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Encyclopedia > Canine parvovirus
Canine parvovirus 2

EM of canine parvovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Family: Parvoviridae
Genus: Parvovirus
Species: Canine parvovirus 2

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a contagious virus affecting dogs. The disease is highly infectious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with feces. It can be especially severe in puppies. Canine minute virus is a type of parvovirus (canine parvovirus type 1) that infects dogs. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... Stamp featuring Ho Chi Minh commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Communist Party The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam) is the ruling party in Vietnam. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...

Contents

History

CPV is a relatively new disease that appeared in the late 1970s. It was first recognized in 1978 and spread worldwide in one to two years.[1] The virus is very similar to feline panleukopenia (also a parvovirus); in fact, they are 98% identical, differing only in two amino acids in the capsid protein VP2.[2] It is also highly similar to mink enteritis, and the parvoviruses of raccoons and foxes.[3] The early belief was that the feline panleukopenia mutated into CPV. While this has not been formally proven, the strong similarity to feline panleukopenia makes this the most popular theory; however, it is also possible that CPV mutated from an unidentified parvovirus (similar to feline parvovirus (FPV)) of some wild carnivore.[4] Interestingly, a strain of CPV2b (strain FP84) has been shown to cause disease in a small percentage of domestic cats, although vaccination for FPV seems to protect against it.[5] CPV, however, cannot lead to disease in cats and does so only mildly in mink and raccoons. Thus it is a virus almost exclusively affecting canines.[3] Feline panleukopenia, more commonly known as feline distemper, is a viral infection affecting cats caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of canine parvovirus. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ... This article is about the animal. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


Two additional strains of canine parvovirus CPV2a and CPV2b were identified in 1979 and 1984 respectively.[4] Most cases of canine parvovirus are believed to be of these two strains, which have replaced the original strain, thus making the present day virus different from the virus originally discovered[6][3] though indistinguishable by most routine tests. A third type, CPV2c (a Glu-426 mutant), has been discovered in Italy, Vietnam, and Spain.[7] This article is about biological mutants. ...


Viral Structure and Pathology

CPV is a non-enveloped single-stranded DNA virus. The name comes from the Latin parvus, meaning small, as the virus is only 20 to 26 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral symmetry. The genome is about 5000 nucleotides long.[8] CPV continues to evolve, and the success of new strains seems to depend on extending the range of hosts affected and improved binding to its receptor, the canine transferrin receptor.[9] CPV has a high rate of evolution, possibly due to a rate of nucleotide substitution that is more like RNA viruses such as Influenzavirus A.[10] In contrast, FPV seems to evolve only through random genetic drift.[11] Many viruses (e. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... [Etymology: 16th century: from Greek eikosaedron, from eikosi twenty + -edron -hedron], icosahedral adjective An icosahedron noun (plural: -drons, -dra ) is any polyhedron having 20 faces, but usually a regular icosahedron is implied, which has equilateral triangles as faces. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


Canine parvovirus affects dogs, wolves, foxes, and other canids. CPV2a and CPV2b have been isolated from a small percentage of symptomatic cats and is more common than feline panleukopenia in big cats.[12] It does not transmit to birds, or humans; although each species has its own parvovirus. Canine parvovirus cannot be spread to species outside of the canid family and other carnivores, but it can be spread by them (for example, a bird comes in contact with feces and then the dog's environment, or a cat goes to the groomers and returns with an exposed pet carrier). Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Feline panleukopenia, more commonly known as feline distemper, is a viral infection affecting cats caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of canine parvovirus. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus...


Infection

There are two forms of CPV: fat person and dog. Puppies are most susceptible. Most dogs that are infected, however, (more than 80 percent) will show no symptoms.[13] With severe disease, dogs can die within 48 to 72 hours with no treatment. In the more common, less severe form, mortality is about 10 percent.[2] Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, Labrador Retrievers, and Pit bull terriers as well as other black and tan colored dogs may also be more susceptible to CPV [14] Along with age and breed, factors such as a stressful environment, as well as concurrent infections with bacteria, parasites, and canine coronavirus increase a dog's risk of severe infection.[13]



Dogs become infected through oral contact with CPV in feces, infected soil, or fomites carrying the virus. Following ingestion, the virus replicates in the lymphoid tissue in the throat, and then spreads to the bloodstream. From there, the virus attacks rapidly dividing cells, notably those in the lymph nodes, intestinal crypts, and the bone marrow. There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts.[15] Bacteria that normally live in the intestines then cross into the bloodstream and cause sepsis. Dogs with CPV are also at risk for intussusception, a condition where part of the intestine prolapses into another part.[13] Three to four days following infection, the virus is shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed the virus periodically.[16] Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... An intussusception is a situation in which a part of the intestine has prolapsed into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another. ...


Dog form

This form is less common and affects the cutest of puppies infected in utero or shortly after birth until about 8 weeks of age.[13] The virus attacks the heart muscle and the puppy often dies suddenly or after a brief period of breathing difficulty. On the microscopic level, there are many points of necrosis of the heart muscle that goes alongside mononuclear celular infiltrate. The formation of excess fibrous tissue (fibrosis) is often evident in surviving dogs. Myofibers are the site of viral replication within cells.[3] The disease may or may not be accompanied with the signs and symptoms of the intestinal form. However, this form is now rarely seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding dogs.[16] Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ... A simplified, global view of a neuromuscular junction: 1. ...


Even less frequently, the disease may also lead to a generalized infection in neonates and cause lesions and viral replication and attack in other tissues other than the gastrointestinal tissues and heart, but also brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, and adrenal cortex. The lining of the blood vessels are also severely affected, which lead the lesions in this region to hemorrhage.[3] Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ...


Signs and symptoms

Dogs that develop the disease show symptoms of the illness within 3 to 10 days. The symptoms include lethargy, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea (usually bloody). Diarrhea and vomiting result in dehydration and secondary infections can set in. Due to dehydration, the dog's electrolyte balance can become critically unbalanced. Because the normal intestinal lining is also compromised, blood and protein leak into the intestines leading to anemia and loss of protein, and endotoxins escaping into the bloodstream, causing endotoxemia. There is a distinct odor that the dogs produce, which is in the later stages of the infestation. The white blood cell level drops, further weakening the dog. Any or all of these factors can lead to shock and death.[13] Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Endotoxins are potentially toxic, natural compounds found inside pathogens such as bacteria. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made through detection of CPV in the feces by either an ELISA or hemagglutination test, or through electron microscopy. Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can sometimes be confused with the likes of coronavirus or another form of enteritis. Parvovirus, however, is more serious and the presence of bloody diarrhea, a low white blood cell count, and necrosis of the intestinal lining also point more towards parvovirus, especially in an unvaccinated dog. The cardiac form is typically easier to diagnose, such that its symptoms are highly unique.[3] Hemagglutination (also haemagglutination) is a more specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Enteritis is the inflammation of the small intestine (inflammation of the large intestine is termed colitis). ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Treatment

Survival rate depends on how quickly CPV is diagnosed and how aggressive the treatment is. Treatment for severe cases that are not caught early usually involves extensive hospitalization, due to the severe dehydration and damage to the intestines and bone marrow. A CPV test should be given as early as possible if CPV is suspected in order to begin early treatment and increase survival rate if the disease is found.


Home treatment using IV fluids is sometimes an effective option, but hospitalization may be required. Treatment ideally consists of IV fluids and colloids, antinausea injections (antiemetics) such as metoclopramide, dolasetron, ondansetron and prochlorperazine, and antibiotic injections such as cefoxitin, metronidazole, timentin, or enrofloxacin.[17] IV fluids are administered and antinausea and antibiotic injections are given subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously. The fluids are typically a mix of a sterile, balanced electrolyte solution, with an appropriate amount of B-complex vitamins, dextrose and potassium chloride. Analgesic medications such as buprenorphine are also used to counteract the intestinal discomfort caused by frequent bouts of diarrhea. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Metoclopramide (INN) (IPA: ) is a potent dopamine receptor antagonist used for its antiemetic and prokinetic properties. ... Dolasetron is a drug used to treat nausea following chemotherapy. ... Ondansetron (INN) (IPA: ) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. ... Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Second−generation cephalosporin: active against a wide spectrum of gram−negative bacteria including anaerobes (B fragilis). ... Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Ticarcillin is a carboxypenicillin. ... Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic sold by the Bayer Corporation under the trade name Baytril. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... A space-filling model of glucose Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. ...


In addition to fluids given to achieve adequate rehydration, each time the puppy vomits or has diarrhea in a significant quantity, an equal amount of fluid is administered intravenously. The fluid requirements of a patient are determined by their body weight, weight changes over time, degree of dehydration at presentation and surface area. The hydration status is originally determined by assessment of clinical factors like tacky mucous membranes, concentration of the urine, sunken eyes, poor skin elasticity and information gathered in bloodwork.


A blood plasma transfusion from a donor dog that has already survived CPV is sometimes used to provide passive immunity to the sick dog. Some veterinarians keep these dogs on site, or have frozen serum available. There have been no controlled studies regarding this treatment. [17] Additionally, fresh frozen plasma and human albumin transfusions can help replace the extreme protein losses seen in severe cases and help assure adequate tissue healing. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Once the dog can keep fluids down, the IV fluids are gradually discontinued, and very bland food slowly introduced. Oral antibiotics are administered for a number of days depending on the white blood cell count and the patient's ability to fight off secondary infection. A puppy with minimal symptoms can recover in 2 or 3 days if the IV fluids are begun as soon as symptoms are noticed and the CPV test confirms the diagnosis. However, even with hospitalization, there is no guarantee that the dog will survive.


Unconventional treatments

There is no specific antiviral treatment for CPV. However, there have been anecdotal reports of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reducing disease severity and hospitalization time in canine parvovirus infection. The drug may limit the ability of the virus to invade the crypt cells of the small intestine and decrease gastrointestinal bacteria colonization and toxin production.[18] There is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that colloidal silver is effective at treating CPV although currently regulatory authorities are discouraging its use due to potential toxicity issues and lack of demonstrated efficacy. ref (http://www.tga.gov.au/docs/html/csilver.htm) Lastly, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω), produced in silkworm larvae using a baculovirus vector, has been demonstrated by multiple studies to be an effective treatment.[19][20][21][22] Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... --210. ...


Prevention and decontamination

Prevention is the only way to ensure that a puppy or dog remains healthy since the disease is extremely virulent and contagious. It is also extremely hardy and has been found to be present in feces or other organic material such as soil even after a year, surviving even extremely cold and hot temperatures. The only household disinfectant that kills the virus is bleach.[13] Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ...


It is extremely important to vaccinate puppies and adult dogs against CPV. Weaning puppies should receive initial vaccination of a modified live virus low passage high titer vaccine by a licensed veterinarian at 8 weeks of age, then every 3 to 4 weeks until 15 or 16 weeks. Puppies are initially protected through passive immunity from nursing. These maternal antibodies wear off before the puppy's immune system is mature enough to fight off CPV infection. Maternal antibodies also interfere with vaccination for CPV and can cause vaccine failure. Thus puppies are generally vaccinated in a series of shots, extending from the earliest time that the immunity derived from the mother wears off until after that passive immunity is definitely gone.[23] Older puppies (16 weeks or older) should receive 3 vaccinations 3 to 4 weeks apart. [14] The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV has been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in the United States and has been found to be at least three years after the initial puppy series and a booster 1 year later.[24] Child receiving an oral polio vaccine. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


A dog that successfully recovers from CPV is still contagious for up to 2 months, so the dog must be kept away from other dogs and puppies. Neighbours and family members with dogs should be notified of infected animals so that they can ensure that their dogs are vaccinated and tested.[citation needed]


See also

Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus...

References

  1. ^ Carmichael L (2005). "An annotated historical account of canine parvovirus". J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 52 (7-8): 303–11. PMID 16316389. 
  2. ^ a b Carter, G.R.; Wise, D.J. (2006). Parvoviridae. A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Retrieved on 2006-06-11.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Jones, T.C.; Hunt, R.D.; King, N.W. (1997). Veterinary Pathology. Blackwell Publishing. 
  4. ^ a b Shackelton LA, Parrish CR, Truyen U, Holmes EC. (2005). "High rate of viral evolution associated with the emergence of carnivore parvovirus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2): 379-384. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406765102. PMID 15626758. 
  5. ^ Gamoh K, Senda M, Inoue Y, Itoh O (2005). "Efficacy of an inactivated feline panleucopenia virus vaccine against a canine parvovirus isolated from a domestic cat". Vet. Rec. 157 (10): 285–7. PMID 16157570. 
  6. ^ Martella V, Cavalli A, Decaro N, Elia G, Desario C, Campolo M, Bozzo G, Tarsitano E, Buonavoglia C (2005). "Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies". Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12 (10): 1243–5. doi:10.1128/CDLI.12.10.1243-1245.2005. PMID 16210491. 
  7. ^ Decaro N, Martella V, Desario C, Bellacicco A, Camero M, Manna L, d'Aloja D, Buonavoglia C (2006). "First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in pups with haemorrhagic enteritis in Spain". J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 53 (10): 468–72. PMID 17123424. 
  8. ^ ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.050.1.01. Parvovirus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA [1]
  9. ^ Truyen U (2006). "Evolution of canine parvovirus--a need for new vaccines?". Vet. Microbiol. 117 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.003. PMID 16765539. 
  10. ^ Shackelton L, Parrish C, Truyen U, Holmes E (2005). "High rate of viral evolution associated with the emergence of carnivore parvovirus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (2): 379–84. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406765102. PMID 15626758. 
  11. ^ Horiuchi M, Yamaguchi Y, Gojobori T, Mochizuki M, Nagasawa H, Toyoda Y, Ishiguro N, Shinagawa M (1998). "Differences in the evolutionary pattern of feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus". Virology 249 (2): 440–52. doi:10.1006/viro.1998.9335. PMID 9791034. 
  12. ^ Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases, Carmichael L. (Ed.) International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY (www.ivis.org), 2000; A0106.0100
  13. ^ a b c d e f Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed., W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3. 
  14. ^ a b Nelson, Richard W.;Couto, C. Guillermo (1998). Small Animal Internal Medicine, 2nd ed., Mosby. ISBN 0-8151-6351-7. 
  15. ^ Lobetti, Remo (2003). Canine Parvovirus and Distemper. Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  16. ^ a b Canine Parvovirus. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  17. ^ a b Macintire, Douglass K. (2004). Management of Severe Parvoviral Enteritis. Proceedings of the Western Veterinary Conference. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  18. ^ Macintire, Douglass K. (2006). Treatment of Parvoviral Enteritis. Proceedings of the Western Veterinary Conference. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  19. ^ Ishiwata K, Minagawa T, and Kajimoto T. (1998). "Clinical effects of the recombinant feline interferon-ω on experimental parvovirus infection in beagle dogs.". J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60 (8): 911–7. doi:10.1292/jvms.60.911. 
  20. ^ Martin V, Najbar W, Gueguen S, Grousson D, Eun HM, Lebreux B, Aubert A. (2002). "Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled challenge trial". Vet. Microbiol. 89: 115–127. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(02)00173-6. 
  21. ^ De Mari K, Maynard L, Eun HM, Lebreux, B.. "Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled field trial". Vet. Rec. 152: 105–8. 
  22. ^ Kuwabara M, Nariai , Horiuchi , Nakajima Y, Yamaguchi Y, Horioka I, Kawanabe M, Kubo Y, Yukawa M, Sakai T.. "Immunological effects of recombinant feline interferon-ω (KT80) administration in the dog.". Microbiol. Immunol. 50 (8): 637–641. 
  23. ^ Oh J, Ha G, Cho Y, Kim M, An D, Hwang K, Lim Y, Park B, Kang B, Song D (2006). "One-step immunochromatography assay kit for detecting antibodies to canine parvovirus". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13 (4): 520–4. doi:10.1128/CVI.13.4.520-524.2006. PMID 16603622. 
  24. ^ Schultz R (2006). "Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review". Vet. Microbiol. 117 (1): 75–9. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.013. PMID 16707236. 

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Trace amounts of feces containing parvovirus may serve as reservoirs of infection and the virus is readily transmitted from place to place on the hair or feet of dogs or via contaminated cages, shoes, or other objects.
Welcome to Mission MedVet (1043 words)
Parvovirus works by temporarily destroying the lining of the intestinal tract so that very little or no food or liquid can be absorbed.
Parvovirus is known clinically as canine parvovirus type 2.
Parvovirus is transmitted when a dog ingests the feces of another dog that has the infection and is shedding the virus in its feces.
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