (camp) on the field until the morrow. We witnessed the painful Sight of the usual cruelties of the savages who cut the dead into quarters, as in slaughter houses, in order to put them into the pot (dinner); the greater number were opened while still warm that their blood might be drank. our rascally outaouais (Ottawa Indians) distinguished themselves particularly by these barbarities and by their poltroonery (cowardice), for they withdrew from the combat;..." -- Canadian Governor, the Marquis de Denonville.
  • In 1729 Jonathan Swift wrote A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, a satirical pamphlet in which he proposed that poor Irish families sell their children to be eaten, thereby earning income for the family. It was written as an attack on the indifference of landlords to the state of their tenants and on the political economists with their calculations on the schemes to raise income.
  • In New Zealand in 1809, 66 passengers and crew of the ship the Boyd were killed and eaten by Maori on the Whangaroa peninsula, Northland. This was utu (revenge) for the whipping of a Maori who refused to work while traveling on the ship from Australia. This remains the bloodiest mass-murder in New Zealand history, and perhaps the largest death-toll from a cannibalistic act in modern times. See the Boyd massacre.
  • The survivors of the sinking of the French ship Medusa in 1816 resorted to cannibalism after four days adrift on a raft.
  • After the sinking of the Whaleship Essex of Nantucket by a whale, on November 20, 1820, (an important source event for Herman Melville's Moby-Dick) the survivors, in three small boats, resorted, by common consent, to cannibalism in order for some to survive.[25] See The Custom of the Sea.
  • David Whippey, an English sailor, deserted his ship in 1820 and lived among the cannibal Fijis for the rest of his life. The Fijis would sometimes capture the crew of a stranded ship for ransom, and eat them if they resisted or violated a tribal taboo. Whippey would try to rescue them but sometimes found only roasted bones. Ultimately he became British Consul to Fiji, and left many descendants among the islands.[26]
  • In 1822 eight convicts escaped from Macquarie Harbour in South-West Tasmania, Australia and set out overland toward Hobart. Lack of supplies led to the group killing one of their number within days of the initial escape, and over the following week all but one of the group died or were killed, leaving one survivor, Alexander Pearce. Pearce was recaptured near Table Mountain. His account of the fates of his fellow escapees was not believed (it being assumed that the others were alive and in hiding in the bush). Pearce was returned to Macquarie Harbor. He escaped again, this time with one companion, however was recaptured shortly afterwards with remnants of his companion's body in his pockets. He was then sent to Hobart and hanged.[27]. The band Weddings, Parties, Anything included a song 'A tale they won't believe' on their 1989 album The Big Don't Argue about the incident.
  • The Acadian Recorder (a newspaper published out of Halifax, Nova Scotia in the early 1800s) published an article in its May 27, 1826, issue telling of the wreck of the ship 'Francis Mary', en route from New Brunswick to Liverpool, England, with a load of timber. The article describes how the survivors sustained themselves by eating those who perished.[28]
  • Sir John Franklin's lost polar expedition[29] and the Donner Party are other examples of human cannibalism from the 1840s.
  • The case of R v. Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273 (QB) is an English case which is said to be one of the origins of the defense of necessity in modern common law. The case dealt with four crew members of an English yacht, the Mignonette, which were cast away in a storm some 1,600 miles (2,600 km) from the Cape of Good Hope. After several days one of the crew fell unconscious due to a combination of the famine and drinking sea-water. The others (one possibly objecting) decided then to kill him and eat him. They were picked up four days later. Lack of unanimous consent to draw lots contravened The Custom of the Sea and was held to be murder.
  • In the 1870s, a man named Alferd Packer was accused of killing and eating his traveling companions while crossing the Rocky Mountains (in what is now the state of Colorado.) He served fourteen years in prison before being paroled on the basis of the Grandfather clause, as the alleged cannibalism happened 6 years before Colorado became a state on Ute tribal land. Throughout his life he maintained that he was innocent of the murders. The story of Alferd Packer was satirically told in the Trey Parker comedy/horror/musical student film, Cannibal! The Musical. The main food court at the University of Colorado at Boulder is named the Alferd Packer Grill.
  • In parts of Melanesia, cannibalism was still practiced in the early 20th century, for a variety of reasons - including retaliation, to insult an enemy people, or to absorb the dead person's qualities[30].

Hans Staden (with beard) watching an indigenous tribe in Brazil practicing cannibalism. ... The rampjaar (disaster year) was the year 1672 in Dutch history. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Johan de Witt (September 24, 1625, Dordrecht - August 20, 1672, The Hague) was a significant Dutch political figure. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics, sometimes this may include political scientists. ... Disembowelment (evisceration) is the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... A Peoples History of the United States, 2003 hardcover edition A Peoples History of the United States is a nonfiction book by American historian and political scientist Howard Zinn, in which he seeks to present American history through the eyes of groups he says are rarely heard in... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Jacques-Rene de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville 10 December 1637 – 22 September 1710 was Governor of New France from 1685 to 1689. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... The Boyd was a 395 ton brigantine convict ship which sailed from Sydney Cove to Whangaroa on the east coast of Northland Peninsula in New Zealand in October 1809, under the command of a Captain John Thompson and carrying about 70 passengers. ... The Medusa (original French name: La Méduse) was a French frigate that infamously struck the Bank of Arguin off the coast of Senegal in 1816, resulting in the catastrophic evacuation of its company, and one of the most notorious shipwrecks of the Age of Sail. ... The whaling ship Essex left Nantucket, Massachusetts in 1819 on a two-and-a-half-year voyage in the whaling grounds of the South Pacific to hunt sperm whales. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... The Custom of the Sea was a maritime custom in which stranded survivors drew lots to see who would be killed and eaten so that some of the men might live. ... Macquarie Harbour is a large, shallow, inlet on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Alexander Pearce (?? – 1824) was a convict and bushranger who escaped from the Macquarie Harbour Penal Station and is best known for cannabalising his fellow escapees while travelling through the Tasmanian Wilderness. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... For other persons named John Franklin, see John Franklin (disambiguation). ... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ... Regina v. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ... Species About 50-70 species, including: Reseda alba - White Mignonette Reseda complicata Glaucous Mignonette Reseda lutea - Wild Mignonette Reseda luteola - Weld Reseda odorata - Common Mignonette Reseda phyteuma - Corn Mignonette Reseda scoparia - Canaries Mignonette Mignonette (Reseda) is a genus of fragrant herbaceous plants native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... The Custom of the Sea was a maritime custom in which stranded survivors drew lots to see who would be killed and eaten so that some of the men might live. ... Alferd Packer is one of the few people in the US to ever be jailed for cannibalism, having allegedly killed and eaten five of his travelling companions while trapped in the Rocky Mountains during fierce winter weather. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... Randolph Severn Trey Parker III (born October 19, 1969) is an Academy Award nominated American animator, screenwriter, film director, voice actor, actor and musician. ... Cannibal! The Musical is a student film directed by the future creator of South Park, Trey Parker, while studying at the University of Colorado at Boulder. ... The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU-Boulder, UCB officially[3]; Colorado and CU colloquially) is the flagship university of the University of Colorado System in Boulder, Colorado. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ...

Modern era

  • During the 1930s, multiple acts of cannibalism were reported from Ukraine during the Holodomor.[31]
  • A well-documented case occurred in Chichijima in February 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and consumed five American airmen. This case was investigated in 1947 in a war crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii, and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged.[32]
  • During the 900-day Siege of Leningrad during World War II, reports of cannibalism began to appear in the winter of 1941-1942, after all birds, rats and pets were eaten by survivors. People were murdered for their flesh and Leningrad police had to form a special division to combat cannibalism.[33][34]
  • Cannibalism is proved to have occurred in China during the Great Leap Forward, when rural China was hit hard by drought and famine[citation needed]. Reports of cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution in China have also emerged. These reports show that cannibalism was practiced for ideological purposes.[35]
  • During his service in World War II, John F. Kennedy believed that a boy from the Solomon Islands bragged of eating a Japanese soldier. Native islanders in their historical culture also practiced headhunting.[36]
  • Prior to 1931, New York Times reporter William Buehler Seabrook, allegedly in the interests of research, obtained from a hospital intern at the Sorbonne a chunk of human meat from the body of a healthy human killed by accident, and cooked and ate it. He reported that, "It was like good, fully developed veal, not young, but not yet beef. It was very definitely like that, and it was not like any other meat I had ever tasted. It was so nearly like good, fully developed veal that I think no person with a palate of ordinary, normal sensitiveness could distinguish it from veal. It was mild, good meat with no other sharply defined or highly characteristic taste such as for instance, goat, high game, and pork have. The steak was slightly tougher than prime veal, a little stringy, but not too tough or stringy to be agreeably edible. The roast, from which I cut and ate a central slice, was tender, and in color, texture, smell as well as taste, strengthened my certainty that of all the meats we habitually know, veal is the one meat to which this meat is accurately comparable."[37]
  • References to cannibalizing the enemy has also been seen in poetry written when China was repressed in the Song Dynasty, though the cannibalizing sounds more like poetic symbolism to express the hatred towards the enemy. (See Man Jiang Hong) The Chinese hate-cannibalism was reported during World War II also. (Key Ray Chong:Cannibalism in China, 1990)
  • In his book Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, James Bradley details several instances of cannibalism of World War II Allied prisoners by their Japanese captors. The author claims that this included not only ritual cannibalization of the livers of freshly-killed prisoners, but also the cannibalization-for-sustenance of living prisoners over the course of several days, amputating limbs only as needed to keep the meat fresh.[38]
  • The Soviet writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his novel The Gulag Archipelago, describes cases of cannibalism in the twentieth-century USSR. Of the famine in Povolzhie (1921-1922) he writes: "That horrible famine was up to cannibalism, up to consuming children by their own parents - the famine, which Russia had never known even in Time of Troubles [in 1601-1603]..."[39]. He says of the Siege of Leningrad (1941-1944): "Those who consumed human flesh, or dealt with the human liver trading from dissecting rooms… were accounted as the political criminals…".[40] And of the building of Northern Railway Prisoners Camp ("SevZhelDorLag") Solzhenitsyn writes: "An ordinary hard working political prisoner almost could not survive at that penal camp. In the camp SevZhelDorLag (chief: colonel Klyuchkin) in 1946-47 there were many cases of cannibalism: they cut human bodies, cooked and ate."[41]
  • The Soviet journalist Yevgenia Ginzburg, former long-term political prisoner, who spent time in the Soviet prisons, Gulag camps and settlements from 1938 to 1955, describes in her memoir book "Harsh Route" (or "Steep Route") the case, which she was directly involved in late 1940s, after she had been moved to the prisoners' hospital.[42] "...The chief warder shows me the black smoked pot, filled with some food: 'I need your medical expertize regarding this meat.' I look into the pot, and hardly hold vomiting. The fibers of that meat are very small, and don't resemble me anything I have seen before. The skin on some pieces bristles with black hair (...) A former smith from Poltava, Kulesh worked together with Centurashvili. At this time, Centurashvili was only one month away from being discharged from the camp (...) And suddenly he surprisingly disappeared. The wardens looked around the hills, stated Kulesh's evidence, that last time Kulesh had seen his workmate near the fireplace, Kulesh went out to work and Centurashvili left to warm himself more; but when Kulesh returned to the fireplace, Centurashvili had vanished; who knows, maybe he got frozen somewhere in snow, he was a weak guy (...) The wardens searched for two more days, and then assumed that it was an escape case, though they wondered why, since his imprisonment period was almost over (...) The crime was there. Approaching the fireplace, Kulesh killed Centurashvili with an axe, burned his clothes, then dismembered him and hid the pieces in snow, in different places, putting specific marks on each burial place. (...) Just yesterday, one body part was found under two crossed logs."
  • Cannibalism was reported by the journalist Neil Davis during the South East Asian wars of the 1960s and 1970s. Davis reported that Cambodian troops ritually ate portions of the slain enemy, typically the liver. However he, and many refugees, also report that cannibalism was practiced non-ritually when there was no food to be found. This usually occurred when towns and villages were under Khmer Rouge control, and food was strictly rationed, leading to widespread starvation. Any civilian caught participating in cannibalism would have been immediately executed.[43]
  • Cannibalism has been reported in several recent African conflicts, including the Second Congo War, and the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone. A U.N. human rights expert reported in July 2007 that sexual atrocities against Congolese women go 'far beyond rape' and include sexual slavery, forced incest, and cannibalism.[44] Typically, this is apparently done in desperation, as during peacetime cannibalism is much less frequent. Even so, it is sometimes directed at certain groups believed to be relatively helpless, such as Congo Pygmies. It is also reported by some that witch doctors sometimes use the body parts of children in their medicine. In the 1970s the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin was reputed to practice cannibalism.[45][46]
  • It has been reported by defectors and refugees that, at the height of the famine in 1996, cannibalism was sometimes practiced in North Korea.[47]
  • Médecins Sans Frontières, the international medical charity, supplied photographic and other documentary evidence of ritualized cannibal feasts among the participants in Liberia's internecine strife in the 1980s to representatives of Amnesty International who were on a fact-finding mission to the neighboring state of Guinea. However, Amnesty International declined to publicize this material; the Secretary-General of the organization, Pierre Sane, said at the time in an internal communication that "what they do with the bodies after human rights violations are committed is not part of our mandate or concern". The existence of cannibalism on a wide scale in Liberia was subsequently verified in video documentaries by Journeyman Pictures of London.[48]
  • In March 2001 in Germany, Armin Meiwes posted an Internet ad asking for "a well built 18 to 30 year old to be slaughtered and consumed". The ad was answered by Jürgen Armando Brandes. After killing and eating Brandes, Meiwes was convicted of manslaughter and later, murder. The song "Mein Teil" by Rammstein is based on this.
  • In September 2006, Australian television crews from 60 Minutes and Today Tonight attempted to rescue a six-year-old boy who they believed would be ritually cannibalized by his tribe, the Korowai, from West Papua, Indonesia.[49]
  • On January 13, 2007, Danish artist Marco Evaristti hosted a dinner party for his most intimate friends. The main meal was agnolotti pasta, on which was topped a meatball made with the artist's own fat, removed earlier in the year in a liposuction operation.[50]
  • On September 4, 2007 Serbian police stated that they had identified 26-year-old Danijel Jakupek Zak, from the Serbian village of Novi Banovci. He killed a 5 year old boy and his uncle (26), who was Jakupek's schoolmate and also the son of Jakupek's school teacher. Police reported that Jakupek rehearsed several cannibalistic acts on approximately 20 cats which were buried in his backyard and that 10 live cats were also found in his apartment, probably awaiting future experiments. He stated that he had to try the practice on a human being. As stated, he obviously enjoyed the massacre of his alleged victims, drank their blood and even tried their meat. In his apartment police found a stack of cannibalistic and satanic literature. He also claimed that in the prosecution of his two victims "He entered his body". Jakupek was questioned regarding the aforementioned unnamed person who only goes by the name "He" and he replied that "He" is a "superior mighty lord" but not pointing out any specific icon. Neighbors described him as being very strange, having a "sparkly look" and he obviously indicated that he is mentally distorted.[51]
  • On September 14, 2007, a man named Özgür Dengiz was captured in Ankara, the Turkish capital, after killing and eating a man. Dengiz in his initial testimony said he "enjoyed" eating human flesh. He frequently burst into long laughing sessions during the testimony, police officers said. In 1997, he was jailed for murder of a friend, when he was 17, but he got out of jail on parole after serving three years. Dengiz said he did not know Cafer Er, his 55 year old victim, who worked as a garbage collector. Dengiz shot Er in the head with a firearm, because he felt Er was making the area "too crowded." After cutting slices of flesh from his victim's body, Dengiz distributed the rest to stray dogs on the street, according to his own testimony. He ate some of Er's flesh raw on his way home. Dengiz, who lived with his parents arrived at the family house and placed the remaining parts of Er's body in the fridge without saying a word to his parents. Also in his testimony he said, "I have no regrets, my conscience is free. I constantly thought of killing. I had dreams where I was being sacrificed. I decided to kill, to sacrifice others in place of me."[52][53]
  • In January, 2008, Milton Blahyi, 37, confessed being part of human sacrifices which "included the killing of an innocent child and plucking out the heart, which was divided into pieces for us to eat." He fought versus Liberian president Charles Taylor's militia.[54]
  • During Charles Taylor's war crimes trial on March 13, 2008, Joseph Marzah, Taylor's chief of operations and head of Taylor's alleged "death squad", accused Taylor of ordering his soldiers to commit acts of cannibalism against enemies, including peacekeepers and United Nations personnel.[55]

Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... Chichi-jima (父島, lit. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Murder is both a legal and a moral term, that are not always coincident. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... // William Buehler Seabrook (February 22, 1884–1945) was an American Lost Generation occultist, explorer, traveller, and journalist, born in Westminster, Maryland. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Statue of Yue Fei at the Yue Fei Mausoleum in Hangzhou. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Help!, a Soviet poster from 1921. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Yevgenia Ginzburg Yevgenia Ginzburg (November 20, 1904 - May 25, 1977) (Russian language: Евгения Семёновна Гинзбург) was a Russian historian and writer. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leaders during their period in power. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse or any form of sexual activity between closely related persons, especially within the nuclear family. ... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda This article is about the Pygmy people. ... A witch doctor (in southern Africa known as a Sangoma) often refers to exotic healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Médecins Sans Frontières logo Médecins Sans Frontières ( ) (English: Doctors Without Borders, its official name in the United States) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Pierre Sané is UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences. ... Journeyman Pictures is a London-based independent distributor of topical news features, documentaries and footage. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... March 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December March 3 - A U.S. Air Force Materials Command C-23 Sherpa transport crashes during stormy weather in the U.S. state of Georgia, killing 21. ... Armin Meiwes (born December 1, 1961) is a German who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary victim he had found via the Internet. ... For other uses, see Ramstein. ... 60 Minutes premiered 11 February 1979. ... Today Tonight is an Australian tabloid current affairs program, produced by the Seven Network and shown weeknightly at in direct competition with rival Nine Network program A Current Affair. ... The Korowai, also called the Kolufo, are a people of southeastern Papua ( the southeastern part of the western part of New Guinea). ... Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Marco Evaristti, born 1963 in Chile, is a Danish artist. ... Agnolotti (priest hats in Italian) is a kind of ravioli made with a small round piece of flattened pasta dough, folded over with a meat and vegetable stuffing inside. ... Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (fat modeling), liposculpture or suction lipectomy (suction-assisted fat removal) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The new Orthodox church. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Özgür Dengiz (born 1980) is a Turkish serial killer and cannibal. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

During starvation

Cannibalism was occasionally practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine. In the US, the group of settlers known as the Donner party resorted to cannibalism while snowbound in the mountains for the winter. The last survivors of Sir John Franklin's Expedition were found to have resorted to cannibalism in their final push across King William Island towards the Back River.[56] There are disputed claims that cannibalism was widespread during the famine of Ukraine in the 1930s, during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II,[57][58] and during the Chinese Civil War and the Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China. There were also rumors of several cannibalism outbreaks during World War II in the concentration camps where the Jews were malnourished. Cannibalism was also practiced by Japanese troops as recently as World War II in the Pacific theater.[59] A more recent example is of leaked stories from North Korean refugees of cannibalism practiced during and after a famine that occurred sometime between 1995 and 1997.[60] <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ... For other persons named John Franklin, see John Franklin (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ...


Lowell Thomas records the cannibalisation of some of the surviving crew members of the Dumaru after the ship exploded and sank during the First World War in his book, The Wreck of the Dumaru (1930). Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Documentary and forensic evidence supports eyewitness accounts of cannibalism by Japanese troops during World War II. This practice was resorted to when food ran out, with Japanese soldiers killing and eating each other when enemy civilians were not available. A well-documented case occurred in Chichi Jima in 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and ate eight downed American airmen. This case was investigated in 1947 in a war-crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged.


When Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashed into the Andes on October 13, 1972, the survivors resorted to eating the deceased during their 72 days in the mountains. Their story was later recounted in the books Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors and Miracle in the Andes as well as the film Alive, by Frank Marshall, and the documentary Alive: 20 Years Later. Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, also known less formally as the Andes flight disaster, was an airline flight carrying 45 people that crashed in the Andes on October 13, 1972. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alive is a 1993 film by the husband and wife team, director Frank Marshall and producer Kathleen Kennedy. ... This article is about the early 20th century chess champion. ...


As cultural libel

See also: Blood libel

Unsubstantiated reports of cannibalism disproportionately relate cases of cannibalism among cultures that are already otherwise despised, feared, or are little known. In antiquity, Greek reports of anthropophagy were related to distant, non-Hellenic barbarians, or else relegated in myth to the 'primitive' chthonic world that preceded the coming of the Olympian gods: see the explicit rejection of human sacrifice in the cannibal feast prepared for the Olympians by Tantalus of his son Pelops. Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... barbarians is a mini-series on the history channel which tells the story of four of the most barbariac tribes of the early and late middle ages. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ...


According to ABC Whipple in Yankee Whalers in the South Seas (Doubleday, New York, 1954), all South Sea Islanders were cannibals so far as their enemies were concerned. When the whaleship Essex was rammed and sunk by a whale in 1820, the captain opted to sail 3000 miles upwind to Chile rather than 1400 miles downwind to the Marquesas because feared the Marquesans were cannibals. In Typee Herman Melville happily lived with the Marquesan Typees after the other two tribes on the island told him they were cannibale. For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Typee (1846; in full: Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life) is American writer Herman Melvilles first novel, partly based on his actual experiences as a beachcomber in the South Pacific Marquesas Islands. ...


William Arens, author of The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy (New York : Oxford University Press, 1979; ISBN 0-19-502793-0), questions the credibility of reports of cannibalism and argues that the description by one group of people of another people as cannibals is a consistent and demonstrable ideological and rhetorical device to establish perceived cultural superiority. Arens bases his thesis on a detailed analysis of numerous "classic" cases of cultural cannibalism cited by explorers, missionaries, and anthropologists. His findings were that many were steeped in racism, unsubstantiated, or based on second-hand or hearsay evidence. In combing the literature he could not find a single credible eye-witness account. And, as he points out, the hallmark of ethnography is the observation of a practice prior to description. In the end he concluded that cannibalism was not the widespread prehistoric practice it was claimed to be; that anthropologists were too quick to pin the cannibal label on a group based not on responsible research but on our own culturally-determined pre-conceived notions, often motivated by a need to exoticize. He wrote:


"Anthropologists have made no serious attempt to disabuse the public of the widespread notion of the ubiquity of anthropophagists. … in the deft hands and fertile imaginations of anthropologists, former or contemporary anthropophagists have multiplied with the advance of civilization and fieldwork in formerly unstudied culture areas. …The existence of man-eating peoples just beyond the pale of civilization is a common ethnographic suggestion."


Aren's findings are controversial, and have been cited as an example of postcolonial revisionism [61]. His argument is often mischaracterized as "cannibals do not and never did exist," when in the end the book is actually a call for a more responsible and reflexive approach to anthropological research. At any rate, the book ushered in an era of rigorous combing of the cannibalism literature. By Aren's later admission, some cannibalism claims came up short, others were reinforced. Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Conversely, Michel de Montaigne's essay "Of cannibals" introduced a new multicultural note in European civilization. Montaigne wrote that "one calls 'barbarism' whatever he is not accustomed to." By using a title like that and describing a fair indigean society, Montaigne may have wished to provoke a surprise in the reader of his Essays. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French pronounced ) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ...


Themes in mythology and religion

Cannibalism features in many mythologies. Examples are the witch in Hansel and Gretel and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saturn Devouring His Son is the name given to a painting by Spanish artist Francisco Goya. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ...


A number of stories in Greek mythology involve cannibalism, in particular cannibalism of close family members, for example the stories of Thyestes, Tereus and especially Cronus, who was Saturn in the Roman pantheon. The story of Tantalus also parallels this. These mythologies inspired Shakespeare's cannibalism scene in Titus Andronicus. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Mycenae, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Itys, Philomela and Procne (Discuss) In Greek mythology, Tereus was a son of Ares and husband of Procne. ... Cronus is not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ...


Hindu mythology describes evil beings called "asura" or "rakshasa" that dwell in the forests and practise extreme violence including of devouring their own kind, and possess many evil supernatural powers. These are however the Hindu equivalent of "demons" and do not relate to actual tribes of forest-dwelling people.


See also

Androphagi (Greek for man-eaters) was an ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (according to Herodotus), probably in the forests between the upper waters of the Dnepr and Don. ... The Asmat are an ethnic group of New Guinea, residing in the Papua province of Indonesia. ... The Manifesto Antropófago (Cannibal Manifesto in English) was published in 1928 by the Brazilian poet and polemicist Oswald de Andrade. ... Mother goat eating placenta Rat eating its offsprings placenta after birth Placentophagy (from placenta + Greek φαγειν, to eat) is the act of mammals eating the placenta of their young after childbirth. ... Self-cannibalism is the practice of eating oneself, also called autocannibalism,[1] autophagy[2] and autosarcophagy. ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of humans and animals and are transmitted by prions. ... The Wendigo (also Windigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, and numerous other variants)[1] is a malevolent cannibalistic spirit into which humans could transform, or which could possess humans, appearing in Algonquian mythology. ... Look up vorarephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ Neanderthals Were Cannibals, Bones Show
  2. ^ Archaeologists Rediscover Cannibals
  3. ^ Cannibalism Normal For Early Humans?
  4. ^ The edible dead
  5. ^ Suelzle, B: Review of "The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory", Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit.
  6. ^ Hans Staden Among the Tupinambas
  7. ^ Maori Cannibalism. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  8. ^ Lab tests show evidence of cannibalism among ancient Indians
  9. ^ King of the Cannibal Isles
  10. ^ cannibalism, or anthropophagy (human) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  11. ^ Sleeping with Cannibals
  12. ^ Fijians find chutney in bad taste
  13. ^ Brief history of cannibal controversies; David F. Salisbury, August 15, 2001
  14. ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. Anthropophagy.
  15. ^ "Cannibalism Normal?". "National Geographic".
  16. ^ "No cannibalism signature in human gene". "New Scientist".
  17. ^ Tim D white. Once were Cannibals. Evolution: A Scientific American Reader. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  18. ^ James Owen. Neandertals Turned to Cannibalism, Bone Cave Suggests. National Geographic News. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  19. ^ St. Jerome (c.393), "Against Jovinianus—Book II", A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. 6, 2nd, New York: The Christian Literature Company (published 1893), pp. 394, <http://www.archive.org/details/selectlibraryofn06schauoft>. Retrieved on 3 April 2008
  20. ^ Cannibalistic Celts discovered in South Gloucestershire 7 March 2001
  21. ^ Maalouf, Amin (1984). The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-0898-4. 
  22. ^ Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano. "Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological necessity?" Science 200:611=617. 1978
  23. ^ Medieval Doctors and Their Patients, mummytombs.com, <http://www.mummytombs.com/dummy/doctors.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-12-03
  24. ^ Quotes from John Sanderson's Travels (1586) in That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy, Nicholas Daly, NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 24-51. doi:10.2307/1345912
  25. ^ The Wreck of the Whaleship Essex
  26. ^ ABC Whipple, Yankee Whalers in the South Pacific, Doubleday, New York, p 151
  27. ^ Martin, Stephen 1993 A new land: European perceptions of Australia 1788-1850 (Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, Australia) pp.105-109
  28. ^ The Acadian Recorder, Saturday, May 27, 1826
  29. ^ Keenleyside, Anne. The final days of the Franklin expedition: new skeletal evidence Arctic 50(1) 36-36 1997. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.
  30. ^ "Melanesia Historical and Geographical: the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides", Southern Cross n°1, London: 1950
  31. ^ Ukraine marks great famine anniversary (2003-11-22). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  32. ^ Welch, JM (April 2002). "Without a Hangman, Without a Rope: Navy War Crimes Trials After World War II" (pdf). International Journal of Naval History 1 (1). Retrieved on 2007-12-03. 
  33. ^ 900-Day Siege of Leningrad
  34. ^ This Day in History 1941: Siege of Leningrad begins
  35. ^ Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, China Wakes: the Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power (Times Books, 1994) p. 73-75. ISBN #0-8129-2252-2
  36. ^ PT 109 by Donovan (book)
  37. ^ William Bueller Seabrook. Jungle Ways London, Bombay, Sydney: George G. Harrap and Company, 1931
  38. ^ Bradley, James [2003]. Flyboys: A True Story of Courage (softcover), first (in English), Boston, MA: Back Bay Books, 404. ISBN 0316159433. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. “pg 229:"This document is curious, not just because it approved cannibalism of gaizin, but because it had to be written at all.", pg 230:"US and Australian WWII archives hold many files detailing numerous acts of Japanese army cannibalism.", pg 311:"We had suspected beheadings, of course, but never cannibalism!"” 
  39. ^ A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, chapter 9
  40. ^ A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, comments to chapter 5
  41. ^ A.Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part III, chapter 15
  42. ^ Yevgenia Ginzburg "Harsh Route", part 2, chapter 23 "The Paradise On A Microscope View"
  43. ^ Tim Bowden. One Crowded Hour. ISBN 0-00-217496-0
  44. ^ Congo's Sexual Violence Goes 'Far Beyond Rape', July 31, 2007. The Washington Post.
  45. ^ "2003: 'War criminal' Idi Amin dies", BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. 
  46. ^ Orizio, Riccardo. "Idi Amin's Exile Dream", New York Times, 2003-08-21. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. 
  47. ^ Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors: Defectors Haunted by Guilt Over the Loved Ones Left Behind (2003-10-04). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  48. ^ Gillison, Gillian (2006-11-13). "From Cannibalism to Genocide: The Work of Denial". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37 (3): 395-414. MIT Press Journals. doi:10.1162/jinh.2007.37.3.395. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. 
  49. ^ "Why 7 Ate 9 OR Wawa's TV Dinner", ABC TV Mediawatch. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
  50. ^ Artist Cooks meal in own Body Fat, January 13, 2007
  51. ^ Serbia: Police arrest man suspected of killing two in satanic ritual. International Herald Tribune (2007-09-01). Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  52. ^ Newspaper Today's Zaman September 17, 2007
  53. ^ Newspaper Milliyet September 16, 2007 (Turkish)
  54. ^ news.bbc.co.uk, I ate children's hearts, ex-rebel says
  55. ^ AP:Top Aide testifies Taylor ordered soldiers to eat victims, CNN.com, March 13, 2008 (accessed same date)
  56. ^ Beattie, Owen and Geiger, John (2004). Frozen in Time. ISBN 1-55365-060-3.
  57. ^ Orchestral manoeuvres (part one) (2001-11-25). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  58. ^ Building the Blockade: New Truths in Survival Narratives From Leningrad, Autum 1995. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  59. ^ Tanaka, Toshiyuki (1996). Hidden horrors: Japanese war crimes in World War II. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2717-2. 
  60. ^ Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors: Defectors Haunted by Guilt Over the Loved Ones Left Behind (2003-10-04). Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  61. ^ Timothy Taylor, 'The Buried Soul: How Humans Invented Death', Pages 58-60, Fourth Estate 2002

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas D. Kristof Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959) is an American political scientist, author, and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist specializing in East Asia. ... Sheryl WuDunn is a Chinese American journalist and editor for The New York Times. ... China Wakes: the struggle for the soul of a rising power (ISBN 0-679-76393-7) 1994, by husband and wife reporters Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, gives impressions and vignettes from their stay in China In this book, Kristof and WuDunn, husband and wife, wrote about their experiences... James Bradley (March 1693 – July 13, 1762) was an English astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1742. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • All about Cannibalism: The Ancient Taboo in Modern Times (Cannibalism Psychology) at CrimeLibrary.com
  • The Straight Dope Notes arguing that routine cannibalism is myth
  • Did a mob of angry Dutch kill and eat their prime minister? (from The Straight Dope)
  • Harry J. Brown, 'Hans Staden among the Tupinambas.'
  • Video clip showing reports of cannibalism in North Korea
CrimeLibrary. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
All about Cannibalism: The Ancient Taboo in Modern Times, by Rachael Bell - The Crime library (467 words)
The Latin form of the word cannibalism is anthropophagy and is a term used mostly in anthropology and archeology.
Cannibalism is a practice that reaches across centuries and cultures.
Cannibalism is an undeniable occurrence rooted in antiquity and branching forth to the present-day.
Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment (917 words)
Cannibalism in fowl is a costly and vicious habit that poultry producers can not afford to ignore.
Cannibalism usually occurs when the birds are stressed by a poor management practice.
Since cannibalism can be caused by several conditions, you may not be able to determine the exact cause of the problem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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