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Encyclopedia > Cancer research

Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience (bench research) to the performance of clinical trials to evaluate and compare applications of the various cancer treatment. These applications include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy, and combined treatment modalities such as chemo-radiotherapy. Starting in the mid-1990s, the emphasis in clinical cancer research shifted towards therapies derived from biotechnology research, such as immunotherapy and gene therapy. In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is the application of the scientific method to human health. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... In medicine, hormone therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment and covers various types of hormones including growth hormones and sex hormones. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Immunotherapy is a form of medical treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a therapeutic goal. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in particular. ...

Contents

Headline text

cure for cancer was found in 2004 in an African flower disease called contiguglius robiticus


Genes involved in cancer

As the Cancer Genome Project stated in a 2004 review article, "a central aim of cancer research has been to identify the mutated genes that are causally implicated in oncogenesis (cancer genes)."[1] The Cancer Genome Project, based at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, aims to identify sequence variants/mutations critical in the development of human cancers. ...


Several hereditary factors can increase the chance of cancer-causing mutations, including the activation of oncogenes or the inhibition of tumor suppressor genes. The functions of various onco- and tumor suppressor genes can be disrupted at different stages of tumor progression. Mutations in such genes can be used to classify the malignancy of a tumor. An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ...


In later stages, tumors can develop a resistance to cancer treatment. The identification of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is important to understand tumor progression and treatment success.


Genes and protein products that have been identified by at least two independent publications as being involved in cancer are: ABI1, ABL2, ACSL6, AF1Q, AF5Q31 (also known as MCEF), AKT1, ARNT, ASPSCR1, ATF1, ATIC, BCL10, BFHD, BIRC3, BMPR1A, BTG1, CBFA2T1, CBFA2T3, CBFB, CCND1, CDC2, CDK4, CHIC2, CHN1, COPEB, COX6C, CTNNB1, CYLD, DDB2, DDIT3, DEK, EIF4A2, EPS15, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC5, ERG, ETV4, ETV6, EWSR1, EXT1, EXT2, FANCC, FANCG, FGFR1OP, FGFR3, FH, FIP1L1, FUS, GAS7, GATA1, GMPS, GOLGA5, GPC, GPHN, HIST1H4I, HRAS, HSPCA, IL21R, IRF4, KRAS2, LASP1, LCP1, LHFP, LMO2, LYL1, MADH4, MLF1, MLH1, MLLT3, MLLT6, MNAT1, MSF, MSH2, MSN, MUTYH, MYC, NCOA4, NF2, NPM1, NRAS, PAX8, PCBD, PDGFB, PIM1, PLK2, PNUTL1, POU2F1, PPARG, PRCC, PRKACB, PRKAR1A, PTEN, PTPN11, RABEP1, RAD51L1, RAP1GDS1, RARA, RB1, RET, RHOH, RPL22, SBDS, SDHB, SEPTIN6, SET, SH3GL1, SS18L1, SSX1, SSX2, SSX4, STAT3, TAF15, TCF12, TCL1A, TFE3, TFEB, TFG, TFPT, TFRC, TNFRSF6, TP53, TPM3, TPM4, TRIP11, VHL, WAS, WT1, ZNF198, ZNF278, ZNF384, ZNFN1A1 based on a study by M. R Straton and co-workers " A census of human cancer genes". MCEF or Major Cdk9-interacting elongation factor is a transcription factor related to Af4. ... Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB) is an important molecule in mammalian cellular signaling. ... Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors are single pass, type I transmembrane proteins. ... Cyclins are a family of proteins involved in the progression of cells through the cell cycle. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase is a protein kinase involved in regulation of the cell cycle. ... Catenins are cadherin-binding molecules in mammalian cells. ... ERCC2, or XPD can be regarded as a nucleotide excision repair protein as well. ... In biology, histones are the chief proteins of chromatin. ... HRAS is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in cell division. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... c-Myc is a mammalian transcription factor belonging to the bHLH (basic Helix Loop Helix)_Leucine Zipper family. ... PPAR gamma In cell biology, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor isoforms that exist across biology. ... PTEN structure (PDB entry 1D5R visualized using PyMOL). ... RB1 (retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma)) is a human gene that belongs to a class of genes known as tumor suppressor genes. ... SDHB stands for succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B. It is involved in the oxidation of succinate (succinate + ubiquinone = fumarate + ubiquinol) and carries electrons from FADH to CoQ. It is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits. ... STAT protein The Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription (STAT) protein regulates many aspects of cell growth, survival and differentiation. ... TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene that is named after, and provides instructions for making, a protein called tumor protein 53 (TP53). ... Wilms tumor is a neoplasm of the kidneys that typically occurs in children. ...


Dichloroacetate

In January 2007 researchers of the University of Alberta reported preliminary results of dichloroacetate (DCA) causing regression in several cancers in vitro, including lung, breast and brain tumors.[2] Since the compound DCA itself cannot be patented it could be an inexpensive alternative to other treatments, depending of course on whether the method of using DCA in the treatment of cancer is patentable. Clinical use of DCA will of course require further public/private investment for clinical trials.[3] The initial research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.[4] The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Related Compounds Related chloroacetic acids Chloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic acid Related compounds Acetic acid Difluoroacetic acid Dibromoacetic acid Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Dichloroacetic acid (systematic name dichloroethanoic acid, also... Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. ...


See also

The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is an organization based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that focuses on aspects of cancer research. ... Cancer Research is a scientific journal published by the American Association for Cancer Research. ... The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research is a global non-profit medical research institute that undertakes clinical research into cancer and early-phase clinical trials. ... UD Agent The United Devices Cancer Research Project, is one of several distributed computing projects that have been operated on the website by United Devices. ... NCI-designated Cancer Centers are a group of approximately 60 cancer research institutions in the United States supported by the National Cancer Institute. ... The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City is a cancer treatment and research institution founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. ... E-Foundation for Cancer Research is online and non-profit foundation for cancer research. ...

References

  1. ^ Futreal PA, Coin L, Marshall M, Down T, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Rahman, N, Stratton MR (2004). "A census of human cancer genes". Nature Reviews Cancer 4: 177-83. PMID 14993899. 
  2. ^ Alberta scientists test chemotherapy alternative. Last Updated Wednesday, January 17, 2007
  3. ^ Cheap, safe drug kills most cancers. New Scientist (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 2007 January 17.
  4. ^ University of Alberta - Small molecule offers big hope against cancer. January 16, 2007

A cover of Nature Reviews Cancer Nature Reviews Cancer is a highly respected cancer biology journal with a very high Impact Factor of 36. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cancer Research Institute: Advancing Immunology. Conquering Cancer. (1087 words)
The Cancer Research Institute is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization founded in 1953 to foster the science of cancer immunology, which is based on the premise that the body's immune system can be mobilized against cancer.
Learn about the Cancer Research Institute's morning lecture series, Breakthroughs at Breakfast, where guest scientists talk to CRI friends and guests about their remarkable advances in developing new ways to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer.
The Cancer Research Institute, Inc. (CRI) and The Irvington Institute for Immunological Research (Irvington Institute), two leading private immunological research funding organizations headquartered in New York City, have announced today their intention to merge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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