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Encyclopedia > Cannabis smoking

Cannabis smoking is the process of inhaling the smoke created by burning cannabis, mostly either the flowering buds of, or hashish, a preparation of, the cannabis plant. During this process the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs. It is then transported to the brain where it binds to cannabinoid receptors. It has also been found that heating of cannabis results in the production of additional THC from the decarboxylation of the non-psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa)[1]. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... THC redirects here. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... A Decarboxylation is any chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is split off from a compound as carbon dioxide (CO2). ...


While cannabis can be consumed orally, the effect is quite different, being less predictable, taking considerably longer to begin, stronger and longer lasting, and the great majority of consumed cannabis is smoked. A variety of space cakes from Amsterdam Cannabis foods are foods prepared with cannabis in herbal or resin form to enjoy the psychoactive effects of the drug for those who prefer not to smoke it. ...


Cannabis can be smoked in a variety of ways, including the use of implements such as bongs, smoking pipes, low-temperature Kiseru and one-hitters, or by rolling joints[2]. A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... An old style Japanese Smoking pipe. ... Midwakh: A midwakh is a small arabian pipe, much like a hashpipe, used to smoke dohka in. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Vaporizers heat herb to a subcombustion temperature (385°F), yielding more THC and eliminating CO. A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ...


These methods differ by the preparation of the cannabis plant before use, the parts of the cannabis plant used (after screening out seeds and stems and grinding to a consistent 1/16"/1.6mm particle size), and the treatment of the smoke before inhalation.

Contents

Smoking implements

Pipes

Main article: Bowl (drug culture)
Glass bowl or smoking pipe.

Smoking pipes, often called bowls or pieces, can be made of blown glass, wood, ceramic, stone, or a nonreactive metal (to avoid inhalation of undesirable metal vapors). When speaking about a specific pipe, the term "bowl," "cone piece" or "crater" (the narrowest) often refers to the indentation where cannabis is placed in order to be smoked. Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A glass pipe. ... A glass pipe. ... This article is about the material. ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ... Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... This article is about metallic materials. ...


Blown-glass pipes are usually intricately and colourfully designed, and can contain materials that change color or become more vivid with repeated use. Such pipes usually have a rush, choke, carb (short for carburetor), shotty, or shotgun hole which is covered with a finger during inhalation, and then uncovered to clear the pipe of smoke and cool the burning cannabis.


Metal pipes are often assembled with various fittings that screw together, with interchangeable, and frequently decorative, parts. Metal pipes may get hot because metal is a good conductor of heat; this is avoided by having a crater-diameter (1/4"/6 mm.) narrow enough to maintain low burning temperature.


Tobacco pipes are used, but the bowl is often too wide to be ideal for cannabis users-- if they suck hard enough to retrieve all the smoke, they burn too hot losing THC value.


Bong

Main article: Bong
A hand-blown glass bong
A hand-blown glass bong

A bong is a water-pipe by which the cannabis smoke is filtered through water into a chamber. It should be noted that smoking from a bong loaded with cold water, ice, or snow will greatly cool the smoke and reduce adverse effects of the heat. If the bowl has a wide diameter, as many do, the herb burns hot, decreasing this advantage. A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 659 KB) Red hand-blown glass waterbong. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 659 KB) Red hand-blown glass waterbong. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about water ice. ...


Using non-carbonated alcoholic beverages, such as wine or liquor, as a filtering liquid is sometimes preferred by smokers and is said to make the smoke milder, although, as THC is dissolved in alcohol, some of it remains in whichever spirit was used. For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Spirits redirects here. ...


Bong use is common[citation needed] and enables smoking techniques that are not possible with a simple smoking pipe[citation needed]. Some prefer bongs[citation needed] simply because of the large amount of smoke one can inhale after having it cooled in the chamber. Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ...


Homemade bong designs commonly[citation needed] use a carbonated drink bottle, although any container, even glass, ceramic, metal, or natural (according to the skill and preference of the user) can be used. A bong pipe (or other improvised bowl) is inserted into a small hole, usually burnt[citation needed] or somehow put near the bottom of the bottle, but leaving enough room to allow for the stem to pass through the user's choice of liquid. A carburettor may or may not be cut, bored or burnt into the bong, according to the user's preference. Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ...


Gravity bongs

Another design is a gravity bong, a term which covers several variations, including waterfall bongs, bucket bongs, "Depth charges" and torpedoes. The bucket bong is commonly called a bucky in New Zealand. In Canada it is called a bucket or sinker, and the method is called sinkers or taking bucket hits. It usually consists of the user placing the marijuana in a cone made from a standard bowl or socket set (13 mm) atop a plastic bottle with either a few small holes (2 cm diameter) in the bottom of the bottle, or a complete cut along the bottom of the bottle. The bottle is then lowered into a bucket of water so that only the cone is above the water level. From here, the user lights the cone and proceeds to pull the bottle upwards until the bottle is full with smoke from the marijuana. The cone is then removed by unscrewing the bottle cap, and the user then proceeds to place his or her mouth over the bottle, exhaling all air beforehand, then inhaling as they lower the bottle into the water. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ...


Vaporizers

Since the delivery of THC occurs through heating rather than combustion, it is possible to "smoke" cannabis without ever igniting the herb, through the user of a "vaporizer." A vaporizer heats herbal cannabis to 365–410 °F (185–210 °C), which turns the active ingredients into gas without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 392 °F (200 °C) at 0.02 mm Hg pressure, and somewhat higher at standard atmospheric pressure).[citation needed] A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ...


At least one study has shown that using a vaporizer results in less tar and carbon monoxide inhalation than smoking the same amount of cannabis[3]. However, an earlier study in 1996 found that more toxins were released than with conventional smoking methods.[citation needed]


"Spots"

An alternative method, known variously as "spots", "spotting", "dots", "hot knives", or "blades", is to compress a small amount of cannabis between two heated knives and inhale the resulting smoke.[4] In order to facilitate this process a "spottle" (also referred to as a "bowser" or "hooter")[citation needed] is used to capture the smoke and maximise the amount of smoke inhaled. Although practiced the world over, the spots method of cannabis smoking is most common in New Zealand.[citation needed]


Rolled

Many smokers prefer to roll the cannabis inside paper or a tobacco leaf, achieving an effect similar to a cigar or cigarette. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Joint

Main article: Joint (cannabis)

A joint is created by rolling up cannabis, either manually or with a rolling machine into a cigarette-like product. Standard sized papers for joints are 70mm (standard size), 79mm (1 & 1/4 size) , and 110mm (1 & 1/2 size). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A rolling machine is a machine that is designed to roll either tobacco or cannabis into individual cigarettes or spliffs for the operator. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...


If a joint is smoked until it almost begins to burn the fingers of the user, it is often referred to as a "roach". Tweezers or a specially-designed pair of "roach clips" may then be used to continue smoking. Some smokers prefer to empty the roach into a bowl or other pipe-like device rather than continue to smoke the roach as if it were a joint.[citation needed] Yet another method is to extend the joint using a stiff paper or card (colloquially known as a "filter") prior to smoking, so that the resulting roach can be smoked. Tweezers are tools used for picking up small objects that are not easily handled with the human hands. ...


"Spliff" is a term used to describe a joint which contained a mixture of cannabis and tobacco. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Blunt

A "blunt" is a method for smoking marijuana in which the marijuana is smoked inside a tobacco leaf obtained from the outer layer of a cigar. Cannabis Sativa Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are two main methods for producing blunts. The first method is to hollow out the interior of a pre-made cigar and fill it with cannabis. The second method is to rip or cut the cigar lengthwise from end to end, after which the contents are discarded and the wrapping rerolled like a new cigar.


The term "blunt" may have originally referred to a type of cigar, the Phillie Blunt, which has become highly popular for creating marijuana blunts.[citation needed] A Phillie is a brand of popular, cheap cigars commonly sold at convenience stores and gas stations, as well as specialized smoke shops. ...


Shotgun

Main article: Shotgun (cannabis)

A shotgun (also known as a shotty, brainer, charge, super, or blowback) can have many meanings, but most commonly refers to one user taking a "hit" of a blunt or joint, turning it around so the lit end is inside the mouth, and blowing the hit out through the blunt/joint into the mouth of another user, who sucks it in. Also known as "Power-hit" it's a really intimate way for a couple to share a marijuana cigarette, since the lips nearly kiss (actual kissing works even better). A "Stinger" has the same concept except smoke is inhaled through the nasal passage. The "first" user of a one-hitter can finish the toke, turn the instrument around, cup mouth around the crater-head, and blow air steadily through to the partner who sucks from the mouthpiece. This method works well on a low supply, because two people both get the effects out of only one hit. In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A spliff. ...


Mixing with tobacco and other herbs

Often cannabis is combined with tobacco or other smokable herbs prior to smoking. This can be done to enhance the flavor; to make a small amount of cannabis last longer by "cutting" it with another substance; or in the case of other psychoactive herbs, to increase and/or modify the effects on the user.[citation needed] Mixing cannabis with tobacco is extremely common in Europe, while less so in the United States.[citation needed] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


At least one source has suggested that the practice of mixing tobacco with cannabis can lead to nicotine dependence.[5].


References

  1. ^ Verhoeckx KC, Korthout HA, van Meeteren-Kreikamp AP, Ehlert KA, Wang M, van der Greef J, Rodenburg RJ, Witkamp RF (2006-04-06). "Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways". International Immunopharmacology. PMID 16504929. 
  2. ^ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2006), World Drug Report, vol. 1, pp. 187-192, ISBN 92-1-148214-3, <http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_chap2_annex1.pdf>. Retrieved on 22 November 2007
  3. ^ DI Abrams, et.al. (2007). "Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 82  full text (pdf).
  4. ^ "Cannabis use in a drug and alcohol clinic population", McBride A. J. 1994
  5. ^ Australian Government Department of Health: National Cannabis Strategy Consultation Paper, page 4. "Cannabis has been described as a 'Trojan Horse' for nicotine addiction, given the usual method of mixing cannabis with tobacco when preparing marijuana for administration."
This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

 
 

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