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Encyclopedia > Cannabis (drug) cultivation
A very young cannabis seedling. The tips of the first two true leaves are emerging between the two round cotyledons, or seed leaves
A female cannabis flower just coming into bloom.
Typical home-grown organic sinsemilla bud compared to a cigarette pack.

Cannabis cultivation is the cultivation of the Cannabis Sativa plant. Subspecies are C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica. Wild or escaped Cannabis, previously classified as Cannabis ruderalis, is now regarded as the variety C. sativa subsp sativa var. spontanea. Various hybrids are cultivated. Cannabis is grown for a variety of purposes, including as a source of materials for use in various products, such as food, clothing, cosmetics and fuel and for the production of cannabis drug materials. Cultivation techniques for other purposes are very different: see Hemp. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1717x965, 603 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1717x965, 603 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 586 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 586 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Make-up redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ...

The drug material is used medicinally, recreationally, and spiritually, but its possession is illegal in most places. See: Legal issues of cannabis. A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ...

The legal status of cannabis has led growers to implement novel cultivation methods for indoor growing, in order to avoid aerial surveillance of outdoor plots.[1] These methods include: using a water or air-based growth medium (known as hydroponics and aeroponics respectively); the use of homemade, organic composted fertilizers; training and trellising techniques such as Screen of Green (also known as SCROG), Sea of Green (also known as SOG); and entire systems and methods such as the NIMBY no-dump method, Hempy Bucket, and the Krusty Freedom Bucket methods. Research into the production of cannabis for the drug Marinol and other more profitable and marketable forms of cannabis based medicines has further pushed the envelope of cannabis cultivation in all forms of laboratory, both public and private. Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Close-up of lettuce and wheat grown in an aeroponic (air-culture) apparatus, NASA1998 Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate media. ... Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ...

The emphasis on advanced cultivation techniques, as well as the availability of hybrid strains (with names like Northern Lights, Master Kush, NYC Diesel), is believed to be a factor in the increase in the overall quality and variety of commercially-available cannabis over the past few decades. However, well-grown heirloom strains (e.g. Thai, Colombian Gold, Panama Red) are still in use. The following covers the plant's entire growth, from germination to harvest. Only a few of the many varieties of potato are commercially grown; others are heirlooms. ...



Main article: Cannabis

Cannabis is a genus in the family Cannabaceae, like hops. Cannabis is an annual plant and usually dioecious, which means it has separate pistillate (female) and stamenate (male) plants. A shorter photoperiod (day length) towards the end of the growing season is generally required to induce the reproductive (sometimes called flowering or budding) phase of growth, however some cultivars of Cannabis are auto-flowering, which means that they will flower regardless of the photoperiod. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Cannabis - Hemp Celtis - Hackberry Gironniera Humulus - Hop Parasponia Pteroceltis Trema - Trema Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... Species Humulus lupulus L. Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... In biology, Dioecious is an adjective which indicates the exisistence of separate sexes in a species of organisms. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ... A day neutral plant does not require a specific day length to flower. ...

The leaves are palmately compound, with serrate leaflets. During vegetative phase of growth, there is one leaflet on the first true leaf, three leaflets on the second, five on the third, and so on, up to about seven for C. sativa subsp. indica, and eleven for C. sativa subsp. sativa. The phyllotaxy reverses during reproductive phase, with bud leaves initially containing seven to eleven leaflets, and progressing down to one leaflet, and ultimately none at the terminal bud. Leaf arrangement is opposite during vegetative phase, and alternate during reproductive phase. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A leaflet in botany is a part of a compound leaf. ... In botany, phyllotaxis is the arrangement of the leaves on the shoot of a plant. ...

Cannabis plants are known for their production of oils, fibers, and compounds known as cannabinoids, including psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis plants can be categorized on the basis of drug potential by the overall amount of cannabinoids produced, as well as by the relative ratio of THC to CBD. Overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, but THC/CBD ratios are genetically determined and remain fixed throughout the life of the plant. This system of categorization recognizes three distinct categories. Non-drug (or low-intoxicant) types produce low levels of THC and CBD in both male and female plants. Drug types produce high amounts of THC but relatively low levels of CBD in both male and female plants. Intermediate types produce moderate amounts of THC, and produce CBD in comparable amounts; male plants of this intermediate type do not produce sufficient amounts of THC to be useful for drug purposes, while female plants may produce enough THC to be useful for drug production.[2][3] Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... THC redirects here. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...

The genus Cannabis comprises a single species: Cannabis sativa. Two subspecies are recognized: C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica;[4] however, this classification is not universally accepted.[2] Wild or escaped Cannabis was previously classified as a distinct species Cannabis ruderalis, but is now regarded as a variety, C. sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea.[4] This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ...

Generally only non-drug cultivars of C. sativa subsp. sativa are grown for industrial/agricultural purposes. For recreational or medicinal purposes, high-cannabinoid cultivars of both C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica are grown,[5] as well as hybrids of the two subspecies, and even a few hybrids that allegedly contain some C. sativa subsp. sativa var spontanea genetics.

Cultivation of the plant typically focuses on production of one of its above-noted ingredients. It is possible to grow the plants in a very close matrix, whereupon the resultant plants will have very fine fibers, which can be used to make fine cloth resembling silk. Alternatively, plants with select genetics, which are grown under close nutrient supervision and adequate lighting will produce higher quantities of THC. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...

While it is possible to grow cannabis simply for the purpose of a houseplant or as a hobby, the practice is quite challenging due to the need to keep the annual plant in a near perpetual vegetative state, which requires root pruning and artificial lighting for the winter months. A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. ...

Cannabis cultivation and detection

See main articles at indoor Cannabis cultivation and alternative Cannabis cultivation

Cultivating Cannabis indoors traditionally has to do with growing the plants in a soil-like medium and adding fertilizer when the plants are given water. Cultivating marijuana indoors is more complicated and expensive than growing outdoors, but it allows the cultivator complete control over the growing environment. Cannabis grown outdoors can be just as potent as its indoor counterpart if tended to properly. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ...

Genetics and breeding

Selection of mother plants

An important factor in cannabis cultivation is selecting the best genetics for one's crop. This is frequently done by selecting one or more known strains, or strains with preferred genetics (in the case of marijuana, one might use seeds from a batch that was particularly enjoyed), and then growing a number of the seeds to find out which exhibit the characteristics most desirable to the cultivator.

Plant characteristics which are generally selected for include:

  • Overall yield
  • Time to fruition
  • Resistance to pests
  • Geometric traits (uniformity, compactness, flower density, etc)
  • Color
  • Flavor and/or aroma
  • Appeal to end buyer (known as "bag appeal")
  • Psychoactive qualities
  • Trichome density and type (stalked or sessile)

When a cultivator has decided which plant or plants exhibit the most desirable traits, a cutting is taken and grown to maturity but never allowed to flower. This plant is referred to as a mother, and can be kept for a number of years, producing thousands of clones genetically identical to the mother.[6]

Feminized seeds

It is possible to use a combination of cloning and "shocking" plants to get them to produce feminized seeds.[7] A clone will retain the same sex throughout its life, so if a female plant is cloned, its clone children will also be female, precluding reproduction.

While environmental stresses have been used to create pollen bearing male flowers on female plants- known as 'hermaphroditing' or 'hermying', this method is not preferred when creating feminized seeds; due to those plants most likely to revert to seed making being the ones which hermie soonest; hence passing on the genetic trait of instability of gender - desirable in the wild but not in cultivation.

Spraying selected leaves, branches and in cases where large amount of seed desired whole plants with colloidal silver solution has become a preferred method since the colloidal silver suppresses ethylene production in bud sites, stimulating male characteristics. Gibberellic acid has been used frequently; but is harder to find than colloidal silver, which involves nothing more than a small wall d.c. power supply and two pieces of solid silver jeweler's wire, or 99.999% silver coin. A method used by organic growers and promulgated by the famous Cannabis breeder Soma, is called 'Rodelization', or letting unpollenated female plants live several weeks longer than the normal harvest time. In such plants a hermaphroditic trait will self express in effort to continue the genetic line; the fact this method utilizes auto hermaphroditic traits which could contribute to instability in a plant's genetics is offset by grower observations that the tendency to auto-switch sex is not great in plants grown from seeds made this way, and the fact that it occurs naturally without effort on the part of the cultivator. Gibberellic acid (also called Gibberellin A3, GA, and (GA3) is a hormone found in plants. ...

Another method of feminizing seeds is to get women's birth control pills which contain estrogen, grind them up and mix them with water. Soak the seeds in the water over night. Germinaate the seeds in the same solution.[citation needed]

The most common way to feminize seeds is to get a ripening banana which gives off the gas ethylene and leave it in a zip-lock bag with the seeds for fourteen days. (It increases the feminization of seeds up to 25%)

Hybrid vigor

When crossing two strains of cannabis (or two of any plant), the resultant hybrid may possess what is called hybrid vigor. In general, this produces a plant which is healthier, stronger, or quicker growing than its predecessors. Sometimes, in the case of a plant which has been brought back from fruiting (fruition, as mentioned above), it may be beneficial to cross it back with another (close) relative, in the hopes that it will become invigorated.[8] This article is about a biological term. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ...

Caution should be exercised, as one does not always attain a beneficial cross with hybridizing.

Cloning from cuttings

Like many plants, cloning of cannabis is possible through a relatively simple process. The process itself is quite similar to the cloning of most other plants and involves rooting branch cuttings from donor ("mother") plants.[9] For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ...

First and foremost all substances coming into contact with the internal tissues of the plant should be sterilized to prevent infection. Cutting tools can be sterilized using bleach and growth mediums using an oven (most come sterilized).

"Blueberry" marijuana cuttings waiting to be trimmed and re-cut.
"Blueberry" marijuana cuttings waiting to be trimmed and re-cut.

Cuttings are taken ideally with a 90 degree cut on the branch to minimize surface area which is susceptible to infection. Then the large fan leafs leaves near the bottom of the cutting are removed to minimize transpiration and the larger remaining fan leaf blades are cut to remove half of their surface area. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ...

The stem is then re-cut at a 45 degree angle, ideally just below a growth node (the place on a stem where the leaves or branches are attached). Many growers claim cloning is most successful when clones are cut so that 1–2 growth nodes are surrounded by the growing medium, with 2–3 showing above the medium. Clones between 3 and 6 inches tall are considered ideal.

Many growers believe that the second cut (of 45 degrees) should be done underwater to prevent air bubbles (called embolisms) from forming in the xylem of the stem which may affect water and nutrient uptake. An embolism is a common cause of internal infections in the plant which is almost always fatal. Using a clean knife minimizes infection risks, which can wipe out a number of clones quickly. In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ...

Trimmed with stem re-cut at 45 degree angle below a node.
Trimmed with stem re-cut at 45 degree angle below a node.

Rooting hormone gel or powder mixes are then applied to the cut to promote root growth and inhibit fungal infection. The cutting is then placed in a rooting medium which may be a soil mix or a soil-less medium. Typical soil-less mediums are Perlite, vermiculite, peat moss, sand, rock wool or Oasis foam. A good medium is one that drains well, holds moisture and air well also. Oxygen is important for healthy root growth. IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

The cuttings in their new medium should be kept at a constant temperature (around 78 F) and with high humidity. Elevated humidity levels can be achieved by use of a humidifier or a humidity dome. Elevated humidity levels slow the transpiration rate which is important because without a root system the water uptake is very slow; If the transpiration rate exceeds the uptake rate the cutting is losing water and will wilt and die. Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ...

Many growers use a humidity dome as they are very inexpensive, around $7, and are easy to use. Many others improvise domes with simple plastic baggies secured with rubber bands (even less expensive and equally easy to use). When using a humidity dome, the dome should be removed at least twice a day and the rooting clones should be fanned to prevent mold and to give them some air circulation. Alternatively, you can cut off the bottom of a clear 3-liter bottle and temporarily put it over a single plant. The cap can easily be removed a couple times a day to easily refreshen air.

New clones under improvised humidity domes.

The rooting medium should be kept moist and should never dry out. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

During other stages of growth one is advised to allow the soil to dry out to allow the roots to get oxygen and to prevent root rot. Since cuttings do not have roots this is not of concern. What is of concern is that a cutting will dry out and die, which occurs very rapidly.

Light intensity should be very low during the rooting process. High light intensities will force the plant to focus on photosynthesis at the expense of rooting. Light intensity should be increased during the last week up to normal illumination levels.

Cuttings usually take 7–14 days to develop root systems. Drooping is common within the first week. Cuttings that have not regained rigidity after 7 days are weak and are culled by most growers. To speed the rooting process keep the cuttings at constant temperature. Allowing the parent plant to become mildly nitrogen deficient before the cutting is taken will also speed rooting.

If performed correctly, the cuttings should stay green during their rooting time, and condensation should appear on the plastic coverings for the cuttings, which indicates proper humidity. After 7 days, healthy cuttings will appear strong with leaves reaching upward. Yellowing leaf tips are a common indicator of successful rooting. Browning likely indicates too much sunlight, too little humidity, cutting rotting in sitting water, or unsanitary cloning conditions. E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...

In recent years, stores selling hydroponic grow equipment began offering automated machines (i.e.: EZCloner, etc.) in which trimmed cuttings are placed and left alone for approximately two weeks. Anecdotal accounts from established growers indicate these automated machines have near 100% success rates. Unfortunately, the cost (more than $300 USD) is prohibitive for most people that grow at home for personal use.

Point form Summary:

1) Sterilize equipment

2) Remove cutting from mother plant with a 90 degree cut

3) Remove lower fan leaves and remove half of the surface area of remaining fan leaves

4) Re-cut the stem (preferably underwater) with a 45 degree cut

5) Apply rooting hormone to cut end

6) Place cutting into a moist rooting medium

7) Cover with humidity dome and store at constant temperature (of about 78°F or 25.55°C) Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...

8) Open dome lid and fan cuttings twice a day and keep medium moist

9) Keep illumination level low and increase it from day 7–14

Detection and the law

A chart demonstrating the reflective qualities of cannabis in comparison with other common plants, which may be used for cover.
A chart demonstrating the reflective qualities of cannabis in comparison with other common plants, which may be used for cover.

As cannabis and its cultivation are illegal in most parts of the world, considerable resources and effort are committed to both interdiction and counter-interdiction of cultivation. Thermal imaging helicopters, to detect heat lamps, and analysis of energy bills, to detect energy usage patterns of marijuana growers, have been used in prosecutions. In America, thermal imaging cameras are considered against United States Constitution. This has resulted in significant changes to growing trends and availability.[10] Image File history File links reflectivity chart of cannabis, and other plants File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links reflectivity chart of cannabis, and other plants File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ...


  1. ^ Expert tips on growing cannabis
  2. ^ a b Hillig, Karl W.; Paul G. Mahlberg (2004). "A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91: 966-975. 
  3. ^ Small, Ernest (1975). American law and the species problem in Cannabis: Science and semantics.
  4. ^ a b USDA, NRCS (2006). The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  5. ^ Small, E.; H. D. Beckstead (1973). "Common cannabinoid phenotypes in 350 stocks of Cannabis". Lloydia 36: 144–165. 
  6. ^ Cloning Marijuana
  7. ^ Producing Your Own Feminized Marijuana Seeds
  8. ^ Marijuana Genetics
  9. ^ Cloning Marijuana Made Simple
  10. ^ Effects of Cannabis Eradication on Cultivation Trends and General Availability

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cervantes, Jorge. Indoor Marijuana Horticulture. Van Patten Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-878823-29-9
  • Clarke, Robert Connell. Marijuana Botany. Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1981. ISBN 0-914171-78-X
  • Green, Greg. The Cannabis Grow Bible. San Francisco: Green Candy Press, 2003. ISBN 1-931160-17-1
  • Herer, Jack. The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of Cannabis and the Conspiracy Against Marijuana. Ah Ha Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 1-878125-02-8
  • Starks, Michael. Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing & Potency. Ronin Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0914171399



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