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Encyclopedia > Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. The herbal form of the drug consists of dried mature flowers and subtending leaves of pistillate ("female") plants. The resinous form, known as hashish,[3] consists primarily of glandular trichomes collected from the same plant material. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Confiscated hashish. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ...

A dried flowered bud of the Cannabis sativa plant.
A dried flowered bud of the Cannabis sativa plant.

The major biologically active chemical compound in cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), commonly referred to as THC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1759x1592, 2083 KB) This photo was taken by Ryan Bushby(HighInBC) with his Canon PowerShot S3 IS. To see more of his photos see his gallery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1759x1592, 2083 KB) This photo was taken by Ryan Bushby(HighInBC) with his Canon PowerShot S3 IS. To see more of his photos see his gallery. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “THC” redirects here. ...


Humans have been consuming cannabis since prehistory,[4] although in the 20th century there was a rise in its use for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. It is estimated that about four percent of the world's adult population use cannabis annually and 0.6 percent daily.[5] The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century. Since then, some countries have intensified the enforcement of cannabis prohibition while others have reduced the priority of enforcement. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ...

Contents

History

Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be found as far back as the Neolithic age, as indicated by charred cannabis seeds found in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial site in present day Romania.[4] The most famous users of cannabis were the ancient Hindus of India and Nepal, and the Hashshashins (hashish eaters) of present day Syria. The herb was called ganjika in Sanskrit (गांजा ganja in modern Indian and Nepali languages).[6][7] The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis.[8] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Look up brazier in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Hashashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) were a religious sect of Ismaili Shiites from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ...


Cannabis was also known to the Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Aryans.[9] Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word.[10] Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians and Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—“those who walk on smoke/clouds”) burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance.[11] Members of the cult of Dionysus, believed to have originated in Thrace, are also thought to have inhaled cannabis smoke. In 2003, a leather basket filled with cannabis leaf fragments and seeds was found next to a 2,500- to 2,800-year-old mummified shaman in the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.[12][13] It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.[14] Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christians.[15] It was also used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars.[16] In India and Nepal, it has been used by some of the wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries, and in modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced it as a sacrament.[17] Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ, even though the movement was founded in the United States in 1975 and has no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church.[18] Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that cannabis is the Tree of Life.[19][20] Other organized religions founded in the past century that treat cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry,[21] the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism,[22] the Cannabis Assembly[23] and the Church of Cognizance. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Many religions have beliefs about drug use; these vary greatly, with some traditions placing the ritual use of entheogens at the center of religious activity, while others prohibit drug use altogether. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement, or Rasta, is a cultural value system that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church is a new religious movement based on the teachings of Marcus Garvey, which claims that marijuana is the Christian sacrament. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Way of Infinite Harmony is a Taoist, see Taoism, sect that worships Her Holiness Princess Ma Gu, Goddess of Hemp (Immortal Xu Miao). ... Cantheism is emergent entheogen religion that uses cannabis as a sacrament of faith. ... Cannabis Assembly emblem Cannabis Assembly is a non-profit UK based religious group open to all people who declare a sincere cantheist use of cannabis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Spiritual use of cannabis. ...


Cannabis was introduced to the Americas in the mid-19th century by Indian laborers under the Indian indenture system implemented by the British Empire after the end of African slavery in the British West Indies. In the Caribbean, cannabis is still known as ganja (the Sanskrit word for marijuana), Indian or Coolie weed. The plant eventually spread into Mexico, U.S., Canada and the rest of the Americas.[citation needed] This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... // The Indian indenture system started from the end of slavery in 1834 and continued until 1920, when thousands of Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labour for the (mainly sugar) plantations, under the indenture system. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article discusses the history of the slave trade of Africa, and its effect upon the continent. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


The production of cannabis for drug use remains illegal throughout most of the world through first, the Marijuana Tax Act of 1935, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, while simple possession of small quantities is either legal, or treated as an addiction rather than a criminal offense in a few countries. Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and...


Medical use

Main article: Medical cannabis

A synthetic form of one chemical in marijuana, Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is a controversial treatment for medical use. The American Marijuana Policy Project, a pro-cannabis organization, contends that cannabis is an ideal therapeutic drug for cancer and AIDS patients, who often suffer from clinical depression, and from nausea and resulting weight loss due to chemotherapy and other aggressive treatments. A recent study by scientists in Italy has also shown that cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical found in marijuana, inhibits growth of cancer cells in animals.[24] Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


FDA and comparable authorities in Western Europe including the Netherlands, have not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease. The current view of the United States Food and Drug Administration is that if there is any future of marijuana as a medicine, it lies in its isolated components, the cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. [25] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


A synthetic extract of cannabis has been shown to relieve symptoms of anorexia in elderly Alzheimer's patients.[26]


Glaucoma, a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball causing gradual loss of sight, can be treated with medical marijuana to decrease this intraocular pressure. There has been debate for 25 years on the subject. Some data exist, showing a reduction of IOP in glaucoma patients who smoke marijuana,[27] but the effects are short-lived, and the frequency of doses needed to sustain a decreased IOP can cause systemic toxicity. There is also some concern over its use since it can also decrease blood flow to the optic nerve. Marijuana lowers IOP by acting on a cannabinoid receptor on the ciliary body called the CB receptor.[28] Although marijuana is not a good therapeutic choice for glaucoma patients, it may lead researchers to more effective, safer treatments. A promising study shows that agents targeted to ocular CB can reduce IOP in glaucoma patients who have failed other therapies.[29]


Medical marijuana is used for analgesia, or pain relief. “Marijuana is used for analgesia only in the context of a handful of illnesses (e.g., headache, dysentery, menstrual cramps, and depression) that are often cited by marijuana advocates as medical reasons to justify the drug being available as a prescription medication.”[30] It is also reported to be beneficial for treating certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, and bipolar disorder.[31] Case reports have found that cannabis can relieve tics in people with OCD and/or Tourette syndrome. Patients treated with tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive chemical found in cannabis, reported a significant decrease in both motor and vocal tics, some of 50% or more.[32][33][34] Some decrease in obsessive-compulsive behavior was also found.[32] A recent study has also concluded that cannabinoids found in cannabis might have the ability to prevent Alzheimer's disease.[35] THC has been shown to reduce arterial blockages.[36] An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Not to be confused with Tick. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... “THC” redirects here. ...


Another use for medical marijuana is movement disorders. Marijuana is frequently reported to reduce the muscle spasticity associated with Multiple Sclerosis, this has been acknowledged by the Institute Of Medicine, but it noted that these abundant anecdotal reports are not well-supported by clinical data. Evidence from animal studies suggests that there is a possible role for cannabinoids in the treatment of certain types of epileptic seizures.[37] The marijuana will numb the nervous system slightly so the body won’t go into shock. A synthetic version of the major active compound in cannabis, THC, is available in capsule form as the prescription drug dronabinol (Marinol) in many countries. The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. [38] Dr. William Notcutt states that the use of MS as the disease to study “had everything to do with politics”.[39] The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...


New breeding and cultivation techniques

It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s. However, potent seedless marijuana such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. In fact, the sinsemilla technique of producing high-potency marijuana has been practiced in India for centuries. Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. These intensive horticultural techniques have led to fewer seeds being present in cannabis and a general increase in potency over the past 20 years. The average levels of THC in marijuana sold in United States rose from 3.5% in 1988 to 7% in 2003 and 8.5% in 2006.[40] A very young cannabis seedling. ... Thai stick was a form of cannabis from Thailand popular during the late 60s and early 70s. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... “THC” redirects here. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ...


"Skunk" cannabis is a potent strain of cannabis, grown through selective breeding and usually hydroponics, that is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica. Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffeehouses in the Netherlands is about 18–19%.[41] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The average THC content of Skunk #1 is 8.2%; it is a 4-way combination of the cannabis strains Afghani indica, Mexican Gold, Colombian Gold, and Thai: 75% sativa, 25% indica. This was done via extensive breeding by cultivators in California in the 1970s using the traditional outdoor cropping methods used for centuries.


In proposed revisions to cannabis rescheduling in the UK, the government is considering scheduling the more potent cannabis material as a separate, more restricted substance. Many cannabis proponents are vehemently opposed, reasoning that if one can smoke less cannabis to achieve the same effect, then it is safer in the long run than smoking a less potent product. Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom refers to the transfer of cannabis to a different Class of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. ...


A Dutch double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of male volunteers with a self-reported history of regular cannabis use aged 18–45 years concluded that smoking of cannabis, with higher THC reflecting the content levels of netherweed (marijuana with 9–23% THC) as currently sold in coffee shops in the Netherlands, may lead to higher THC concentrations in serum (the internal dose). Smoking of cannabis with higher THC concentrations leads to an increase of the occurrence of effects, particularly among younger or inexperienced cannabis smokers, who do not adapt their smoking to the higher THC.[42] Smoking of cannabis with higher THC concentrations was associated with a dose-related increase of physical effects (such as increase of heart rate, and decrease of blood pressure) and psychomotor effects (such as reacting more slowly, being less concentrated, making more mistakes during performance testing, having less motor control, and experiencing drowsiness).


What was well observed in the Dutch study was that the effects based from a single dose—the smoking of one piece of a joint for 20–25 minutes—lasted for more than eight hours. The reaction time was still significantly slower about five hours after smoking. At that time, the THC serum concentration was low, but still present. This means that even when individuals have the impression that their state has returned to baseline and that they can smoke another piece of joint, the effect of the first joint may be still present. When subjects smoke on several occasions per day, accumulation of THC may occur. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another study showed that 15 mg THC result in no learning whatsoever occurring over a three-trial selective reminding task at two hours. In several tasks, delta(9)-THC increased both speed and error rates, reflecting “riskier” speed–accuracy trade-offs.[43]


There are two recognized types of herbal cannabis, sativa and indica. So-called sativa strains are reputed to induce a noticeably more "cerebral" high, while indica strains induce more of a body high. These two drug types are often hybridized or crossed with early-maturing (but low in THC) ruderalis strains to increase the range in desirable characteristics.


Criminalization and legalization

World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data is from multiple sources detailed on the full source list. This map is a work in progress. Please give corrections and additions here.
World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data is from multiple sources detailed on the full source list. This map is a work in progress. Please give corrections and additions here.
U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics PSA used in the late 1930s and 1940s.
U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics PSA used in the late 1930s and 1940s.
Main article: Legality of cannabis
See also: Drug prohibition and Drug liberalization

Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. These laws have impacted adversely on the cannabis plant's cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis is legal or licensed. Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation or a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market. There are also changes in a more restrictive direction such as the closing of coffee shops in the Netherlands, the closing of the open drug market in Christiania, Copenhagen and the higher minimum penalties as in Canada. Although recently in Canada the use of marijuana has been decriminalized and laws in certain provinces (such as British Columbia) have been un-enforced. Some jurisdictions use mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users with freedom from narcotic drugs as goal. Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 35 KB) World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 35 KB) World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... A public service announcement (PSA) or community service announcement (CSA) is a non-commercial advertisement typically on radio or television, ostensibly broadcast for the public good. ... Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Country Denmark Region Hovedstaden City Copenhagen Squatted 1971 Legalized 1995 Government  - Type Consensus democracy Area  - Land 0. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...


Effects

Main article: Health issues and the effects of cannabis

Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed, usually by smoking or ingestion. The minimum amount of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight[44] (which, in practical terms, is a varying amount, dependent upon potency). A related compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as THCV, is produced in appreciable amounts by certain drug strains. This cannabinoid has been described in the popular literature as having shorter-acting, flashier effects than THC, but recent studies suggest that it may actually inhibit the effects of THC. Relatively high levels of THCV are common in African dagga (marijuana), and in hashish from the northwest Himalayas. This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ...


Health issues

Main article: Health issues and the effects of cannabis

Cannabis use has been alleged to be associated with several illnesses. Due to its illegal status in many countries, it has been difficult to research these claims. Cannabis is rumoured to cause lung cancer, yet studies and tests have proven inconclusive. When mixed with tobacco however, there is a risk.[45] This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ...


Cannabis use has been linked to psychosis by several peer-reviewed studies. A 1987 Swedish study claiming a link between cannabis use and schizophrenia was criticized for not differentiating between cannabis use and the use of other narcotics, and its results have not been verified by other studies. More recently, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study published research showing an increased risk of psychosis for cannabis users with a certain genetic predisposition, held by 25% of the population.[46] In 2007, a study published in The Lancet and a poll of mental health experts showed that a growing number of medical health practitioners are convinced that cannabis use increases susceptibility to mental illness, accounting for 14% of United Kingdom psychosis cases; however, the risk to an individual smoking cannabis is only increased by 2%.[47] For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... The Dunedin Multidisiplinary Health and Development Study is a long-running cohort study of 1037 people born in 1972 or 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...


Relationship with other drugs

Since its origin in the 1950s, the "gateway drug" hypothesis has been one of the central pillars of cannabis drug policy in the United States. The argument is that people, upon trying cannabis for the first time and not finding it dangerous, are then tempted to try other, harder drugs. This model of cause and effect has been debated.[48] Some argue that the purported relationship between marijuana and more illicit drugs, as proposed by the "gateway theory," is methodologically flawed--it is a spurious association. A common argument is that a beginning user of cannabis, not finding it dangerous, will see the often stark difference between public information regarding the drug (much of which is misleading or fabricated, e.g. DARE), and come to distrust the sources of that information in general, and specifically regarding information on other drugs. Some studies support the "gateway drug" model.[49] An example from 2007: A stratified, random sample of 1943 adolescents was recruited from secondary schools across Victoria, Australia, at age 14–15 years. This cohort was interviewed on eight occasions until the age of 24–25 years. At age 24 years, 12% of the sample had used amphetamines in the past year, with 1–2% using at least weekly. Young adult amphetamine use was predicted strongly by adolescent drug use and was associated robustly with other drug use and dependence in young adulthood. Associations were stronger for more frequent users. Among young adults who had not been using amphetamines at age 20 years, the strongest predictor of use at age 24 years was the use of other drugs, particularly cannabis, at 20 years.[50] Those who were smoking cannabis at the age of 15 were as much as 15 times more likely to be using amphetamines in their early 20s.[51] The gateway drug theory is the belief that use of a lower classed drug can lead to the subsequent use of harder, more dangerous drugs. ... Spurious can refer to: in statistics: Spurious correlation or Spurious relationship in radio engineering: Spurious emission in cryptography: Spurious key in literature: Spurious quotation in computing: Spurious interrupt Look up Spurious in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Logo of D.A.R.E Drug Abuse Resistance Education, better known as DARE or D.A.R.E., is an international education program that seeks to prevent use of illegal drugs, membership in gangs, and violent behavior. ... Motto: Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Governor HE Mr John Landy Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Area 237,629 km² (6th)  - Land 227,416 km²  - Water 10,213 km² (4. ...


Analysts have hypothesized that the illegal status of cannabis is a possible cause of a gateway drug effect, reasoning that cannabis users are likely to become acquainted with people who use and sell other illegal drugs in order to acquire cannabis. But it is said to be that Marijuana is not as harmful or addicting as any other drug.[52][53] Some contend that by this argument, alcohol and tobacco may also be regarded as gateway drugs. Studies have shown that tobacco smoking is a better predictor of concurrent illicit hard drug use than smoking cannabis.[54]

Comparison of addiction vs. physical harm for 20 drugs as estimated by an article in The Lancet

A current doctoral thesis from Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, on the neurobiological effects of early life cannabis exposure, gives support for the cannabis gateway hypothesis in relation to adult opiate abuse. THC exposed rats showed increased motivation for opiate drug use under conditions of stress. However, the cannabis exposure did not correlate to amphetamine use. [55] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 564 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 723 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cannabis (drug) ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 564 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (680 × 723 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cannabis (drug) ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ...


A study[56] published in The Lancet on 24 March 2007 was twenty drugs were assigned a risk from zero to three. Dr. David Nutt et al. asked medical, scientific and legal experts to rate 20 different drugs on nine parameters:

  • Physical harm (Acute, Chronic, and Intravenous harm)
  • Dependence (Intensity of pleasure, Psychological dependence, Physical dependence)
  • Social harms (Intoxication, Other social harms, Health-care costs)

Cannabis was ranked seventeenth of twenty for mean physical harm score and eleventh for mean dependence score. Not shown is the mean social harm score, which rated ninth, in a tie with Amphetamine.


Classification

While many drugs clearly fall into the category of either Stimulant, Depressant, Hallucinogen, or Antipsychotic, cannabis, containing both THC and CBD, exhibits a mix of all sections, leaning towards the Hallucinogen section due to THC being the primary constituent. [57][58][59] The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Methods of consumption

Herbal cannabis "buds"
Herbal cannabis "buds"

Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in several forms: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (4064 × 2704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (4064 × 2704 pixel, file size: 1. ...

  • Marijuana or ganja: the flowering tops of female plants, from less than 1% THC to 22% THC; the wide range is probably one of the reasons for the conflicting results from different studies.
  • Hashish or charas: a concentrated resin composed of heated glandular trichomes that have been physically extracted, usually by rubbing, sifting, or with ice.
  • Kief: (1) the chopped flowering tops of female cannabis plants, often mixed with tobacco; (2) Moroccan hashish produced in the Rif mountains[60]; (3) sifted cannabis trichomes consisting of only the glandular "heads" (often incorrectly referred to as "crystals" or "pollen"); (4) the crystal (trichomes) left at the bottom of a grinder after grinding marijuana, then smoked.
  • Bhang: a beverage prepared by grinding cannabis leaves in milk and boiling with spices and other ingredients.
Hashish
Hashish

These forms are not exclusive, and mixtures of two or more different forms of cannabis are frequently consumed. Between the many different strains of cannabis and the various ways that it is prepared, there are innumerable variations similar to the wide variety of mixed alcoholic beverages that are consumed. The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... Confiscated hashish. ... It has been suggested that Gardaa be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (4064 × 2704 pixel, file size: 994 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo of cannabis resin with 5p piece for comparison. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (4064 × 2704 pixel, file size: 994 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo of cannabis resin with 5p piece for comparison. ...


Smoking

Joints
Joints
Main article: Cannabis smoking

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 452 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 596 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)cropped from http://upload. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 452 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 596 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)cropped from http://upload. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ...

Vaporization

A vaporizer heats herbal cannabis to 365–410 °F (185–210 °C), which turns the active ingredients into gas without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 392 °F (200°C) at 0.02 mm Hg pressure, and somewhat higher at standard atmospheric pressure).[61][62] Toxic chemicals are released at much lower levels than by smoking, although this may vary depending on the design of the vaporizer and the temperature at which it is set. A MAPS-NORML study using a Volcano™ vaporizer reported 95% THC and no toxins delivered in the vapor.[63] However, an older study using less sophisticated vaporizers found more toxins.[64] The effects from a vaporizer are noticeably different to that of smoking cannabis. Users have reported a more euphoric hallucinogen type high, because the vapor contains more pure THC. A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation founded in 1970 to, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by...


Eating

As an alternative to smoking, cannabis may be consumed orally. Although hashish is sometimes eaten raw or mixed with water, THC and other cannabinoids are more efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream when dissolved in ethanol, or combined with butter or other lipids. The time to onset of effects is usually about an hour and may continue for a considerable length of time, whereas the effects of smoking herbal cannabis are almost immediate. Confiscated hashish. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Some common lipids. ...


Smoking cannabis results in a significant loss of THC and other cannabinoids in the exhaled smoke, by decomposition on burning, and in smoke that is not inhaled. In contrast, all of the active constituents enter the body when cannabis is ingested. It has been shown that the primary active component of cannabis, Δ9-THC, is converted to the more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC by the liver.[65] Titration to the desired effect by ingestion is much more difficult than through inhalation. 11-hydroxy-THC is the primary active Δ9-THC metabolite. ... This article is about volumetric titration. ...


Other methods

Cannabis material can be leached in high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create “Green Dragon”. This process is often employed to make use of low-potency stems and leaves. Leaching is the process of extracting a substance from a solid by dissolving it in a liquid. ... Neutral grain spirits (a. ... This article is about the drink. ...


Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. Although THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble (with a solubility of 2.8 grams per liter[66]), enough THC can be dissolved to make a mildly psychoactive tea. However, water-based infusions are generally considered to be an inefficient use of the herb. For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...


In 2006, hollowed-out gumballs filled with cannabis material and labeled as “Greenades” were distributed by high school students in the U.S.[67]


See also

Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of cannabis. ... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... The Emerald Triangle is a collection of three counties in Northern California, consisting of Mendocino, Humboldt, and Trinity. ... Fitz Hugh Ludlow Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as “Fitzhugh Ludlow,” (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870) was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best-known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857). ... Madrid, Spain. ... A head shop in Florence, Italy. ... Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... This is a list of the legality of cannabis by country. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Marc Emery wearing his 420 jersey. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, to move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of cannabis prohibition so that the responsible use of this drug... Proposition 215 was a proposition in the state of California on the November 5, 1996 ballot. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ...

References

[1] Marijuana Tax Act of 1937

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The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani, was a jurist, reformer, preacher, scholar, exegete of Islam. ... Joseph Owens is a Roman Catholoic priest who wrote a number of books. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Dutch: Rijks Instituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene or simply RIVM), is a Dutch research institute that is an independent agency of the Netherlands Ministry of Public Health, Wellbeing and Sports. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Karolinska Institutet (often translated from Swedish into English as the Karolinska Institute, and in older texts often as the Royal Caroline Institute) is a medical university in Stockholm, founded in 1810. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Founded in 1963, Borough of Manhattan Community College, or BMCC is one of six two-year colleges within the City University of New York (CUNY) system and the only one in Manhattan. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PRWeb is a company that distributes press releases over the Internet and via email and RSS feeds. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Confiscated hashish. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In cannabis culture, shake refers to the small, leafy fragments of cannabis that gather at the bottom of a bag, which are said to result, putatively, of it having been shaken in handling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke marijuana and tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... There is also a Chillum, Maryland, a suburb North of Washington, D.C. Two small glass chillums, with bottle cap for size comparison. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... This article is about a traditonal smoking pipe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... Spots (also known as spotting, blades, dots or hot knives) is a method of smoking cannabis, where small pieces of the plant are placed between two very hot knives and the smoke produced is inhaled. ... A common glass steamroller. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... AK 47 is a strain of cannabis, and placed 2nd at the 2003 Cannabis Cup in the Indica Cup category. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... Afghan Kush is an expensive variety of cannabis with prices at around $5,000 per pound. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Chocolate Thai is a famous cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... Columbian Red is a cannabis sativa cultivar genetically related to Panama Red. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... Yield: Large Flowering Time: 6 - 7 weeks Height: 100 cm - 150 cm Kali Mist is a strain of cannabis. ... Developed by THSeeds in Amsterdam, Kushage seeks to do for Kush what SAGE did for sativa. ... Very small Lowryder. ... Matanuska Tundra (Also known as Matanuska Thunderfuck, Alaskan Thunderfuck, Alaskan Tundra and Alaskan Snowdragon) is a strain of Marijuana grown in the Matanuska Valley, Alaska. ... Nevilles Haze is a strain of cannabis that has a slight touch of Northern Lights #5. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... Santa Maria is a variety of marijuana stemming from the Brazilian Amazon where it has been used in a spiritual context. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about a potent strain of cannabis. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... A variety of space cakes from Amsterdam Cannabis foods are foods prepared with cannabis in herbal or resin form to enjoy the psychoactive effects of the drug for those who prefer not to smoke it. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... Cannabis Assembly emblem Cannabis Assembly is a non-profit UK based religious group open to all people who declare a sincere cantheist use of cannabis. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, to move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of cannabis prohibition so that the responsible use of this drug... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: &#1055;&#1088;&#1086;&#1084;&#1077;&#1085;&#1072;) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... The Spliff Committee logo The Spliff Committee is an organization of people who share a common interest of promoting public and political awareness/acceptance of marijuana and cannabis recreational use. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabidivarine, also known as cannabidivarol or CBDV, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabigerol, also known as CBG, is a non-phychoactive Cannabinoid found in the Cannabis strain of plants. ... Cannabivarin, also known as cannabivarol or CBV, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabicyclol, also known as CBL, is a non-psychedelic cannabinoids found in the Cannabis species. ... “THC” redirects here. ... 11-hydroxy-THC is the primary active Δ9-THC metabolite. ... Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Ajulemic acid (IP-751) is a synthetic cannabinoid derivative of the non-psychoactive THC metabolite 11-carboxy-THC which shows useful analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects without causing a subjective high.[1] It is being developed for the treatment of neuropathic pain and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. ... AM251 is a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. ... Chemical structure of CP 55,940 CP 55,940, also written as CP55940, CP55,940, CP-55940, CP-55,940, and CP 55940, is a cannabinoid which mimics the effects of naturally occurring THC (the psychoactive compound found in marijuana). ... Dimethylheptylpyran (DMHP, 1,2-dimethylheptyl-Δ3THC) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in 1949 during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9-THC, the active component of cannabis. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, &#916;9-THC, &#916;9-tetrahydrocannabinol, &#916;1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... HU-210 HU-210 (CAS# 112830-95-2) is a synthetic cannabinoid that was discovered around 1988 in the group of Dr Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University. ... JWH-133 is a potent selective CB2 receptor agonist. ... Levonantradol is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol). ... Methanandamide [N-(2-hydroxy-1R-methylethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide] is a synthetically created stable chiral analog of anandamide. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... Nabitan (Nabutam, Benzopyranoperidine) is a synthetic cannabinoid analog of dronabinol (Marinol). ... Parahexyl (Synhexyl, n-hexyl-Δ3THC) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in the 1950s during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9THC, the active component of cannabis. ... Rimonabant (SR141716) is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. ... THC acetate ester is a derivative of THC which has been found by the DEA as an apparent controlled substance analogue of THC. It was apparently made by extracting and purifying THC from cannabis plant material followed by reaction with acetic anhydride in an analogous manner to how heroin is... THC phosphate ester is a water soluble derivative of THC, invented in 1978 in an attempt to get around the poor water solubility of THC and make it easier to inject for the purposes of animal research into its pharmacology and mechanism of action. ... WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical agent in the Cannabinoid family. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamide or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in animal and human organs, especially in the brain. ... 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor. ... 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír HanuÅ¡ at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. ... Virodhamine (O-arachidonoyl ethanolamine) is an endocannibinoid and a nonclassic eicosanoid, derived from arachidonic acid. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cannabis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1386 words)
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed with nettles in the family Urticaceae or with mulberries in the family Moraceae, but is now considered along with hops (Humulus sp.) to belong to the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Ghost Moth and The Nutmeg.
Cannabis (drug) discusses its use as a drug.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Cannabis (drug) (3580 words)
Cannabis was well known to the Scythians, as well as by the Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai - "those who walk on smoke/clouds") used to burn cannabis flowers in order to induce trances.
However, because cannabis is a peculiar psychedelic that is unlike typical depressant or stimulant drugs, these persistent effects are unlike those normally associated with physical dependence.
Some believe that cannabis may trigger latent conditions or be part of a complex coordination of causes, referred to as the diathesis-stress model in psychology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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