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Encyclopedia > Candide (operetta)

Candide is a comic operetta by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. It has existed in many versions but is now generally performed with a book by Hugh Wheeler. The primary lyricist was Richard Wilbur. Other contributors to the text were John Latouche, Dorothy Parker, Lillian Hellman, Stephen Sondheim, and Leonard Bernstein. Hershy Kay and John Mauceri contributed orchestrations. Comic opera is a subcategory of opera, and denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature. ... Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, pianist and conductor. ... A novella is a short novel; a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Candide, ou lOptimisme, (English: Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Hugh Wheeler (19 March 1912 - 26 July 1987), also known as Patrick Quentin, was an American playwright, librettist, poet, and translator. ... Richard Purdy Wilbur (born March 1, 1921, in New York City) is a United States poet. ... Dorothy Parker (August 22, 1893 – June 7, 1967) was an American writer and poet best known for her caustic wit, wisecracks, and sharp eye for 20th century urban foibles. ... Lillian Hellman Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was an American playwright, romantically involved for thirty years with mystery and crime writer Dashiell Hammett. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (born March 22, 1930) is an American musical theater lyricist and composer. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, pianist and conductor. ... John Mauceri, music director, producer and composer for theatre, opera and television was born in New York, 1945. ...

Candide is most famous for its colorful and varied score, many parts of which are very well known, especially in musical circles.



Candide, ou lOptimisme, (English: Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. ... In music, a tenor is a male singer with a high voice (although not as high as the modern countertenor). ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Pangloss is a character in Voltaires novel Candide. ... In music, a baritone (from Greek βαρυτονος deeply, heavily sounding) is a male voice of intermediate pitch, between bass and tenor. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Cunegonde is a fictional character in the novel Candide. ... Look up Soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alto (high or tall in Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and stop in Portuguese) may refer to: a singing voice below Soprano : see Alto (voice); a high-register musical instrument, such as the alto viola, alto saxophone (both often shortened to alt), alto horn or other; Alto, Michigan; Alto (youthculture) a youthculture... Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694—May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. ... The given name Martin is an Anglicization of the Roman name Martinus, derived from Mars, the god of war. ...

Musical Numbers

  1. Overture
  2. The Best of All Possible Worlds
  3. Oh, Happy We
  4. It Must Be So
  5. Paris Waltz
  6. Glitter and Be Gay
  7. You Were Dead, You Know
  8. My Love
  9. I'm Easily Assimilated
  10. Quartet
  11. Quiet
  12. Eldorado
  13. Bon Voyage
  14. What's the Use?
  15. Venice Gavotte
  16. Make Our Garden Grow

Glitter and Be Gay is an aria from the operetta Candide (operetta), sung by the character of Cunegonde. ... Category: ... Category: ...


Candide first opened on Broadway as a musical on December 1, 1956. It featured Robert Rounseville as Candide, a young Barbara Cook as Cunegonde, Max Adrian as Dr. Pangloss, and Irra Petina as the Old Lady. It was not a huge success by any stretch of the word; some music historians tend to put that down to the fact that New York at the time didn't want very much to do with an operetta pretending to be a musical. Others blame Hellman's overtly political and topical book, which drew parallels between the Inquisition and McCarthyism. In any case, the music became an almost instant hit in the art music world. Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. ... Musical theatre (sometimes spelled theater) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barbara Cook (b. ... Max Adrian (Max Bor) by Cecil Beaton, 1949, National Portrait Gallery Max Adrian was an acclaimed actor of the middle of the twentieth century. ... Pangloss is a character in Voltaires novel Candide. ... Actress and singer (1900 - ?). Among her Broadway credits are: Candide, Song of Norway, Anya, and Magdelena. ... Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ... McCarthyism took place during a period of intense suspicion in the United States primarily from 1950 to 1954, when the U.S. government was actively countering American Communist Party subversion, its leadership, and others suspected of being Communists or Communist sympathizers. ...

Without Bernstein's involvement, the show underwent a series of Broadway revivals under the direction of Harold Prince, previously known for, among other work, producing the first run of Fiddler on the Roof. Lillian Hellman, the author of the original book, refused to let any of her work be used in the revival, so Prince commissioned a new, one-act book from Hugh Wheeler. Lyrics were worked on by the venerable team of artists listed above. Hal Prince (born January 30, 1928), full name Harold Smith Prince, is a theatre producer and director associated with many of the best-known Broadway musical (and less notably, dramatic) productions of the past half-century. ... Fiddler on the Roof is one of the most famous stage and film musicals. ... Lillian Hellman Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was an American playwright, romantically involved for thirty years with mystery and crime writer Dashiell Hammett. ...

In response to requests from opera companies for a more legitimate version, the show was expanded based on Wheeler's book. The two-act opera house version contains most of Bernstein's music, including some songs that were not orchestrated for the original production. It was first performed by the New York City Opera in 1982 under Prince's direction, and ran for 34 performances. Since, opera companies around the world have performed this version. The production continues to be a staple of the City Opera's repertoire, with performances underway in Spring 2005. The New York City Opera (NYCO) is New York Citys second opera company (after the Metropolitan Opera). ...

In 1989, by which point Hellman had died an untimely death, Bernstein undertook a recording project that expressed his final wishes regarding Candide, incorporating what he thought were the best lyrics from all the contributors (including Hellman) and what he thought were the best portions of music. This recording incorporates a great deal of music and is generally thought to be too long to be produced theatrically.

Major Productions

A recent major production of Candide was directed by Lonny Price in a semi-staged concert production with the New York Philharmonic under Marin Alsop. It ran for four performances, May 5–8, 2004. This production was also broadcast on PBS's Great Performances. The cast featured Paul Groves as Candide, Kristin Chenoweth as Cunegonde, Sir Thomas Allen as Dr. Pangloss, Patti LuPone as the Old Lady, with choruses from both Westminster Choir College and Juilliard completing the performance cast. This production included the rarely sung duet between Cunegonde and the Old Lady, "We Are Women". The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... Marin Alsop (born October 16, 1956) is a professional musician and conductor. ... Note: Public Broadcasting Services is a broadcaster in Malta. ... Great Performances was a television series devoted to the performing arts which ran on the US television station PBS from 1972. ... Kristin Chenoweth. ... Patti LuPone in her Tony Award winning role as Eva Peron in the Broadway musical Evita. ... Westminster Choir College of Rider University is a college of music with a unique choral emphasis that educates men and women at the undergraduate and graduate levels for music leadership careers in churches, schools, performance, and management. ...

Notable Elements

Candide is most famous for its popular overture which is often performed alone as a concert piece. Overture is also a song by the rock band The Who Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ...

Final Acceptance

Despite the initial reaction, Candide has achieved an enormous popularity. It is very popular among major music schools as a student show because of its wonderful music and the spectacular opportunities it offers to talented student singers. Its overture—recognizable to those of a certain age as the theme song to the Dick Cavett show (and still used today to herald Cavett onstage during his talk-show guest-spots) —is played in concert halls all over the world on a regular basis. It is widely regarded as representative of Leonard Bernstein's finest theatrical work. Because of its sparkle, wit, breadth of emotion and musical impact, Candide is often cited as one of the best musical works for the stage to come out of the 20th century. The Overture to Candide is the overture to Leonard Bernsteins operetta Candide. ... Dick Cavett Richard Alva Cavett (born November 19, 1936) is a television talk show host known for his conversational style of in-depth and often serious issues discussion. ...

See also

20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff and the Impressionism of Claude Debussy, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete serialism of Pierre Boulez, the simple triadic harmonies of minimalist composers...


  • Leonard Bernstein, Lillian Hellman, and Richard Wilbur et al. Candide: Original Broadway Cast Recording. Columbia Soundtracks, 1957.

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Talkin' Broadway Regional News & Reviews - "Candide" in Cincinnati 11/21/01 (924 words)
Candide is a frivolous fable that follows the adventures and hardships of four youths in a long ago kingdom.
The kind and faithful bastard nobleman Candide, the vain Prince Maximilian, his sister Princess Cunegonde, who longs only to maintain her wealthy lifestyle, and the sexually liberated servant maid Paquette are taught by their "wise" instructor Dr. Pangloss that everything that happens in life is for the best.
As Candide, Nicholas Belton is a likable and believable youth who, though trying to remain true to what he has been taught, continues to question his beliefs along his journey through life.
Candide at AllExperts (405 words)
Candide, ou l'Optimisme, (English: Candide, or Optimism) (1759) is a picaresque novel by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire.
Sardonic in outlook, it follows the naïve protagonist Candide from his first exposure to the precept that "all is for the best in this, the best of all possible worlds," and on through a series of adventures that dramatically disprove that precept even as the protagonist clings to it.
In Candide, Leibniz is represented by the philosopher Pangloss, the tutor of the title character.
  More results at FactBites »



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