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Encyclopedia > Cancer of the larynx
Cancer of the larynx
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ICD-10 C32
ICD-O: {{{ICDO}}}
ICD-9 161
OMIM

{{{OMIM}}} The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ...

MedlinePlus {{{MedlinePlus}}}
eMedicine {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTopic}}}
DiseasesDB {{{DiseasesDB}}}

Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. Cancer can develop in any part of the larynx. Most laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the squamous cells which form the majority of the laryngeal epithelium. For the purposes of tumour staging, the larynx is divided into three anatomical regions: the glottis (true vocal cords, anterior and posterior commissures); the supraglottis (epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds, and false cords); the subglottis. MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... The larynx (plural larynges), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... In medicine, squamous cell carcinoma is a form of cancer of the carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, the esophagus, the lungs, and the cervix. ... Squamous cells are basically types of cells which can be identified histologically by the fact that they look flattened and thin under a microscope. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... A cross-section view of the human throat. ... The arytenoid cartilages are three-sided pyramids which form part of the larynx and allow the vocal cords to be tensed, relaxed, or approximated. ...


Most laryngeal cancers originate in the glottis. Supraglottic cancers are less common, and subglottic tumours are least frequent. The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ...


Laryngeal cancer may spread, either by direct extension to adjacent structures, by metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes or more distantly, to the lung in particular. Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Structure of the lymph node. ...

Contents


Risk Factors

In the Western world, smoking is the most important risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Heavy chronic consumption of alcohol, particularly alcoholic spirits is also significant. When combined, these two factors appear to have a synergistic effect. Some other quoted risk factors are likely, in part, to be related to prolonged alcohol and tobacco consumption. These include low socioeconomic status, male sex, and age greater than 55 years.


People with a previous history of head and neck cancer are known to be at much higher risk (about 25%) of developing a second cancer of the head and neck, or lung cancer (about 10%.)This is mainly because in a significant proportion of these patients, the aerodigestive tract and lung epithelium have been exposed chronically to the carcinogenic effects to alcohol and tobacco. In this situation, a field change effect may occur, where the epithelial tissues start to become diffusely dysplastic with a reduced threshold for malignant change. This risk may be reduced by quitting alcohol and tobacco.


Symptoms

The symptoms of cancer of the larynx depend mainly on the size of the tumor and where it is in the larynx. Symptoms may include the following:

Needless to say, these symptoms are not specific for cancer. Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. ... A sore throat, otherwise known as pharyngitis, is a painful inflammation of the throat. ... A cough is a sudden, often repetitive, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. ... Stridor is a high pitched sound heard on inspiration that is indicative of airway obstruction. ... Halitosis, breath odour, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odours exhaled in breathing. ... Otalgia is ear pain or an earache. ...


Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made by the doctor on the basis of a careful medical history, physical examination, and special investigations which may include Chest X-Ray, CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy. The examination of the throat requires some expertise, which may require specialist referral. Medical history can either refer to the History of medicine personal (case) medical history: anamnesis medical history of a family: Family history (medicine) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Chest X-ray A chest X-ray is a radiological film obtained by X-ray taken of the thorax which is used to diagnose problems with that area. ... CT or ct may stand for: carat (ct) centimes (ct) computed tomography (e. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ...


The physical exam includes a systematic examination of the whole patient to assess general health, to look for signs of associated conditions and metastatic disease. The neck and supraclavicular fossa are palpated to feel for cervical adenopathy, other masses, and laryngeal crepitus. The oral cavity and oropharynx are examined under direct vision. The larynx may be examined by Indirect laryngoscopy using a small angled mirror with a long handle (akin to a dentist's mirror) and a strong light. Indirect laryngoscopy can be highly effective, but requires skill and practice for consistent results. For this reason, many specialist clinics now use fibre-optic Nasal endoscopy where a thin and flexible endoscope, inserted through the nostril, is used to clearly visualise the entire pharynx and larynx. Nasal endoscopy is a quick and easy procedure, performed in clinic. Local anaesthetic spray may be used. In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Endoscopy means looking inside and refers to looking inside the human body for medical reasons. ...


If there is a suspicion of cancer, biopsy is usually performed under general anesthetic. This provides definitive histological proof of cancer type and grade. If the lesion appears to be small and well localised, the surgeon may undertake excision biopsy, where an attempt is made to completely remove the tumour at the time of first biopsy. In this situation, the pathologist will not only be able to confirm the diagnosis, but can also comment on the completeness of excision i.e. whether the tumour has been completely removed. A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


For small glottic tumours further imaging may be unnecessary. In most cases, tumour staging is completed by scanning the head and neck region to accurately assess the local extent of the tumour and any pathologically enlarged cervical lymph nodes. The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ...


The final management plan will depend on the specific site, stage (tumour size, nodal spread, distant metastasis) and histological type. The overall health and wishes of the patient must also be taken into account.


Treatment

Specific treatment depends on the location, type, and stage of the tumour. Treatment may involve surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, alone or in combination. This is a specialised area which requires the coordinated expertise of dedicated ear nose and throat (ENT) surgeons (otolaryngologists) and oncologists. An Ash Ent in the Lord of the Rings movie series Ents are a fictional race from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ...


External links

  • Staging cancer of the larynx
Tumors (and related structures), Cancer, and Oncology
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant

Topography: Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum - Duodenum - Endometrium - Esophagus - Eye - Gallbladder - Head/Neck - Liver - Larynx - Lung - Mouth - Pancreas - Penis - Prostate - Kidney - Ovaries - Skin - Stomach - Testicles - Thyroid Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Cystoscopic view of a papillary bladder tumor (top); the bladder wall is visible on the bottom right Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either normally found in the brain itself: neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Duodenal cancer is a cancer in the beginning section of the small intestine. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... Bold textA more uncommon cancer predominate in females, if found early on before symptoms, can be cured by removing Gallbladder, most often it is found after symptoms occur (abdominal pain, Jaundice) and has spread to other organs such as liver and the outlook at this point is poor. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths located in the oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and lymph nodes of the upper neck. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or liver cancer) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. ... Oral cancer involves abnormal, cancer tissue growth in the mouth. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is represented by the growth of a malignant tumour within the small pancreas organ. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by the eponym Grawitz tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... In medicine (dermatology), there are several different types of cancer referred to under the general label of skin cancer. ... In medicine, stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...


Morphology: Papilloma/carcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/fibrosarcoma - Lipoma/liposarcoma - Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma - Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma - Mesothelioma - Angioma/angiosarcoma - Osteoma/osteosarcoma - Chondroma/chondrosarcoma - Glioma - Lymphoma/leukemia Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Skin cancer, close-up of level IV melanoma Melanoma is a malignant tumour of melanocytes . ... Fibroma. ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... A lipoma is a benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ... A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of muscle. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells arise from skeletal muscle. ... Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... An osteoma is a new piece of bone growing on another piece, typically the skull. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... Chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, encapsulated, with a lobular growing pattern. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Lymphoma is a general term for a variety of cancer that begins in the lymphatic system. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


Treatment: Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy - Immunotherapy - Experimental cancer treatment Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Related structures: Cyst - Dysplasia - Hamartoma - Neoplasia - Nodule - Polyp - Pseudocyst This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Dysplasia is a situation where cells have changed from their original mature differentiated type into another mature differentiated cell type as an adaptive response to exposure to chronic irritation, or to a pathogen or carcinogen. ... A hamartoma is an abnormal growth of normal cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... A pseudocyst is a pathological collection of fluid. ...


Misc: Tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes - Staging/grading - Carcinogenesis/metastasis - Carcinogen - Research - Paraneoplastic phenomenon - ICD-O - List of oncology-related terms A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand the development of cancer and identify potential therapies. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Asbestos Larynx Cancer - Malignant Mesothelioma Information (736 words)
Aside from the development of larynx cancer, the study is also focused on cancer of the upper-throat and esophageal cancer, in addition to a possible connection between asbestos exposure and colorectal/stomach cancer.
Cancer of the larynx, often referred to as larynx cancer, laryngeal cancer or laryngeal carcinoma, can develop in any part of the body’s “voicebox.” The larynx encases and protects the vocal cords and is situated in the upper-throat alongside the trachea and esophagus.
As the larynx is home to the vocal cords, the most common presenting symptom of laryngeal cancer is chronic hoarseness or the feeling of having a sore throat.
Cancer of the larynx - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (826 words)
For the purposes of tumour staging, the larynx is divided into three anatomical regions: the glottis (true vocal cords, anterior and posterior commissures); the supraglottis (epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds, and false cords); the subglottis.
The symptoms of cancer of the larynx depend mainly on the size of the tumor and where it is in the larynx.
The larynx may be examined by Indirect laryngoscopy using a small angled mirror with a long handle (akin to a dentist's mirror) and a strong light.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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