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Encyclopedia > Cannabis sativa
Cannabis sativa

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Urticales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Cannabis
Species: C. sativa
Binomial name
Cannabis sativa
Linnaeus
Subspecies

C. sativa L. subsp. sativa
C. sativa L. subsp. indica Image File history File links Marijuana. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... The Urticales are an order of dicotyledons in the Cronquist system of classification for flowering plants, including the following families: Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Cecropiaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Physenaceae Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) These range from small herbaceous plants to large trees, blooming from the late spring to... Genera Cannabis - Hemp Celtis - Hackberry Gironniera Humulus - Hop Parasponia Pteroceltis Trema - Trema Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...

Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family. It is an herb that has been used throughout recorded history by humans for various purposes such as fiber, as a drug (see cannabis (drug)), as medicine (see medicinal cannabis), for oil and as food. Different parts of the plant have different uses, and different varieties are cultivated in different ways and harvested at different times, depending on the purpose for which it is grown. Genera Cannabis - Hemp Celtis - Hackberry Gironniera Humulus - Hop Parasponia Pteroceltis Trema - Trema Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ...

Contents

Species, subspecies, and varieties

Relative size of types of cannabis
Relative size of types of cannabis

The following taxonomic treatment of Cannabis was published in 1976 by Ernest Small and Arthur Cronquist. [1] Other taxonomic treatments of Cannabis are valid, and utilized by some botanists.

Cannabis
Cannabis sativa L.
C. sativa subsp. sativa
C. sativa subsp. sativa var. sativa
C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea
C. sativa subsp. indica
C. sativa subsp. indica var. indica
C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica

C. sativa subsp. sativa

C. sativa subsp. sativa var. sativa

Correct name: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa In botany, the correct name is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement. ...


This taxon includes hemp landraces and cultivars grown for fiber or seed production. Fiber strains are usually tall and unbranched. Seed strains are often shorter, and may be branched or unbranched. Some strains are monoecious. Plants of certified industrial hemp strains produce a relatively high ratio of CBD to THC (about 20:1), and are not suitable for drug use.[1][2][3] A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Landrace refers to a race of animals or plants ideally suited for the land (environment) in which they live and, in some cases, work; they often develop naturally with minimal assistance or guidance from humans (or from humans using traditional rather than modern breeding methods), hence are usually older, less... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... THC redirects here. ...


C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea

Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea (C. ruderalis)
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea (C. ruderalis)

Correct name: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea (Vavilov) Small & Cronq. In botany, the correct name is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement. ... Nikolai Vavilov Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (Николай Иванович Вавилов, November 25 [O.S. November 13] 1887 – January 26, 1943) was a prominent Russian botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of the cultivated plants. ...


Synonym: C. ruderalis Janisch. In botanical nomenclature, the synonym of a botanical name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. ...


This taxon includes wild or feral Cannabis plants. In the absence of selective breeding, these plants have lost many of the traits they were originally selected for, and have acclimatized to their locales. Plants of this type are often short, branchless, and early-flowering. The plants usually have low levels of cannabinoids, and a low ratio of THC to CBD, and thus are of little use as a source of drugs.[3] However, so-called "indica" drug strains are sometimes cross-bred with "ruderalis" to produce high THC plants having the hardiness and reduced height of "ruderalis". This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... THC redirects here. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


The term "ruderal" was originally used in the former Soviet Union to describe populations of hemp that had escaped cultivation and adapted to the surrounding region. Plants of this type are widespread throughout central and eastern Europe, including Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, and Estonia. Similar populations can be found in most of the areas where hemp cultivation was once prevalent. The most notable region in North America is the midwest, though populations occur sporadically throughout the United States and Canada. These plants have escaped from cultivation more recently, and often grow larger than the ruderal plants in Europe. A single-species ruderal community of Dittricia viscosa on the railway-side gravel, next to the Petah Tikva-Sgula railway station, Israel. ...


Cannabis users often call this feral Cannabis "ditch weed." Outside of its native range, it is regarded as an invasive plant. Despite years of government-sponsored eradication programs, these feral plants still remain in bountiful abundance. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


It has several times been proposed that this taxon be recognized as a distinct species, called C. ruderalis.[4]


C. sativa subsp. indica

C. sativa subsp. indica var. indica

Broad leaflets characteristic of wide-leafed varieties of C. sativa subsp. indica var. indica

Correct name: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq. var. indica (Lam.) Wehmer Image File history File links Indica_leaf. ... Image File history File links Indica_leaf. ... In botany, the correct name is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement. ...


Synonym: C. indica Lam. In botanical nomenclature, the synonym of a botanical name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. ...


This taxon includes two types of Cannabis cultivated for drug production,[1] commonly referred to by Cannabis aficionados as "sativa" and "indica".



Some users report that highs from "sativa" strains tend to produce clearer, cerebral "head" highs, whereas highs from "indica" strains produce more lethargic "body" highs, with emphasis on drowsiness, slight loss of motor coordination, and increase appetite ("munchies"). To date, no undisputable chemical or pharmacological basis for these differing effects has been discovered. Anecdotal evidence suggest that variations in the amount of cannabidiol (CBD) may be a factor. Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


It has often been proposed that this taxon be recognized as a distinct species, C. indica. Most recently, on the basis of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic analyses, Hillig assigned both the narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug "biotypes", as well as southern and eastern Asian hemp (fiber/seed) landraces and wild Himalayan populations, to C. indica.[5][3][6]


C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica

C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica in Afghanistan
C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica in Afghanistan

Correct name: Cannabis sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq. var. kafiristanica (Vavilov) Small & Cronq. Synonym: C. indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vavilov. In botany, the correct name is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement. ... In botanical nomenclature, the synonym of a botanical name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. ...


This taxon includes wild or feral plants, mostly confined to the Indian subcontinent and other regions where Cannabis is grown for drug use and has escaped from cultivation. Individual plants may have low, similar, or high levels of THC relative to CBD. Plants with relatively high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabidivarin (THCV) and/or cannabidivarin (CBDV) are also common in this group.[3] Compared with wild or feral plants of var. spontanea, plants of this taxon are often taller and more branched. The achenes are usually very small. The inflorescenses of pistillate plants are often elongated, and the fruits (achenes) drop off the plants as they mature.


Common uses

Main articles: Hemp and Cannabis (drug)
A sack made from hemp fiber

The tough fiber of the plant, cultivated as hemp, has numerous textile uses. Its seed, chiefly used as caged-bird feed, is a valuable source of protein. The flowers (and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds) contain psychoactive and physiologically active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers (marijuana) and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract (hashish) are consumed by smoking, vaporizing and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas, and ointments have also been common preparations. In the north and western part of Sumatra, Indonesia, the young leaves were eaten raw as salad, however it was illegal to consume this plant as dried product.[citation needed] U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. ...


Plant physiology

Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900
Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900

Cannabis reproduces sexually. The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Males plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants. Although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression.[citation needed] Naturally occurring monoecious plants, with both male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced "hermaphrodites" (a commonly used misnomer) can have fully functional reproductive organs. "Feminized" seed sold by many commercial seed suppliers are derived from artificially "hermaphrodytic" females that lack the male gene, or by treating the seeds with hormones or silver thiosulfate. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Download high resolution version (1816x2177, 1087 KB)Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing. ... Download high resolution version (1816x2177, 1087 KB)Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Fertile may be used in the following conrtext: Fertility, a term used to describe the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring. ... In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ...


A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12-13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between five to ten weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions. Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ...


In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.5 to 7.2. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ...

  • Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fiber, characterized by long stems and little branching.
  • Cultivars grown for seed from which hemp oil is extracted.
  • Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psychoactive compounds far too low to be useful for that purpose, and marijuana.

Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...

Pharmacology

Main article: Cannabis (drug)

Although the main psychoactive chemical compound in Cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant is known to contain about sixty cannabinoids; however, most of these "minor" cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts. Besides THC, another cannabinoid produced in high concentrations by some plants is cannabidiol (CBD), which is not psychoactive but has recently been shown to block the effect of THC in the nervous system.[7] Differences in the chemical composition of Cannabis varieties may produce different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, does not contain CBD, CBN, or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations. Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... THC redirects here. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... THC redirects here. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Chemical constituents

Cannabis has over 400 chemical constituents including about 100 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma. These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes. Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Isoprene Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ...

THC redirects here. ... The chemical compound pinene is a bicyclic terpene known as a monoterpene. ... Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic compound. ... Ocimene refers to several isomeric organic compounds. ... Caryophyllene, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, especially clove oil and the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum. ... Humulene, or α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene. ... Caryophyllene, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, especially clove oil and the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum. ...

Other names for it

Ganja, marijuana, weed, puff, smoke, pot, herb, dope, bud, grass, and mary jane are all different names for the cannabis drug that is extracted from the plant. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Gallery of images

See also

U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Small, E. and A. Cronquist. 1976. A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon 25(4): 405–435.
  2. ^ de Meijer, E. P. M. 1999. Cannabis germplasm resources. In: Ranalli P. (ed.). Advances in Hemp Research, Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 131-151.
  3. ^ a b c d Hillig, Karl W. and Paul G. Mahlberg. 2004. A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). American Journal of Botany 91(6): 966-975. Retrieved on 22 Feb 2007
  4. ^ Schultes, R. E., /www.bio.fsu.edu/faculty-anderson.php Anderson, L. C.] 1980. Leaf variation among Cannabis species from a controlled garden. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets 28: 61–69. Retrieved on 23 Feb 2007
  5. ^ Hillig, Karl W. 2005. Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52(2): 161-180. Retrieved on 23 Feb 2007
  6. ^ Hillig, Karl William. 2005. A systematic investigation of Cannabis. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Biology, Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana. Published by UMI. Retrieved on 25 Feb 2007
  7. ^ West, D. P, Ph.D. 1998. Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities. North American Industrial Hemp Council. Retrieved on 23 Apr 2007
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Johannes Novak, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer, Stanley G. Deans, Chlodwig M. Franz. Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. and their antimicrobial activity
  9. ^ Essential Oils

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cannabis sativa
Wikispecies has information related to:
Cannabis sativa
This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 4:20 or 4/20 (pronounced four-twenty) is a term used in North America as a discreet way to refer to the consumption of cannabis and, by extension, a way to identify oneself with the drug... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... Cannabis smoking is the process of inhaling the smoke created by burning cannabis, mostly either the flowering buds of, or hashish, a preparation of, the cannabis plant. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis, tobacco, or other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... Not to be confused with humidifier. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Floridata: Cannabis sativa (823 words)
Cannabis is known to be an effective analgesic that relieves pain with minimal side effects (unlike opiates which have unwanted side effects like constipation and addiction).
Cannabis is especially useful for AIDS and cancer patients, relieving chronic pain and reducing nausea brought on by chemotherapy and other medications.
Cannabis reduces spasms and neurological overactivity in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy.
Cannabis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3483 words)
Cannabis was first classified by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 as a genus comprising a single species, called Cannabis sativa, describing hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time.
Wild Cannabis sativa shows great local variation; for example, in warm places, it can reach heights up to 20 feet (6 m) tall, but in colder climates it can be as short as 1 foot (30 cm) in height.
Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped, however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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