FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cannabis rescheduling in the United States
Jump to: navigation, search
Schedules of Controlled Substances

Schedule I

  • The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
  • The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
  • There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

Examples: Heroin, LSD, marijuana, MDMA (Ecstasy), methaqualone (Quaalude). Jump to: navigation, search Heroin or diacetylmorphine (INN) is an alkaloid opioid. ... Jump to: navigation, search D-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic psychedelic drug. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Cannabis plant can be dried or otherwise processed to yield products containing large concentrations of compounds that have medicinal and psychoactive effects when ingested, usually by smoking or eating. ... Jump to: navigation, search MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the secretion of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain, causing a general... Jump to: navigation, search Methaqualone1 is an addictive, sedative drug. ...

Schedule II

  • The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
  • The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
  • Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Examples: Cocaine, methadone, methamphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin), phencyclidine (PCP). Jump to: navigation, search Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid analgesic synthesized in 1937 by German scientists Max Bockmühl and Gustav Ehrhart at IG Farben (Hoechst-Am-Main) who were searching for an analgesic that would be easier to use during surgery and also have low addiction potential. ... Jump to: navigation, search Methamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant drug which induces a strong feeling of euphoria and is highly addictive. ... Jump to: navigation, search Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... Jump to: navigation, search Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... Jump to: navigation, search Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Jump to: navigation, search Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine; also called PCP, sherm, angel dust, Wet or Ashy Larry) is a dissociative psychedelic drug formerly used as an anaesthetic agent. ...

Schedule III

  • The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
  • The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
  • Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Examples: Anabolic steroids, ketamine (Special K), synthetic THC (Marinol). Jump to: navigation, search Seven-time Mr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ketamine is a general dissociative anaesthetic for human and veterinary use. ... Marinol. ...

Schedule IV

  • The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
  • The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
  • Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

Examples: Alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium). Jump to: navigation, search Alprazolam is a short acting [[1]] used for its anxiolytic effects to treat anxiety disorders. ... Jump to: navigation, search Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, Diapam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ...

Schedule V

  • The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
  • The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
  • Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

Examples: Certain codeine preparations; certain opium preparations. Jump to: navigation, search Codeine (INN) is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Jump to: navigation, search Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ...

Cannabis rescheduling in the United States is the proposed removal of marijuana from Schedule I, the most tightly restricted category of drugs, by the U.S. Congress or the Attorney General. Since the early 1970s, cannabis reform advocates and the Drug Enforcement Administration have been battling over whether to transfer marijuana to a different category that would allow medical use. Rescheduling proponents claim that cannabis is not addictive or harmful enough to meet the Controlled Substances Act's strict criteria for placement in Schedule I. The government argues that marijuana does not meet its criteria for acceptable medical use, and that evidence of cannabis' widespread use is more relevant than animal studies in establishing the drug's abuse potential. The most recent rescheduling petition, filed by medical marijuana advocates in 2002, is likely to wind up in the U.S. Court of Appeals. Jump to: navigation, search The Cannabis plant can be dried or otherwise processed to yield products containing large concentrations of compounds that have medicinal and psychoactive effects when ingested, usually by smoking or eating. ... Jump to: navigation, search Drug may refer to: A substance perceived or defined as a drug in clinical medical practice or a substance perceived or defined as a drug in legislation and political strategies so as to prevent or punish abuse of the substance. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Alberto Gonzales, current Attorney General of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... Jump to: navigation, search Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search Addiction is a compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its consequences. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Cannabis sativa extract. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. district court in Washington, DC. Appeals from the D.C. Circuit, as with all the U.S. Courts of Appeals, are heard...

Contents


Background

Schedule I is the only category of controlled substances that may not be prescribed by a physician. Under 21 U.S.C. § 812(b), drugs must meet three criteria in order to be placed in Schedule I:

  • The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
  • The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
  • There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

In 1970, Congress placed marijuana into Schedule I on the advice of Assistant Secretary of Health Roger O. Egeberg. His letter to Harley O. Staggers, Chairman of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, indicates that the classification was intended to be provisional: Jump to: navigation, search 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ... Roger O. Egeberg, M.D. served as Assistant Secretary of Health in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (now the United States Department of Health and Human Services) during the Richard Nixon administration. ... President Harry S. Truman at the mic, left Harley O. Staggers & Alben W. Barkley. ...

Dear Mr. Chairman: In a prior communication, comments requested by your committee on the scientific aspects of the drug classification scheme incorporated in H.R. 18583 were provided. This communication is concerned with the proposed classification of marihuana.
It is presently classed in schedule I(C) along with its active constituents, the tetrahydrocannibinols and other psychotropic drugs.
Some question has been raised whether the use of the plant itself produces "severe psychological or physical dependence" as required by a schedule I or even schedule II criterion. Since there is still a considerable void in our knowledge of the plant and effects of the active drug contained in it, our recommendation is that marihuana be retained within schedule I at least until the completion of certain studies now underway to resolve the issue. If those studies make it appropriate for the Attorney General to change the placement of marihuana to a different schedule, he may do so in accordance with the authority provided under section 201 of the bill. . .
Sincerely yours, (signed) Roger O. Egeberg, M.D.

The reference to "certain studies" is to the then-forthcoming National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse. In 1972, the Commission released a report favoring decriminalization of marijuana. The Richard Nixon administration took no action to implement the recommendation, however. A protracted struggle ensued in which marijuana reform activists began working through all three branches of government to reschedule the drug. Jump to: navigation, search A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse was created by Public Law 91-513 to study marijuana abuse in the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Jump to: navigation, search Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Arguments for and against rescheduling

Arguments for rescheduling

The position of Jon Gettman, leader of the rescheduling movement, is that a drug cannot remain in a Schedule unless it fully meets all three statutory criteria for that Schedule [1]. Gettman believes that "high potential for abuse" means that a drug has a potential for abuse similar to that of heroin or cocaine [2]. Gettman argues further that since laboratory animals do not self-administer marijuana, and because marijuana's toxicity is less than that of heroin or cocaine, marijuana lacks the high abuse potential required for inclusion in Schedule I or II. Gettman at the Third National Clinical Conference on Cannabis Therapeutics. ... Jump to: navigation, search Heroin or diacetylmorphine (INN) is an alkaloid opioid. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Toxicity (from Greek τοξικότητα - poisonousness) is a measure to the degree to which something is toxic or poisonous. ...


Gettman also contends: "The acceptance of cannabis' medical use by eight [now twelve] states since 1996 and the experiences of patients, doctors, and state officials in these states establish marijuana's accepted medical use in the United States [3]." Specifically, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington have enacted legislation allowing marijuana's medical use by their citizens [4]. A minimum of 35,000 patients are currently using medical marijuana legally in these states, and over 2,500 different physicians have recommended it for use by their patients [5]. Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Senators Ted Stevens (R) Lisa Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 663,267 mi² / 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 571,951... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Senators John McCain (R) Jon Kyl (R) Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Centennial State Other U.S. States Capital Denver Largest city Denver Governor Bill Owens (R) Senators Wayne Allard (R) Ken Salazar (D) Official languages English Area 269,837 km² (8th)  - Land 268,879 km²  - Water 962 km² (0. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Senators Olympia Snowe (R) Susan Collins (R) Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Senators Paul Sarbanes (D) Barbara Mikulski (D) Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Treasure State Other U.S. States Capital Helena Largest city Billings Governor Brian Schweitzer (D) Senators Max Baucus (D) Conrad Burns (R) Official languages English Area 381,156 km² (4th)  - Land 377,295 km²  - Water 3,862 km² (1%) Population (2000)  - Population 902,195... State nickname: Silver State, Battle Born State (official) Other U.S. States Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Governor Kenny Guinn (R) Senators Harry Reid (D) John Ensign (R) Official languages None Area 286,367 km² (7th)  - Land 284,396 km²  - Water 1,971 km² (0. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Senators Ron Wyden (D) Gordon Smith (R) Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Senators Patrick Leahy (D) Jim Jeffords (I) Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (43th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Senators Patty Murray (D) Maria Cantwell (D) Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ...


Gettman also argues in his petition that marijuana is an acceptably safe medication. He notes that a 1999 Institute of Medicine report found that "except for the harms associated with smoking, the adverse effects of marijuana use are within the range of effects tolerated for other medications." He points out that there a number of delivery routes that were not considered by the Institute, such as transdermal, sublingual, and even rectal administration, in addition to vaporizers, which release marijuana's active ingredients into the air without burning the plant matter [6]. Eating it works well, too. Jump to: navigation, search 1999(MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... For information about smoking tobacco, see tobacco smoking. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ... Jump to: navigation, search A vaporizer and whip. ...


In some ways, cannabis is indisputably safer than prescription narcotics such as oxycodone and morphine, since there are no records of anyone ever dying from a cannabis overdose. The reason for this was revealed in a study by M. Herkenham, A.B. Lynn, et al, Cannabinoid Receptor Localization in Brain, published in a 1990 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, attributing the lack of overdose deaths to a lack of cannabinoid receptors in areas of the brain controlling breathing and the heart [7]. Gettman claims that the discovery of the cannabinoid receptor system in the late 1980s revolutionized scientific understanding of cannabis' effects and provided further evidence that it does not belong in Schedule I. Jump to: navigation, search The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word narkotikos, meaning benumbing or deadening, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... Jump to: navigation, search Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Jump to: navigation, search Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... Jump to: navigation, search A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... Jump to: navigation, search The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans and the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


Arguments against rescheduling

The cannabis plant contains approximately 400 chemicals. By comparison, a tomato plant has about 360 chemicals.
The cannabis plant contains approximately 400 chemicals. By comparison, a tomato plant has about 360 chemicals.

In 1992, DEA Administrator Robert Bonner promulgated five criteria, based somewhat on the Controlled Substances Act's legislative history, for determining whether a drug has an accepted medical use [8]. The DEA claims that marijuana has no accepted medical use because it does not meet all five criteria [9]: File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Todays featured article/March 16, 2005 Cannabis rescheduling in the United States Cannabis rescheduling in the United States/Picture options ... Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Robert C. Bonner Robert C. Bonner, born in Wichita, Kansas on January 29, 1942, is currently Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection service. ...

  • The drug's chemistry is known and reproducible;
  • There are adequate safety studies;
  • There are adequate and well-controlled studies proving efficacy;
  • The drug is accepted by qualified experts; and
  • The scientific evidence is widely available.

Marijuana is one of several nonaddictive, nontoxic hallucinogens that Congress placed in Schedule I. The DEA interprets the Controlled Substances Act to mean that if a drug with even a low potential for abuse – say, equivalent to a Schedule V drug – has no accepted medical use, then it must remain in Schedule I [10]: Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ...

When it comes to a drug that is currently listed in schedule I, if it is undisputed that such drug has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and it is further undisputed that the drug has at least some potential for abuse sufficient to warrant control under the CSA, the drug must remain in schedule I. In such circumstances, placement of the drug in schedules II through V would conflict with the CSA since such drug would not meet the criterion of "a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States." 21 USC 812(b).
Therefore, even if one were to assume, theoretically, that your assertions about marijuana's potential for abuse were correct (i.e., that marijuana had some potential for abuse but less than the "high potential for abuse" commensurate with schedules I and II), marijuana would not meet the criteria for placement in schedules III through V since it has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States--a determination that is reaffirmed by HHS in the attached medical and scientific evaluation.
The American Government argues that human studies are more relevant than studies showing animals do not self-administer marijuana.
The American Government argues that human studies are more relevant than studies showing animals do not self-administer marijuana.

The Department of Health and Human Services rejects the argument that laboratory animals' failure to self-administer marijuana is conclusive proof of its low potential for abuse [11]: mouse from http://www. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...

The Secretary disagrees with Mr. Gettman's assertion that "[t]he accepted contemporary legal convention for evaluating the abuse potential of a drug or substance is the relative degree of self-administration the drug induces in animal subjects." As discussed above, self-administration tests that identify whether a substance is reinforcing in animals are but one component of the scientific assessment of the abuse potential of a substance. Positive indicators of human abuse liability for a particular substance, whether from laboratory studies or epidemiological data, are given greater weight than animal studies suggesting the same compound has no abuse potential.

The Food and Drug Administration elaborates on this, arguing that the widespread use of marijuana, and the existence of some heavy users, is evidence of its "high potential for abuse," despite the drug's lack of physiological addictiveness [12]: Jump to: navigation, search The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in the United States. ...

[P]hysical dependence and toxicity are not the only factors to consider in determining a substance's abuse potential. The large number of individuals using marijuana on a regular basis and the vast amount of marijuana that is available for illicit use are indicative of widespread use. In addition, there is evidence that marijuana use can result in psychological dependence in a certain proportion of the population.

The Government also considers the fact that people are willing to risk scholastic, career and legal problems to use marijuana to be evidence of its high potential for abuse [13]: Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Education WikEd is a MediaWiki set up specificially for educators and education research. ...

Throughout his petition, Mr. Gettman argues that while many people "use" marijuana, few "abuse" it. He appears to equate abuse with the level of physical dependence and toxicity resulting from marijuana use. Thus, he appears to be arguing that a substance that causes only low levels of physical dependence and toxicity must be considered to have a low potential for abuse. The Secretary does not agree with this argument. Physical dependence and toxicity are not the only factors that are considered in determining a substance's abuse potential. The actual use and frequency of use of a substance, especially when that use may result in harmful consequences such as failure to fulfill major obligations at work or school, physical risk-taking, or even substance-related legal problems, are indicative of a substance's abuse potential.

Rescheduling process

Marijuana could be rescheduled either legislatively, through Congress, or through the executive branch. Congress has so far rejected all bills to reschedule marijuana. However, it is not unheard of for Congress to intervene in the drug scheduling process; in March 2000, for instance, Congress passed Public Law 106-72, adding GHB to Schedule I [14]. The United States Federal Executive Departments are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States—the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all being established within a few weeks of each other in 1789. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ... Jump to: navigation, search GHB redirects here. ...


The Controlled Substances Act also provides for a rulemaking process by which the United States Attorney General can reschedule marijuana administratively. These proceedings, usually initiated by a petition from marijuana reform advocates, represent the only means of legalizing medical marijuana without an act of Congress. Rescheduling supporters have often cited the lengthy petition review process as a reason why marijuana is still illegal [15]. The first petition took 22 years to review, and the second took 7 years. In 2002, the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis filed a third petition. Jump to: navigation, search The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Alberto Gonzales, current Attorney General of the United States The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Cannabis sativa extract. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ...


Rulemaking proceedings

Stages in rescheduling proceedings
  • Filing of Petition with DEA
  • Acceptance of Petition by DEA
  • Initial Review by DEA
  • Referral to HHS
  • Scientific and Medical Evaluation by HHS
  • HHS Report to DEA
  • Evaluation of Additional Information by DEA
  • Publication of DEA Decision
  • (Judicial Review by the US Court of Appeals)
  • (Public Hearing on Disputed Matters of Fact)

21 U.S.C. § 811 sets out a process by which cannabis could be administratively transferred to a less-restrictive category or removed from Controlled Substances Act regulation altogether. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) evaluates petitions to reschedule marijuana. However, the Controlled Substances Act gives the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), as successor agency of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, great power over rescheduling decisions. Jump to: navigation, search Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ...


After the DEA accepts the filing of a petition, the agency must request from the HHS Secretary "a scientific and medical evaluation, and his recommendations, as to whether such drug or other substance should be so controlled or removed as a controlled substance." The Secretary's findings on scientific and medical issues are binding on the DEA. The HHS Secretary can even unilaterally legalize marijuana: "[I]f the Secretary recommends that a drug or other substance not be controlled, the Attorney General shall not control the drug or other substance."


Factors determinative of scheduling

Unless an international treaty requires controlling a substance, the Attorney General must, in finding whether the drug meets the three criteria for placement in a particular schedule, consider the following factors:

  • The drug's actual or relative potential for abuse.
  • Scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known.
  • The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug or other substance.
  • Its history and current pattern of abuse.
  • The scope, duration, and significance of abuse.
  • What, if any, risk there is to the public health.
  • Its psychic or physiological dependence liability.
  • Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a controlled substance.

International treaty obligations

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs requires governments to regulate cannabis cultivation, but does not ban medical use.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs requires governments to regulate cannabis cultivation, but does not ban medical use.

Main article: Cannabis reform at the international level Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Cannabis reform at the international level refers to efforts to ease restrictions on marijuana use under international treaties. ...


If an international treaty ratified by the U.S. mandates that a drug be controlled, the Attorney General is required to "issue an order controlling such drug under the schedule he deems most appropriate to carry out such obligations" without regard to scientific or medical findings. Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, cannabis and cannabis resin are currently classified in Schedule IV, that treaty's most strictly controlled category of drugs [16]. However, Article 4(c) of the Single Convention specifically excludes medicinal drug use from prohibition, requiring only that Parties "limit exclusively to medical and scientific purposes the production, manufacture, export, import, distribution of, trade in, use and possession of drugs" [17]. On the other hand, Article 2(5)(b) states that for Schedule IV drugs: Jump to: navigation, search A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the...

A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.

The clause "...in its opinion..." refers to a judgment that each nation makes for itself. The official Commentary on the treaty indicates that Parties are required to make the judgment in good faith. Thus, if in the opinion of the United States, limiting cannabis use solely to research purposes would be "the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare," the U.S. would be required to do that. Presumably, this would greatly restrict the possibilities for medical use.


Jon Gettman, in Science and the End of Marijuana Prohibition, claims that "if prohibition ends in the U.S. it must also end world-wide because U.S. law requires that we amend international drug control treaties to correspond with our own findings on scientific and medical issues" [18]. This is at least partially correct; 21 U.S.C. § 811(d)(2)(B) of the Controlled Substances Act states that if the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs proposes rescheduling a drug, the HHS Secretary "shall evaluate the proposal and furnish a recommendation to the Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating to the proposal" [19]. As the major financial contributor to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and related agencies, the U.S. has a great deal of influence over international drug policy [20]. However, former United Nations Drug Control Programme Chief of Demand Reduction Cindy Fazey points out in The UN Drug Policies and the Prospect for Change that since cannabis restrictions are imbedded in the text of the Single Convention [21], complete legalization would require denunciation of the Single Convention [22], amendment of the treaty [23], or a reinterpretation of its provisions that would likely be opposed by the International Narcotics Control Board [24]. At the presiding table, from left to right: Mr. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ... The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP). ... Cindy Fazey is a criminologist and former Chief of Demand Reduction for the United Nations Drug Control Programme. ... Denunciation refers to the announcement of a treatys termination. ... Mr. ...


History of marijuana rescheduling efforts

1972 NORML petition

On May 18, 1972, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) petitioned the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) (now the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)) to transfer marijuana to Schedule II so that it could be legally prescribed by physicians. The BNDD declined to initiate proceedings on the basis of their interpretation of U.S. treaty commitments. Jump to: navigation, search May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Jump to: navigation, search The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use... The Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs directly preceded the Drug Enforcement Administration. ... Jump to: navigation, search Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


In 1974, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled against the government and ordered them to process the petition (NORML v. Ingersoll 497 F.2d 654). The government continued to rely on treaty commitments in their interpretation of scheduling-related issues concerning the NORML petition. In 1977, the Court issued a decision clarifying that the Controlled Substances Act requires a full scientific and medical evaluation and the fulfillment of the rescheduling process before treaty commitments can be evaluated (NORML v. DEA 559 F.2d 735). On October 16, 1980, the Court ordered the government to start the scientific and medical evaluations required by the NORML petition (NORML v. DEA Unpublished Disposition, U.S. App. LEXIS 13100). Jump to: navigation, search 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Meanwhile, some members of Congress were taking action to reschedule the drug legislatively. In 1981, the late Rep. Stuart McKinney introduced a bill to transfer marijuana to Schedule II [25]. It was co-sponsored by a bipartisan coalition of 84 House members, including prominent Republicans Newt Gingrich (Ga.), Bill McCollum (Fla.), John Porter (Ill.), and Frank Wolf (Va.) [26]. After the bill died in committee, Rep. Barney Frank began annually introducing nearly identical legislation [27]. All of Frank's bills have suffered the same fate, though, without attracting more than a handful of co-sponsors. Jump to: navigation, search 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stuart B. McKinney was a U.S. Congressman most famous for the Stuart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1986 that provides federal money for shelter programs. ... In a two-party system (such as in the United States), bipartisan refers to any bill, act, resolution, or any other action of a political body in which both of the major political parties are in agreement. ... Jump to: navigation, search Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the Senate. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party [1]), is one of the two major political parties in the United States (the other being the Democratic Party). ... Jump to: navigation, search Newt Gingrich Newton Leroy Gingrich, Ph. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Peach State / Empire State of the South Other U.S. States Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Governor Sonny Perdue (R) Senators Saxby Chambliss (R) Johnny Isakson (R) Official languages English Area 154,077 km² (24th)  - Land 150,132 km²  - Water 3,945 km² (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ira William Bill McCollum, Jr. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... John Edward Porter (b. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich (D) Senators Richard Durbin (D) Barack Obama (D) Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... Frank Rudolph Wolf (born January 30, 1939), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1981, representing the Tenth Congressional District of Virginia in Northern Virginia. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... Barney Frank Barney Frank (born March 31, 1940) is an American politician, and a member of the United States House of Representatives. ...


On October 18, 1985, The DEA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to transfer "Synthetic Dronabinol in Sesame Oil and Encapsulated in Soft Gelatin Capsules" – a pill form of marijuana's psychoactive ingredient, sold under the brand name Marinol – from Schedule I to Schedule II (DEA 50 FR 42186-87). The government issued its final rule rescheduling the drug on July 13, 1986 (DEA 51 FR 17476-78). The disparate treatment of marijuana and the expensive, patentable Marinol prompted reformers to question the DEA's consistency. Jump to: navigation, search October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year. ... Marinol. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search A patent is a set of inclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or substance (known as an invention) which is new, inventive...

1986 Hearings

Parties supporting rescheduling

  • NORML, a membership-funded educational organization, founded in 1970, which opposes all criminal prohibitions against marijuana and marijuana smoking.
  • The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics, a nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to make marijuana available by prescription.
  • The Cannabis Corporation of America, a pharmaceutical firm established with the intention of extracting natural cannabinoids for therapeutic use when cannabis is placed in Schedule II.
  • The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, which considers marijuana a sacred plant essential to its religious rituals.

Parties opposing rescheduling

In the summer of 1986, the DEA administrator initiated public hearings on cannabis rescheduling. The hearings lasted two years, involving many witnesses and thousands of pages of documentation. On September 6, 1988, DEA Chief Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young ruled that marijuana did not meet the legal criteria of a Schedule I prohibited drug and should be reclassified. He declared that marijuana in its natural form is "one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. (T)he provisions of the (Controlled Substances) Act permit and require the transfer of marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule II" [28]. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation founded in 1970 to, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... The Cannabis Corporation of America was the first legal cannabis company in the world. ... The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church is a new religious movement based on the teachings of Marcus Garvey, which claims that marijuana is the Christian sacrament. ... Jump to: navigation, search Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), founded in 1893, is an organization whose stated mission is to: advance the science and art of police services; develop and disseminate improved administrative, technical and operational practices and promote their use in police work; foster police cooperation and the exchange of... The National Family Partnership, formerly the National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth, is an organization, founded in 1980, that claims to take a visible stand against drugs with activities such as Red Ribbon Week. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis L. Young served as Chief Administrative Law Judge for the Drug Enforcement Administration during the late 1980s. ...


Then-DEA Administrator John Lawn overruled Young's determination. Lawn said he decided against re-scheduling marijuana based on testimony and comments from numerous medical doctors who had conducted detailed research and were widely considered experts in their respective fields. Later Administrators agreed. "Those who insist that marijuana has medical uses would serve society better by promoting or sponsoring more legitimate research," former DEA Administrator Robert Bonner opined in 1992. This statement was quoted by the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) in its membership drives [29]. John Lawn, speaking at the swearing in of Administrator Karen Tandy on Sep. ... Robert C. Bonner Robert C. Bonner, born in Wichita, Kansas on January 29, 1942, is currently Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection service. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ...


In 1994, the D.C. Court of Appeals finally affirmed the DEA Administrator's power to overrule Judge Young's decision (Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics v. DEA. 15 F.3d 1131). The petition was officially dead. "Each of the doctors testifying on behalf of NORML claimed that his opinion was based on scientific studies, yet with one exception, none could identify, under oath, the scientific studies they relied on," DEA Administrator Thomas A. Constantine remarked in 1995 [30]. Jump to: navigation, search 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. district court in Washington, DC. Appeals from the D.C. Circuit, as with all the U.S. Courts of Appeals, are heard... Constantine speaking at the DEAs 25th anniversary celebration. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1995 Gettman/High Times petition

On July 10, 1995, Jon Gettman and High Times Magazine filed another rescheduling petition with the DEA. This time, instead of focusing on marijuana's medical uses, the petitioners claimed that marijuana did not have the "high potential for abuse" required for Schedule I or Schedule II status. They based their claims on studies of the brain's cannabinoid receptor system conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) between 1988 and 1994. In particular, a 1992 study by M. Herkenham et al, using a lesion-technique, established that there are no cannabinoid receptors in the dopamine-producing areas of the brain [31]. Other studies, summarized in Gettman's 1997 report Dopamine and the Dependence Liability of Marijuana, showed that marijuana has only an indirect effect on dopamine transmission [32]. This suggested that marijuana's psychoactive effects are produced by a different mechanism than addictive drugs such as amphetamine, cocaine, ethanol, nicotine, and opiates. The National Institute on Drug Abuse, however, continued to publish literature contradicting this finding. For instance, NIDA made the following claim in its youth publication The Science Behind Drug Abuse [33]: Jump to: navigation, search July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... High Times is a United States based magazine. ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the United States federal governments principal biomedical and behavioral research agency. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1997(MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is an flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nicotine is an organic compound, an alkaloid found naturally throughout the tobacco plant, with a high concentration in the leaves. ... The term opiate refers to the alkaloids found in opium, an extract from the seed pods of the opium poppy (). It has also traditionally referred to natural and semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine. ... Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ...

A chemical in marijuana, THC, triggers brain cells to release the chemical dopamine. Dopamine creates good feelings — for a short time. Here's the thing: Once dopamine starts flowing, a user feels the urge to smoke marijuana again, and then again, and then again. Repeated use could lead to addiction, and addiction is a brain disease.

In January 1997, the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a review of the scientific evidence to assess the potential health benefits and risks of marijuana and its constituent cannabinoids [34]. In 1999, the IOM recommended that medical marijuana use be allowed for certain patients in the short term, and that preparations of isolated cannabinoids be developed as a safer alternative to smoked marijuana. The IOM also found that the gateway drug theory was "beyond the issues normally considered for medical uses of drugs and should not be a factor in evaluating the therapeutic potential of marijuana or cannabinoids." Jump to: navigation, search 1997(MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1999(MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The term gateway drug is used to describe a relatively benign drug that can lead to the use of harder, more dangerous drugs. ...

In 2000, a NORML-MAPS study of several different smoking devices found that vaporizers produced the fewest carcinogens.
In 2000, a NORML-MAPS study of several different smoking devices found that vaporizers produced the fewest carcinogens.

Both sides claimed that the IOM report supported their position. The DEA publication Exposing the Myth of Smoked Medical Marijuana interpreted the IOM's statement, "While we see a future in the development of chemically defined cannabinoid drugs, we see little future in smoked marijuana as a medicine," as meaning that smoking marijuana is not recommended for the treatment of any disease condition [35]. Marijuana advocates pointed out that the IOM did not study vaporizers, devices which, by heating cannabis to 185°C, release therapeutic cannabinoids while reducing or eliminating ingestion of various carcinogens [36]. NORML-MAPS apparatus This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... NORML-MAPS apparatus This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jump to: navigation, search A vaporizer and whip. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


On July 2, 1999, Marinol – the prescription drug containing tetrahydrocannabinol, marijuana's active ingredient – was again rescheduled, this time from Schedule II to the even less-restrictive Schedule III, while marijuana was left in Schedule I (64 FR 35928) [37]. The petitioners argued that the distinction between the two drugs was arbitrary, and that marijuana should be rescheduled as well. The DEA continued to support Marinol, however, as a method of THC ingestion without harmful smoke inhalation. Jump to: navigation, search July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1999(MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Marinol. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol. ...


The DEA published a final denial of Gettman's petition on April 18, 2001 (DEA 66 FR 20037 – 20076). The U.S. Court of Appeals upheld the agency's decision on May 24, 2002, ruling that the petitioners were not sufficiently injured to have standing to challenge DEA's determinations in federal court (290 F.3d 430) [38]. Since the appeal was dismissed on a technicality, it is unknown what position the Court would have taken on the merits of the case. Jump to: navigation, search April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Jump to: navigation, search May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


2002 Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis petition

On October 9, 2002, the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis filed another petition [39]. The new organization consisted of medical marijuana patients and other petitioners who would be more directly affected by the DEA's decision. On April 3, 2003, the DEA accepted the filing of that petition. According to Jon Gettman, "In accepting the petition the DEA has acknowledged that the Coalition has established a legally significant argument in support of the recognition of the accepted medical use of cannabis in the United States." The text of that petition is available here. Jump to: navigation, search October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Jump to: navigation, search April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gettman speculates that if marijuana is removed from Schedule I, three possible outcomes are that marijuana could be [40]:

In a footnote to the majority decision in Gonzales v. Raich, Justice John Paul Stevens said that if the scientific evidence offered by medical marijuana supporters is true, it would "cast serious doubt" on the Schedule I classification[41]. A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ketamine is a general dissociative anaesthetic for human and veterinary use. ... Jump to: navigation, search Seven-time Mr. ... See separate articles for over-the-counter trading and the medical condition Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency. ... Jump to: navigation, search Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... Jump to: navigation, search Codeine (INN) is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... Jump to: navigation, search Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America or to the dried and cured leaves. ... Gonzales v. ... Jump to: navigation, search Justice John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American jurist who has been a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice since 1975; he is the oldest and longest serving justice currently on the court. ...


References

  • Basis for the Recommendation for Maintaining Marijuana in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, 20037–20076, Department of Health and Human Services, Volume 66, Number 75, Federal Register, Apr. 18, 2001.
  • Coalition Files Federal Administrative Petition To Legalize Medical Marijuana, NORML News, Oct. 10, 2002.
  • Controlled Substances Act.
  • DEA Accepts Rescheduling Petition, American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, Apr. 15, 2003.
  • Drugs of Abuse: Chapter 1, The Controlled Substances Act, Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005.
  • Exposing the Myth of Smoked Medical Marijuana, Drug Enforcement Administration, 2001.
  • Fazey, Cindy: The UN Drug Policies and the Prospect for Change, Apr. 2003.
  • Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ONDCP Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse, Nov. 2002.
  • Gettman, Jon: The Case for Rescheduling Marijuana, July 18, 1999.
  • Gettman, Jon: Dopamine and the Dependence Liability of Marijuana, July 11, 1997.
  • Gettman, Jon: Science and the End of Marijuana Prohibition, May 13, 1999.
  • Gettman Petition For Hearings On Marinol Rescheduling Uses DEA’s Own Arguments Against It. Why Marinol Is Not Medical Marijuana. Wonderfully Brilliant!, MarijuanaNews, Feb. 24, 2005.
  • Gettman v. DEA - Government Response, The Rescheduling of Marijuana Under Federal Law Government’s Reply Brief, Jan. 14, 2002.
  • Gieringer D.: The Acceptance of Medicinal Marijuana in the U.S., J Cannabis Ther 2002;3(1): in press.
  • Grinspoon, Lester and Bakalar, James B.: The History of Cannabis, From the book Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine, Yale University, 1993.
  • Herkenham, M. (1992), "Cannabinoid Receptor Localization in Brain: Relationship to Motor and Reward Systems," P.W. Kalivas and H.H. Samson (eds.), The Neurobiology of Drug and Alcohol Addiction, Annals of the American Academy of Sciences. 654:19-32, 1992. pg. 29.
  • High Court Upholds Marijuana as Dangerous Drug, Drug Enforcement Administration, June 6, 2002.
  • Jon Gettman Comments On The Rescheduling of Marinol, MarijuanaNews, July 27, 1999.
  • Kuipers, Dean: Burnt: Medical use of marijuana has been legal in California since 1996, June 25, 2003.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, Institute of Medicine, 1999.
  • Marijuana Myths: Ten Most Common Concerns About Cannabis, Patients Out of Time.
  • Marijuana Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study, from the Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies MAPS - Volume 6 Number 3 Summer 1996.
  • Mauro, Tony: High Court: Federal Drug Laws Can Trump State Medical Marijuana Laws, Legal Times, June 6, 2005.
  • Medical use of Marijuana Denied (2002), DEA History Book 1990-1994.
  • Medicinal marijuana: the struggle for legalization, CNN Interactive, 1997.
  • Notice of Denial of Petition, 20037–20076, Drug Enforcement Administration, Volume 66, Number 75, Federal Register, Apr. 18, 2001.
  • Neier, Aryeh: U.S. ideologues put millions at risk, International Herald Tribune, Mar. 5, 2005.
  • The Science Behind Drug Abuse, NIDA for Teens.
  • Sense of Congress Regarding Marijuana, Congressional Record, Sep. 15, 1998.
  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, International Narcotics Control Board.

External links

  • Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis.
  • Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Drug Enforcement Administration.
  • Cannabis Cultivation community.
  • Drug Policy Alliance.
  • Food and Drug Administration.
  • High Times.
  • National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.
  • Backgrounder: Marijuana Rescheduling, Americans for Safe Access.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Clinton Goveas :: Wikipedia Reference (5827 words)
Cannabis (also known as marijuana or ganja in its herbal form, or hashish in its resinous form) is a psychoactive drug produced from parts of the Cannabis sativa plant.
In many countries cannabis is outlawed, so the cannabis user may very easily find himself or herself in situations where other illegal drugs are being used, or he or she may make acquaintance with people who use other substances illegally through the process of purchasing cannabis from fl market dealers.
In the United States, government advertisements encourage parents to disregard their own experience with cannabis when speaking to their children, on the premise that pot today is significantly stronger and thus more dangerous than that which they themselves might have smoked in the past.
Legal issues of cannabis: Information from Answers.com (3234 words)
Cannabis was criminalized across most of the world in the early parts of the 20th century.
In the United Kingdom, cultivation and use of cannabis was generally outlawed in 1928.
In the United States, the significant legislation was the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, a federal culmination of many separate state laws that had been enacted in the previous years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m