FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Candida albicans
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Candida albicans

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Saccharomycotina
Class: Saccharomycetes
Order: Saccharomycetales
Family: Saccharomycetaceae
Genus: Candida
Species: C. albicans
Binomial name
Candida albicans
(C.P. Robin)
Berkhout 1923
Synonyms

Candida stellatoidea [1] Image File history File links Microscopic image (200-fold magnification) of Candida albicans ATCC 10231, grown on cornmeal agar medium with 1% Tween80. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Classes Saccharomycetes Saccharomycotina is an subphylum of the phylum Ascomycota, in the kingdom Fungi. ... Orders Saccharomycetales Saccharomycetes is a class in the kingdom of fungi, and is also known as Hemiascomycetes. ... Families Ascoideaceae Cephaloascaceae Dipodascaceae Endomycetaceae Eremotheciaceae Lipomycetaceae Metschnikowiaceae Phaffomycetaceae Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomycodaceae Saccharomycopsidaceae Saccharomycetales is an order in the kingdom of fungi that comprises the budding yeasts. ... Genera Ascobotryozyma Citeromyces Debaryomyces Dekkera (Brettanomyces) Eremothecium Issatchenkia Kazachstania Kluyveromyces Kodamaea Kregervanrija Kuraishia Lachancea Lodderomyces Nakaseomyces Pachysolen Pichia (Hansenula) Saccharomyces Saturnispora Tetrapisispora Torulaspora Vanderwaltozyma Williopsis Zygosaccharomyces Saccharomycetaceae is a family of yeast in the order Saccharomycetales that reproduce by budding. ... Species Candida albicans Candida dubliniensis Candida glabrata Candida guilliermondii Candida kefyr Candida krusei Candida lusitaniae Candida milleri Candida oleophila Candida parapsilosis Candida tropicalis Candida utilis Candida is a genus of yeasts. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans.[2] [3] Systemic fungal infections (fungemias) have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients (e.g., AIDS, cancer chemotherapy, organ or bone marrow transplantation). In addition, hospital-related infections in patients not previously considered at risk (e.g. patients on an intensive care unit) have become a cause of major health concern. Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota Fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota Basidiomycotina (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... Opportunistic infections are infections in immunodeficient patients caused by pathogens which are incapable of causing infection in immunocompetent individuals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Fungemia (also called Candidemia/Candedemia and Invasive Candidiasis) is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... ... This article is about the syndrome. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...


C. albicans is among the gut flora, the many organisms that live in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Under normal circumstances, C. albicans lives in 80% of the human population with no harmful effects, although overgrowth results in candidiasis. Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-positive patients. Candidiasis also may occur in the blood and in the genital tract. Candidiasis, also known as "thrush", is a common condition that is usually easily cured in people who are not immunocompromised. To infect host tissue, the usual unicellular yeast-like form of Candida albicans reacts to environmental cues and switches into an invasive, multicellular filamentous form.[2] Gut flora, or intestinal bacteria, are the bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract and perform a number of useful functions involving digestion for their hosts. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, alimentary canal, or gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota Basidiomycotina (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ...

Contents

Genome

One of the most interesting features of the C. albicans genome is the occurrence of numeric and structural chromosomal rearrangements as means of generating genetic diversity, named chromosome length polymorphisms (contraction/expansion of repeats), reciprocal translocations, chromosome deletions and trisomy of individual chromosomes. These karyotypic alterations lead to changes in the phenotype, which is an adaptation strategy of this fungus. These mechanisms will be better understood with the complete analysis of the C. albicans genome. THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome. ... A genetic deletion is a genetic aberration in which part of a chromosome is missing. ... A trisomy means the presence of three (instead of the normal two) chromosomes of a particular numbered type in an organism. ... Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ...


The Candida albicans genome for strain SC5314 was sequenced at the Stanford DNA Sequencing and Technology Center[4][5]. The genome of the WO1 strain was sequenced by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard [1]. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment, called the DNA sequence. ... The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, formerly the Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research (WICGR), is a multidisciplinary institution dedicated to fulfilling the potential of genomics for the biomedical sciences. ...


The sequencing of the C. albicans genome and subsequently of the genomes of several other medically relevant Candida species has profoundly and irreversibly changed the way Candida species are now investigated and understood [3]. The C. albicans genome sequencing effort was launched in October 1996. Successive releases of the sequencing data and genome assemblies have marked the last 10 years, culminating with the release of the diploid assembly 19 that provided a haploid version of the genome along with data on allelic regions in the genome [3]. A refined assembly 20 with the eight assembled C. albicans chromosomes has been released in the summer of 2006. Importantly, the availability of sequencing data prior to the completion of the genome sequence has made it possible to start C. albicans post-genomics early on. In this regard, genome databases have been made available to the research community providing different forms of genome annotation. These have been merged in a community-based annotation hosted by the Candida Genome Database. The availability of the genome sequence has paved the way for the implementation of post-genomic approaches to the study of C. albicans: macroarrays and then microarrays have been developed and used to study the C. albicans transcriptome; proteomics has also been developed and complements transcriptional analyses; furthermore, systematic approaches are becoming available to study the contribution of each C. albicans gene in different contexts. Other Candida genome sequences have been, or are being, determined: C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, and C. tropicalis. These species will soon enter the post-genomic era as well and provide interesting comparative data. The genome sequences obtained for the different Candida species along with those of non-pathogenic hemiascomycetes provide a wealth of knowledge on the evolutionary processes that have shaped the hemiascomycete group as well as those that may have contributed to the success of different Candida species as pathogens[3].


The genome of C. albicans is highly dynamic and this variability has been used advantageously for molecular epidemiological studies of C. albicans and population studies in this species. A remarkable discovery that has arisen from the genome sequence is the presence of a parasexual cycle in C. albicans. This parasexual cycle is under the control of mating-type loci and switching between white and opaque phenotypes. Investigating the role that the mating process plays in the dynamics of the C. albicans population or in other aspects of C. albicans biology and pathogenicity will undoubtedly represent an important focus for future research[3].


Dimorphism

In a process that superficially resembles dimorphism, C. albicans undergoes a process called phenotypic switching, in which different cellular morphologies are generated spontaneously. One of the classically studied strains that undergoes phenotypic switching is WO-1, which consists of two phases - one that grows as smooth white colonies and one that is rod-like and grows as flat gray colonies. The other strain known to undergo switching is 3153A; this strain produces at least seven different colony morphologies. In both the WO-1 and 3153A strains, the different phases convert spontaneously to the other(s) at a low frequency. The switching is reversible, and colony type can be inherited from one generation to another. While several genes that are expressed differently in different colony morphologies have been identified, some recent efforts have focused on what might be controlling these changes. Further, whether there is a potential molecular link between dimorphism and phenotypic switching is a tantalizing question. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Phenotypic switching (a. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ...


In the 3153A strain, a gene called SIR2 (for silent information regulator) has been found that seems to be important for phenotypic switching. SIR2 was originally found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer's yeast), where it is involved in chromosomal silencing — a form of transcriptional regulation in which regions of the genome are reversibly inactivated by changes in chromatin structure (chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins that make chromosomes). In yeast, genes involved in the control of mating type are found in these silent regions, and SIR2 represses their expression by maintaining a silent-competent chromatin structure in this region. The discovery of a C. albicans SIR2 that is implicated in phenotypic switching suggests that it too has silent regions controlled by SIR2, in which the phenotype-specific genes may perhaps reside. Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Gene silencing is a general term describing epigenetic processes of gene regulation. ... Transcriptional regulation is the mechanism that coordinates the expression of DNA with the needs of various life processes such as development, gestation and metabolism. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ...


Another potential regulatory molecule is Efg1p, a transcription factor found in the WO-1 strain that regulates dimorphism, and more recently has been suggested to help regulate phenotypic switching. Efg1p is expressed only in the white and not in the gray cell-type, and overexpression of Efg1p in the gray form causes a rapid conversion to the white form. In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ...


So far there are few data that says that dimorphism and phenotypic switching use common molecular components. However, it is not inconceivable that phenotypic switching may occur in response to some change in the environment as well as being a spontaneous event. How SIR2 itself is regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae may yet provide clues as to the switching mechanisms of C. albicans. Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...


See also

Binomial name Candida utilis (Henneberg) Lodder & Kreger-van Rij Torula (Latin name: Candida utilis; formerly Torulopsis utilis, Torula utilis) is a species of yeast. ... Undecylenic Acid is an organic fatty acid derived from natural Castor oil (ricinoleic acid). ...

References

  1. ^ Candida albicans at NCBI Taxonomy browser, url accessed 2006-12-26
  2. ^ a b Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  3. ^ a b c d e dEnfert C; Hube B (editors) (2007). Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455134. 
  4. ^ Jones T, Federspiel N, Chibana H, Dungan J, Kalman S, Magee B, Newport G, Thorstenson Y, Agabian N, Magee P, Davis R, Scherer S (2004). "The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101 (19): 7329-34. PMID 15123810. 
  5. ^ Braun B, van Het Hoog M, d'Enfert C, Martchenko M, Dungan J, Kuo A, Inglis D, Uhl M, Hogues H, Berriman M, Lorenz M, Levitin A, Oberholzer U, Bachewich C, Harcus D, Marcil A, Dignard D, Iouk T, Zito R, Frangeul L, Tekaia F, Rutherford K, Wang E, Munro C, Bates S, Gow N, Hoyer L, K�hler G, Morschh�user J, Newport G, Znaidi S, Raymond M, Turcotte B, Sherlock G, Costanzo M, Ihmels J, Berman J, Sanglard D, Agabian N, Mitchell A, Johnson A, Whiteway M, Nantel A (2005). "A human-curated annotation of the Candida albicans genome". PLoS Genet 1 (1): 36-57. PMID 16103911. 

External links

  • U.S. National Institutes of Health on the Candida albicans genome
  • NIH - How Candida albicans switches phenotype
  • Candida albicans genome
  • Candida genomics

  Results from FactBites:
 
Candida albicans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (756 words)
Candida albicans, a diploid sexual fungus (a form of yeast) is the causal agent of opportunistic infections in humans, the most common being oral and vaginal infections.
One of the most interesting features of the Candida albicans genome is the occurrence of numeric and structural chromosomal rearrangements as means of generating genetic diversity, named chromosome length polymorphisms (contraction/expansion of repeats), reciprocal translocations, chromosome deletions and trisomy of individual chromosomes.
The Candida albicans genome is being sequenced at the Stanford DNA Sequencing and Technology Center.
Candida albicans - natural treatment for Thrush & Yeast Infections - Kolorex (1194 words)
Candida Albicans herbal treatment: Kolorex Intimate Care Cream is 100% natural and has a unique combination of plant extracts that are scientifically designed for the natural treatment of thrush and other candida albicans overgrowth and helps regain a healthy, balanced skin and personal flora.
Candida Albicans Yeasts (fungi) are part of a family of organisms that occur everywhere in nature.
Candida albicans is kept in balance by our so-called beneficial microflora, however this delicate balance of our skin and intimate areas may be affected by factors such as broad spectrum antibiotic treatment, use of the contraceptive pill, pregnancy, stress, alcohol, poor diet, excessive diary products, and more.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m