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Encyclopedia > Candle
A close-up image of a candle showing the wick and the various parts of the flame
A close-up image of a candle showing the wick and the various parts of the flame

A candle is a light source, and sometimes a heat source, consisting of a solid block of fuel and an embedded wick. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... History of Candle Making // Who invented the candle? Candles were invented independently in many countries. ... Uses of the word candle: A candle is a source of light, typically made of wax. ... Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 530 KB)Candle wick burning. ... Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 530 KB)Candle wick burning. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... a mechanism, known as capillary action, to transport the fuel, typically melted candle wax, to the flame. ...


Prior to the mid-19th century, candles were made from tallow (a byproduct of beef-fat rendering). Nowadays, they are usually made from wax. Paraffin wax is the most common, but there are also candles made from gel, soy and beeswax. Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler. Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders, to elaborate chandeliers. Look up chandler in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chandelier in the Vice Presidents Ceremonial Office in the White House A chandelier is a ceiling-mounted fixture with two or more arms bearing lights. ...


The heat of the match used to light the candle melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel. Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a flame. This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel, the liquified fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action, and the liquified fuel is then vaporized to burn within the candle's flame. For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... Capillary Flow Experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena onboard the International Space Station Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it. ...


The burning of the fuel takes place in several distinct regions (as evidenced by the various colors that can be seen within the candle's flame). Within the bluer regions, hydrogen is being separated from the fuel and burned to form water vapor. The brighter, hotter, yellower part of the flame is the remaining carbon being oxidized to form carbon dioxide. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


As the mass of solid fuel is melted and consumed, the candle grows shorter. Portions of the wick that are not evaporating the liquid fuel are consumed in the flame, limiting the exposed length of the wick and keeping the temperature and rate of fuel consumption even. Some wicks require manual trimming with scissors or a wick trimmer for even burning. For other uses, see Scissors (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

A rectangular candle.
A rectangular candle.

In Rome, around the first century, candles were made out of tallow and the pith of rushes. The Egyptians and Cretans made the candle from beeswax, as early as 3000 BC. The early candle was made from various forms of natural fat, tallow, and wax. In the 18th century, spermaceti, oil produced by the sperm whale, was used to produce a superior candle. Late in the 18th century, colza oil and rapeseed oil came into use as much cheaper substitutes. Paraffin was first distilled in 1830, and revolutionized candle-making, as it was an inexpensive material which produced a high-quality, odorless candle that burned reasonably cleanly. The industry was devastated soon after, however, by the distillation of kerosene (confusingly also called paraffin oil or just paraffin). Recently resin based candles that are freestanding and transparent have been developed, with the claim that they burn longer than traditional paraffin candles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 60 KB)A square candle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 60 KB)A square candle. ... History of Candle Making // Who invented the candle? Candles were invented independently in many countries. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... Species see text Juncus is a genus of the Juncaceae family. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... Spermaceti (from Latin sperma, seed, and cetus, whale) is a wax present in the head cavities of the Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and in the blubber of all whales. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed whales and is the largest toothed animal alive, with adult males measuring up to 20. ... Colza oil is a non-drying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica campestris, var. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Usage

Before the advent of electricity, candles and oil lamps were used for illumination. Until the 19th century, candles were more common in northern Europe. In southern Europe and the Mediterranean, oil lamps predominated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1691x625, 271 KB) Summary Date: 13th February 2005 22:44 Camera: Panasonic DMC-FX7 Exposure: 1/8 sec. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1691x625, 271 KB) Summary Date: 13th February 2005 22:44 Camera: Panasonic DMC-FX7 Exposure: 1/8 sec. ... Birthday Cake The birthday cake has been an integral part of the birthday tradition in Western cultures since the middle of the 19th century. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Today, candles are used mainly for their aesthetic value, particularly to set a soft, warm, or romantic ambiance, and for emergency lighting during electrical power failures. Scented candle are used in aromatherapy. A power outage is the loss of the electricity supply to an area. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ...


Religion

Candles are used in the religious ceremonies of many faiths. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


Sikhism

The candle is used in Sikhism on Diwali, the festival of light. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ...


Buddhism

A very large carved Thai candle, similar to those used in the Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival
A very large carved Thai candle, similar to those used in the Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival

Candles are a traditional part of Buddhist ritual observances. Along with incense and flowers, candles (or some other type of light source, such as butter lamps) are placed before Buddhist shrines or images of the Buddha as a show of respect. They may also be accompanied by offerings of food and drink. The light of the candles is described as representing the light of the Buddha's teachings, echoing the metaphor of light used in various Buddhist scriptures.[1] See Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival for an example of a Buddhist festival that makes extensive use of candles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 1444 pixels, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A very large carved candle. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 1444 pixels, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A very large carved candle. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... A float in the parade The Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival is held in Ubon Ratchathani, Isan, Thailand, around the days of Asanha Puja (which commemorates the Buddha’s first sermon) and Wan Kao Pansa (which marks the beginning of Buddhist Lent). ...


Hinduism

In almost all Hindu homes, lamps are lit daily before the altar of the Lord. In some houses, the lamps, or candles, at dawn, and in some, twice a day - at dawn and dusk - and in a few, it is maintained continuously. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Look up Lamp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lordship redirects here. ...


A diya, or clay lamp, is frequently used in Hindu celebrations and forms an integral part in many social rites. It is a strong symbol of enlightenment and prosperity. The Indian light festival Diwali is traditionally lit up by huge numbers of Diya (plural diyas). Diya is a contracted form of deep or light given by small earthen pots (also known as Pradeep), with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee. ...


In its traditional and simplest form, the diya is made from baked clay or terracotta and holds oil or ghee that is lit via a cotton wick. Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ...


Traditional diyas have now evolved into a form wherein waxes are being used as replacements for oils.[2]


Christianity

A United States Air Force chaplain's assistant lights an altar candle with a long-handled lighter in preparation for a Christian worship service.
A United States Air Force chaplain's assistant lights an altar candle with a long-handled lighter in preparation for a Christian worship service.
Candles are sometimes burnt in churches and cathedrals as a sign of remembrance. Small donations, such as those from this candle in Helsinki Cathedral often go towards missionary work or other charities.

In Christianity the candle is commonly used in worship both for decoration and ambience, and as a symbol that represent the light of God or, specifically, the light of Christ. The altar candle is often placed on the altar, usually in pairs. Candles are also carried in processions, especially to either side of the processional cross. A Votive candle or taper may be lit as an accompaniment to prayer. Hindus putting lit candles on the river Ganges. ... USAF redirects here. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) self-made I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) self-made I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... A Cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... The Helsinki Cathedral The Helsinki Cathedral (in Finnish Helsingin tuomiokirkko) is an Evangelical Lutheran cathedral located in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Altar candles are candles set on or near altars for religious ceremonies. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ... A votive candle is a small, typically white, candle, burnt as a votive offering in a religious ceremony. ... In cymbal making, taper refers to the gradual change in thickness from the bell to the rim of the cymbal. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


Candles are lit by worshippers in front of icons in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and other churches. This is referred to as "offering a candle", because the candle is a symbol of the worshipper offering himself or herself to God (and proceeds from the sale of the candle are offerings by the faithful which go to help the church). Among the Eastern Orthodox, there are times when the entire congregation stands holding lit tapers, such as during the reading of the Matins Gospels on Good Friday, the Lamentations on Holy Saturday, funerals, Memorial services, etc. Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Offerings may refer to: The plural of Offering Offerings (VAS album), the debut album by group VAS (band) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Epitaphios may refer to: Funeral oration in Ancient Greece. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ...


In the Roman Catholic Church a liturgical candle must be made of at least 51% beeswax, the remainder may be parafin or some other substance. In the Orthodox Church, the tapers offered should be 100% beeswax, unless poverty makes this impossible. For this reason, the stumps from burned candles are usually saved and melted down to make new candles. Catholic Church redirects here. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ...


In some Western churches, a special candle known as the Paschal candle, specifically represents the Resurrected Christ and is lit only at Easter, funerals, and baptisms. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, during Bright Week (Easter Week) the priest holds a special Paschal trikirion (tripple candlestick) and the deacon holds a large candle during all of the services at which they serve. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... The Paschal Candle. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, the cycle of the moveable feast is built around Pascha, or Easter. ... This article is about religious workers. ... The Paschal Trikirion is a liturgical triple-candlestick used at Easter in the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine rite. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ...


In Sweden (and other Scandinavian countries), St. Lucia Day is celebrated on December 13 with the crowning of a young girl with a wreath of candles. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, Santa Lucia, or Saint Lukia, (traditional dates 283–304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ...

See also: Dikirion and trikirion
See also: Altar candle

Dikirion (in Greek δικήριον) and trikirion (in Greek, τριήριον ) are liturgical candlesticks, often quite ornate [1], used by a bishop of the Eastern Orthodox Church to bless the congregation. ... Altar candles are candles set on or near altars for religious ceremonies. ...

Judaism

A yahrtzeit candle, lit on the Hebrew anniversary of a loved one's death
A yahrtzeit candle, lit on the Hebrew anniversary of a loved one's death

In Judaism, a pair of candles are lit on Friday evening prior to the start of the weekly Sabbath celebration. On Saturday night, a special candle with several wicks is lit for the Havdalah ritual marking the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the new week. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ...


The eight-day holiday of Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights, is celebrated by lighting a special candelabrum or Hanukkiyah each night to commemorate the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem. Vacation redirects here. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ... A candlestick or candelabrum is a decorative holder for one or more candles, often shaped as a column or pedestal. ... Chanukkiyah (חנוכיה) A nine branched Chanukkiyah lit during Hanukkah. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


A memorial candle is lit on the Yahrtzeit, or anniversary of the death of a loved one according to the Hebrew calendar. The candle burns for 24 hours. A memorial candle is also lit on Yom HaShoah, a day of remembrance for all those who perished in the Holocaust. Bereavement in Judaism (Hebrew:  ; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious purposes. ... Yom haShoah VeHagvura or Yom HaShoah (יום השואה yom ha-sho’āh, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה-Yom ha-zikaron la-Shoah vla-Gvura), or The Remembrance day of The Holocaust and the Heroism, takes place on the 27th day of Nisan, in the Hebrew calendar. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Candles are also lit prior to the onset of the Three Festivals (Sukkot, Passover and Shavuot) and the eve of Yom Kippur. Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר , IPA: ), also known in English as the Day of Atonement, is the most solemn of the Jewish holidays. ...


A candle is also used on the night before Passover in a symbolic search for chametz, or leavened bread, which is not eaten on Passover. This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ...


Kwanzaa

The Candle is also used in celebrations of Kwanzaa, which is an African American holiday which runs from December 26 to January 1. The kinara: has three red, one black, three green. Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Vacation redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Humanism

For some Humanists the candle is used as a symbol of the light of reason or rationality. The Humanist festival of HumanLight often features a candle-lighting ceremony. This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... Official HumanLight logo Celebrant-created logo featuring alternate compounding. ...


Unitarian Universalism

A common element of worship in many Unitarian Universalist churches and fellowships is the lighting of candles of joy and concern. Here members of the congregation may come up to the altar or chancel, light a votive or other candle, and share a personal concern or joy with the community. Unitarian Universalists also incorporate candle-lighting ceremonies from other spiritual traditions, from which they draw inspiration. The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ...


Wicca

In Wicca and related forms of Neopaganism, the candle is frequently used on the altar to represent the presence of the God and Goddess, and in the four corners of a ritual circle to represent the presence of the four classical elements: Fire, Earth, Air, and Water. When used in this manner, lighting and extinguishing the candle marks the opening and closing of the ritual. The candle is also frequently used by Wiccans and other Neopagans for magical and meditative purposes. Altar candles are traditionally thick tall candles which are available in many colours. Most popular though unless at certain sabbats, are the black and white altar candles. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Water has been important to all peoples of the earth, and it is rich in spiritual tradition. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ...


Timekeeping

An Advent candle burning on the fourth day of December.
An Advent candle burning on the fourth day of December.

With the fairly consistent and measurable burning of a candle, a common use was to tell the time. The candle designed for this purpose might have time measurements, usually in hours, marked along the wax. The Sung dynasty in China (960–1279) used candle-clocks. By the 18th century, candle-clocks were being made with weights set into the sides of the candle. As the candle melted, the weights fell off and made a noise as they fell into a bowl. A form of candle-clock was used in coal-mining until the 20th century. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 94 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 94 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


In the days leading to Christmas some people burn a candle a set amount to represent each day, as marked on the candle. The type of candle used in this way is called the Advent candle, although this term is also used to refer to a candle that decorates an Advent wreath. μ This article is about the Christian season. ... Advent Wreath lit for the Second Sunday of Advent An advent wreath is a ring or set of four candles, usually made with evergreen cuttings, that is used for household devotion by Christians during the season of Advent. ...


Raqs sharqi

In raqs sharqi, candles are used as a complementary element in some dance styles. The candles can be either be held on the dancer's hand or above her head, depending on what the choreography demands. Belly dancers Belly dance is a Western name coined for a style of female dance developed in the Middle East and other Arabic-influenced areas. ...


Fuel and candle holders

The candle can be made of paraffin (a byproduct of petroleum refining), stearin (now produced almost exclusively from palm waxes), beeswax (a byproduct of honey collection), gel (a mixture of resin and mineral oil), some plant waxes (generally palm, carnauba, bayberry, or soy), or tallow (rarely used since the introduction of affordable wax alternatives). The candle is produced in various colors, shapes, sizes and scents. The most basic production method generally entails the liquification of the solid fuel by the controlled application of heat. This liquid is then poured into a mold to produce a pillar type candle, a fireproof jar to produce a candle container, or a wick is repeatedly immersed in the liquid to create a dipped taper. Often, fragrance oils are added to the liquid wax prior to pouring. Natural scents, in the form of essential oils, can also be used. The candle may also be colored by the addition of some sort of coloring agent. This is almost always an aniline-based dye, although pigments can be used in some circumstances. For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... Stearine is a glyceryl ester of stearic acid, derived from animal fats created as a byproduct of processing beef. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... Carnauba is a wax derived from the leaves of a plant native to northeastern Brazil, the carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera). ... Species About 35 species, including: Myrica adenophora Myrica californica - California Bayberry Myrica cerifera - Wax-myrtle Myrica esculenta Myrica faya - Faya Bayberry Myrica gale - Sweet Gale or Bog-myrtle Myrica hartwegii - Sierra Bayberry Myrica heterophylla Myrica holdrigeana Myrica inodora - Scentless Bayberry Myrica nana Myrica parvifolia Myrica pensylvanica - Candleberry Myrica pubescens Myrica... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Fragrance oils, also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. ...


A candle typically produces about 13 lumens of visible light and 40 watts of heat, although this can vary depending primarily on the characteristics of the candle wick. For comparison, note that a 40 watt incandescent light bulb produces approximately 500 lumens for the same amount of power. The modern SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela, was based on an older unit called the candlepower, which represented the luminous intensity emitted by a candle made to particular specifications (a "standard candle"). The modern unit is defined in a more precise and repeatable way, but was chosen such that a candle's luminous intensity is still about one candela. The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI unit of luminous flux. ... Luminous flux is a measure of the energy emitted by a light source in all directions. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... a mechanism, known as capillary action, to transport the fuel, typically melted candle wax, to the flame. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Luminous intensity is a measure of the energy emitted by a light source in a particular direction. ... Photopic (black) and scotopic [1] (green) luminosity functions. ... The candela (symbol: cd, Latin for candle) is one of the seven SI base units. ...

Floating candle
Floating candle

It is commonly believed that the candle made of beeswax burn more cleanly than petroleum based paraffin waxes. However highly-refined paraffin wax can burn as or more cleanly (with regards to particulates created during combustion) than natural waxes. The type of wick and inclusion of any scents and/or dyes have a much greater impact on the release of compounds, particulates, and smoke, regardless of the base material. The cleanest burning candle will therefore be unscented, undyed, and a well constructed candle burning in a draft free area. Furthermore, a candle will function well when formulated waxes are blended together (soy, paraffin and other waxes) and fragrance oils along with wick selections are balanced properly. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x1134, 281 KB) Summary Group of floating candles, wedding centerpiece 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x1134, 281 KB) Summary Group of floating candles, wedding centerpiece 2005. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...

This candle holder uses a spike to keep the candle up.
This candle holder uses a spike to keep the candle up.
A collection of lit wicks on ornate candlesticks
A collection of lit wicks on ornate candlesticks

A smoke film can be a concern to those who frequently burn a candle indoors and is also referred to as ghosting, carbon tracking, carbon tracing. Smoke can be produced when a candle does not burn the wax fuel completely. A scented candle can be a source of candle smoke deposits. Trimming candle wicks to about 6 millimeters (¼ in) or shorter is recommended to keep smoking at a minimum. A flickering flame will produce more smoke, therefore a candle should be burned in an area free from drafts. (See [1] for more details.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1991 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Candle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1991 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Candle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 590 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 590 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Additional debate on the use of wax in a candle exist on what is "natural". Proponents of the soy wax candle will note the material is biodegradable and "all natural". However, most soy beans that result in the ultimate manufacture of soy wax in the candle are genetically modified. Paraffin wax, as used in candle making, is also biodegradable. It also often meets the United States' Food and Drug Administration criteria for use in foods and in contact with food.


Decorative candle holders, especially those shaped as a pedestal, are called candlesticks; if multiple candle tapers are held, the term candelabrum is also used. The root form of chandelier is from the word for candle, but now usually refers to an electric fixture. The word chandelier is sometimes now used to describe a hanging fixture designed to hold multiple tapers. This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A contemporary chandelier in the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky. ...


Many candle holders use a friction-tight socket to keep the candle upright. In this case, a candle that is slightly too wide will not fit in the holder, and a candle that is slightly too narrow will wobble. Any candle that is too large can be trimmed to fit with a knife; a candle that is too small can be fitted with aluminum foil. Traditionally, the candle and candle holders were made in the same place, so they were appropriately sized, but international trade has combined the modern candle with existing holders, which makes the ill-fitting candle more common. This friction tight socket is only needed for the federals and the tapers. For tea light candles, there are a variety of candle holders, including small glass holders and elaborate multi candle stands. The same is true for votives. Wall sconces are available for tea light and votive candles. For pillar type candles, the assortment of candle holders is broad. A fireproof plate, such as a glass plate or small mirror, is a candle holder for a pillar style candle. A pedestal of any kind, with the appropriate sized fire proof top, is another option. A large glass bowl with a large flat bottom and tall mostly vertical curved sides is called a hurricane. The pillar style candle is placed at the bottom center of the hurricane. A hurricane on a pedestal is sometimes sold as a unit. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Electric candle warmers are now being sold so that candle wax can be melted to release the fragrance without requiring an open flame.


Hazards

The candle can be a major cause of dangerous fires in households. (An electric candle warmer can be used to release fragrance without the risk of an open flame.) A candle warmer is a device that melts candles by electrical power, rather than flame. ...


The liquid wax is hot and can cause skin burns, but the amount and temperature are generally rather limited and the burns are seldom serious. The best way to avoid getting burned from splashed wax is to use a candle snuffer instead of blowing on the flame. A candle snuffer is usually a small metal cup on the end of a long handle. When placed over the flame the oxygen supply is cut off. They were used daily when the candle was the main source of lighting a home, before electric lights were available. Candle snuffers are used to extinguish burning candles. ...


Glass candle holders are sometimes cracked by thermal shock from the candle flame, particularly when the candle burns down to the end.


A former worry regarding the safety of candles was that a lead core was used in the wicks to keep them upright in container candles. Without a stiff core, the wicks of a container candle could sag and drown in the deep wax pool. Concerns rose that the lead in these wicks would vaporize during the burning process, releasing lead vapors — a known health and developmental hazard. Lead core wicks have not been common since the 1970s. Imported candles may still be found to have some lead core wicks. Today, most metal-cored wicks use zinc or a zinc alloy, which has become the industry standard. Wicks made from specially treated paper and cotton are also available. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...


The hottest part of the flame is just above the very dull blue part to one side of the flame, at the base. At this point, the flame is at 1,400°C.[3]


See also

History of Candle Making // Who invented the candle? Candles were invented independently in many countries. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... The Chemical History of a Candle was the title of a series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution. ... A candle warmer is a device that melts candles by electrical power, rather than flame. ... A candle clock is a thin candle with consistently spaced markings (usually with numbers), that when burned, indicate the passage of periods of time. ... The candela (symbol: cd, Latin for candle) is one of the seven SI base units. ... Candle snuffers are used to extinguish burning candles. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... a mechanism, known as capillary action, to transport the fuel, typically melted candle wax, to the flame. ... A Rushlight is a type of candle formed using the dried pith of the rush plant as its wick. ... A tealight. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

References

For devices such as table lamps and reading lamps, see Light fixture. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Molten glassy material glows orange with incandescence in a vitrification experiment. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... A Parabolic Aluminized Reflector light, or PAR light, is a type of light commonly used in motion picture production when a substantial amount of light is required for a scene. ... Nernst lamp, complete, model B with cloche, DC-lamp 0. ... The Centennial Light hanging in the Livermore, California Firehouse. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 361 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1276 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Original at Image:Gluehlampe 01 KMJ.jpg File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Fluorescent lamps Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... Low-energy light-bulb redirects here. ... In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrodeless lamps the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro)magnetic fields. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp used in IMAX projectors High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium (Son), low-pressure sodium (Sox) and less common, xenon short-arc lamps. ... A Mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses mercury in an excited state to produce light. ... Example of a light source using a broad spectrum metal halide lamp pointing upward towards the sky. ... Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide lamps are a relativly new source of light that is a variation of the Mercury-vapor lamp. ... A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power (detail) A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... Germicidal lamps are simple low pressure mercury vapor discharges in a fused quartz envelope. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing primarily neon gas at low pressure. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Xenon flash lamp being fired. ... Note: Principles are mostly the same for cold cathode ion sources as in particle accelerators to create electrons. ... Spectrum of a fluorescent black light source. ... Typical tanning lamp with F71T12 markings. ... A 9W germicidal lamp in a modern compact fluorescent lamp form factor Close-up of the electrodes and the safety warning An EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... Dual spectrum compact fluorescent grow light. ... 15 kW Xenon short-arc lamp. ... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ... A Yablochkov candle (sometimes electric candle) is a type of electric carbon arc lamp, invented in 1876 by Pavel Yablochkov. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Lit carbide lamp A French manufactured Carbide of Calcium lamp on a bicycle Carbide of Calcium lamp in a coal mine Carbide lamps also known as Acetylene Gas lamps are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene gas (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with... The Argand lamp was invented and patented in 1780 by Aimé Argand . ... The Indian light festival Diwali is traditionally lit up by huge numbers of Diya (plural diyas). Diya is a contracted form of deep or light given by small earthen pots (also known as Pradeep), with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... Swiss kerosene lamp. ... For other uses, see Lantern (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... Safety lamp is the name of a variety of lamps for safety in coal-mines against coal dust, methane, or firedamp, a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate in them. ... A Rushlight is a type of candle formed using the dried pith of the rush plant as its wick. ... Tilley Lamp TL10 from 1922-1946 The Tilley Lamp derives from John Tilley’s invention of the hydro-pneumatic blowpipe in 1813. ... This article is about portable open fires. ... LBNL researcher examines prototype sulfur lamp. ... LED redirects here. ... LED Lamp with GU10 twist lock fitting, intended to replace halogen reflector lamps. ... Solid State Lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. ... Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp clearly showing characteristic hydrogen emission lines (sharp peaks at 656 nm and 486 nm) and continuum emission in the ~160-400 nm region. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire coated in a phosphor which glows when an AC voltage is applied to it. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ... Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which luminescence is produced in a material by the bombardment of ionizing radiation such as beta particles. ...


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