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Encyclopedia > Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (-mab) to specifically target cells. The main premise is stimulating the patient's immune system to attack the malignant tumor cells and the prevention of tumor growth by blocking specific cell receptors. However variations exist within this treatment, e.g.radioimmunotherapy (radioactive dose directly to the target cell) and Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (lethal chemical dose to the target). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) utilizes an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell (1). ... Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed as Mylotarg) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia. ...


The immune system responds to the environmental factors it encounters on the basis of discrimination between self and non-self. Tumor cells are not specifically targeted by ones immune system since the tumor cells present are the patient's own cells. In spite of this fact, however, tumor cells are highly abnormal, and many display unusual antigens that are either innapropriate for the cell type and/or its environment, or are only normally present during the organisms' development (e.g. fetal antigens). Examples of such antigens include the glycosphingolipid GD2, a disialoganglioside that is normally only expressed at a significant level on the outer surface membranes of neuronal cells, where its exposure to the immune system is limited by the blood-brain barrier. GD2 is expressed on the surfaces of a wide range of tumor cells including neuroblastoma, medulloblastomas, astrocytomas, melanomas, small-cell lung cancer, osteosarcomas and other soft tissue sarcomas. GD2 is thus a convenient tumor-specific target for immunotherapies. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... Fetus at eight weeks For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... Glycosphingolipids are a subtype of glycolipids containing the amino alcohol sphingosine. ... GD2 is a disialoganglioside expressed on tumors of neuroectodermal origin, including human neuroblastoma and melanoma, with highly restricted expression on normal tissues, principally to the cerebellum and peripheral nerves in humans. ... Ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into brain tumor. ... Astrocytomas are primary intracranial tumors derived from astrocytes cells of the brain. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and, less frequently, of retinal pigment epithelial cells (of the eye, see uveal melanoma). ... Small cell carcinoma is a type of carcinoma usually associated with the lung, though it can be associated with other topographies, such as in cervical cancer. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ...


Other kinds of tumor cells display cell surface receptors that are rare or absent on the surfaces of healthy cells, and which are responsible for activating cellular signaling pathways that cause the unregulated growth and division of the tumor cell. Examples include ErbB2, a constitutively active cell surface receptor that is produced at abnormally high levels on the surface of appromimately 30% of breast cancer tumor cells. Such breast cancer is known a HER2 positive breast cancer, and is treated with Herceptin. In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Full name: v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene located at the long arm of human chromosome 17. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... HER2/neu (also known as ErbB-2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and is notable for its role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and as a target of treatment. ... Herceptin (or Trastuzumab) is an anti-cancer therapy that acts on the erbB2 receptor. ...


Antibodies are a key component of the adaptive immune response, playing a central role in both in the recognition of foreign antigens and the stimulation of an immune response to them. The advent of monoclonal antibody technology has made it possible to raise antibodies against specific antigens such as the unusual antigens that are presented on the surfaces of tumors. Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody or immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ...


A number of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been approved for use in humans; approvals mentioned here are by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[1] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

this therapeutic consists of the antibody conjugated to the cytotoxic compound calicheamicin
this is a radioimmunotherapeutic consisting of the antibody conjugated to yttrium-90 or indium-111

Contents

Rituximab, sold under the trade names Rituxan® and MabThera®, is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of B cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma and some autoimmune disorders. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer arising from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. ... Herceptin Logo Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is an anti-cancer therapy that acts on the HER2/neu (erbB2) receptor. ... Full name: v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene located at the long arm of human chromosome 17. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed as Mylotarg) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. ... Alemtuzumab (marketed as Campath or Campath-1H) is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and T-cell lymphoma. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (or chronic lymphoid leukemia) CLL, is a cancer in which too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) are produced. ... Ibritumomab tiuxetan, also sold under the trade name Zevalin® is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for some forms of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, a myeloproliferative disorder of the lymphatic system. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer arising from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 114. ... Cetuximab (Erbitux®) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody given by intravenous injection for treatment of colorectal cancer. ... GOD DAMN IT WHY DOES IT KEEP SAYINBG I HAVE PRIVATE MESSAGES!!! I DIDNnT DO ANY FUCKING THING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is an anti-angiogenesis drug used in treatment of cancer. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF is an important signal protein involved in angiogenesis. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...

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Origins

Immunotherapy of cancers developed as a technique with the advent of the elucidation of the structure of antibodies and the development of hybridoma technology, which provided the first reliable source of monoclonal antibodies (1). These advances allowed for the specific targeting of cellular entities both in vitro and in vivo. Initial research on malignant neoplasms found most success with haematological malignancies, however these were limited and generally short-lived (2,3). Furthermore treatment had to be tailored specifically for each individual patient, as these treatments were based upon anti-idiotype antibodies; thus proving to be impracticable in the routine clinical setting. These failures were mainly due to the fact that initial therapeutic antibodies were simple murine analogues. It has been shown that these antibodies have a short half-life in vivo, have limited penetration into tumour sites, are internalised by tumour cells; that they inadequately recruit host effector functions and are neutralised by human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) (4). Also, it has been shown that initial antibody production levels were difficult to quantify and there was an absence of highly specific tumour antigens with which to target (4). To overcome these difficulties and to allow the use of antibodies as a therapeutic agent of choice, the technical issues initially experienced had to be surpassed. Modern therapeutic antibodies have generally replaced murine antibodies with chimeric and humanized antibodies; where recombinant DNA technology, using transgenic mice and phage display, has played an enormous role, and has succeeded hybridoma technology (5). Also, the increase in our understanding of proteomics has proven essential in identifying novel tumour targets. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Monoclonal antibodies. ... Recombinant DNA technology adds/replaces DNA in an organism resulting in the recipient organism containing exogenous DNA. Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Phage display is a test to screen for protein interactions by integrating multiple genes from a gene bank into phages. ... ECAN Genesis 2000 robot preparing Ciphergen SELDI-TOF protein chips for proteomic pattern analysis. ...


The first FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal antibody was the murine IgG2a CD3 specific transplant rejection drug Muromonab (OKT-3), in 1986. This drug found use in solid organ transplant recipients who became corticosteroid resistant, however it led to the eventual development of HAMA in 85% of patients (6). It was not until 1994 that another therapeutic antibody (Abciximab) received FDA-approval, and not again until 1997 when there were two approved (including Rituximab). In 1998, Trastuzumab obtained FDA-approval alongside three other therapies. Since 2000 there have been ten FDA-approved therapies. This totals eighteen FDA-approved therapies, most of which are concerned with immunological and oncological targets (7). Currently there are more than 150 therapies in clinical trials (7). The vast majority of monoclonal therapies, whether in clinical use or in development, are IgG1 in nature. In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ...

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Structure and function of human and therapeutic antibodies

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in antibody dependent cell cytotoxity. They are large heterodimer molecules, approximately 150 kDa and are composed of two different kinds of polypeptide chain. These chains are called the heavy (~50kDa) and the light chain (~25kDa). There are two types of light chains, kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). The distinctive functional properties of individual antibodies are conferred by the carboxy-terminal part of the heavy chain. By cleavage with papain, the fragment antigen binding (Fab) part can be separated from the fragment crystalline (Fc) part of the molecule. The Fab fragments contain the variable domains, which consist of three hypervariable amino acid domains responsible for the antibody specificity embedded into constant regions. There are four known IgG subclasses [1-4](8). Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Papain is a protease enzyme (EC 3. ... Hypervariable sequence A segment of a chromosome characterised by considerable variation in the number of tandem repeats at one or more loci From: http://courses. ...


Throughout the progression of monoclonal drug development there have been four major antibody types developed: murine, chimeric, humanised and human. Initial murine antibodies were obtained by hybridoma technology and were unaltered monoclonal mouse anti-human antibodies. However the dissimilarity between murine and human immune systems led to the clinical failure of these antibodies, except in some specific indications. Major problems associated with murine antibodies included the host development of HAMA and the production of antibody-HAMA complexes after repeated administration, which caused mild allergic reactions to anaphylactic shock (4). Also with murine antibodies it has been shown that, due to the mouse Fc portion structure, complement mediated cytotoxicity is greatly reduced (4,9). Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ...


To reduce murine antibody immunogenicity, murine molecules were engineered to remove immunogenic content and to increase their immunologic efficiency (4). This was initially achieved by the production of chimeric and humanized antibodies. Chimeric antibodies are murine variable regions fused onto human constant regions. Human gene sequences were taken from the kappa light chain and the IgG1 heavy chain and this resulted in antibodies approximately 65% human. This resulted in reduced immunogenicity, and thus increased the serum half-life. Humanised antibodies were produced by grafting murine hypervariable amino acid domains into human antibodies. This resulted in a molecule of approximately 95% human origin. However it has been shown in several studies that humanised antibodies bind antigen much more weakly than the parent murine monoclonal antibody (10-14), with reports of decreases in affinity up to several hundredfold (12,13). Chothia and co-workers showed that increases in antibody-antigen binding strength could be achieved by introducing mutations into the complementarity determining regions (CDR) (15). This is achieved by employing techniques such as chain-shuffling, randomization of complementarity determining regions (CDR) and generation of antibody libraries with mutations within the variable regions by error-prone PCR, and E-coli mutator strains or site-specific mutagenesis (16-24). Human monoclonal antibodies are produced by the use of transgenic mice or phage display libraries. One of the first transgenic mice to be commercially available was the HuMab MouseTM (Medarex, Inc. New Jersey, USA). With transgenic mice human monoclonal antibodies are produced by transferring human immunoglobulin genes into the murine genome, after which the transgenic mouse is vaccinated against the immunoglobulin leading to the production of monoclonal antibodies (5, 25). Phage display libraries allow the transformation of murine antibodies in vitro into fully human antibodies, as described by McCafferty et al (26). Human antibodies in late-stage clinical trials include Adalimumab (treatment of rheumatoid arthritis) and Efalizumab (treatment of psoriasis). This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Monoclonal antibodies. ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ... On the left: nucleotides that forms the DNA and their complementary. ... Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid. ...

[edit]

Trastuzumab

Trastuzumab (Herceptin®, Genentech Inc., CA, USA) is a monoclonal IgG1 humanized antibody specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein (HER2, HER2/neu, c-erbB-2). It received FDA-approval in 1998, and is clinically indicated for the treatment of breast cancer. The use of Trastuzumab is restricted to patients whose tumours over-express HER-2. As shown by Slamon and co-workers, HER-2 overexpression is present in 25-30% of breast carcinomas (27). HER-2 overexpression is most commonly due to the amplification of the v-erb-b2 (erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 2) gene (28), which is located on chromosome 17 (17q11.2-q12) (29). HER-2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of transmembrane tyrosine kinases. It is normally involved in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation (30). Amplification or overexpression of HER-2 has been associated with aggressive tumour phenotype, poor prognosis, non-responsiveness to hormonal therapy and reduced sensitivity to convention chemotherapeutic agents (31-35). Within the HER-2 overexpressed tumour subpopulation, phosphorylated HER-2 (p185 HER-2) and p95HER-2 have been associated with a worse prognosis (36-38). Herceptin Logo Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is an anti-cancer therapy that acts on the HER2/neu (erbB2) receptor. ... GOD DAMN IT WHY DOES IT KEEP SAYINBG I HAVE PRIVATE MESSAGES!!! I DIDNnT DO ANY FUCKING THING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... HER2/neu (also known as ErbB-2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and is notable for its role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and as a target of treatment. ... Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase, see there for the principles of protein phosphorylation A tyrosine kinase (EC 2. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Differentiation can mean the following: In biology: cellular differentiation; evolutionary differentiation; In mathematics: see: derivative In cosmogony: planetary differentiation Differentiation (geology); Differentiation (logic); Differentiation (marketing). ... ... This article needs cleanup. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule or the introduction of a phosphate group into an organic molecule. ...

  • Predicting response to therapy

The initiation of Herceptin therapy is based upon the identification of HER-2 overexpression. Various methodologies have been developed to identify overexpression of HER-2. In the routine clinical laboratory, the most commonly employed methods are immunohistochemistry (IHC) and either chromogenic or fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (CISH/FISH). In addition numerous PCR-based methodologies have also been described. A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Immunohistochemistry is the process of detection of antigens in tissue using antibodies. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Routine HER-2 status is performed by IHC, and there are currently two FDA-approved commercial kits available; Dako Herceptest tm and the Ventana Pathway tm. These are highly standardised, quantitative assays which stratify expression levels into; 0 (<20,000 receptors per cell, no visible expression), 1+ (~100,000 receptors per cell, partial membrane staining, < 10% of cells overexpressing HER-2), 2+ (~500,000 receptors per cell, light to moderate complete membrane staining, > 10% of cells overexpressing HER-2), and 3+ (~2,000,000 receptors per cell, strong complete membrane staining, > 10% of cells overexpressing HER-2). The presence of cytoplasmic expression is disregarded (38). Treatment with Herceptin is indicated in cases where HER-2 expression has a score of 3+. However, IHC has been shown to have numerous limitations, both technical and interpretative, which have been found to impact on the reproducibility and accuracy of results, especially when compared with ISH methodologies (39-47). It is also true, however, that some reports have stated that IHC provides excellent correlation between gene copy number and protein expression (48). FISH is viewed as being the “gold standard” technique in identifying patients who would benefit from Herceptin. It is, however expensive, and requires a fluorescent microscope and an image capture system. The main expense involved with CISH is in the purchase of FDA-approved kits, and as it is not a fluorescent technique it does not require specialist microscopy and slides may be kept permanently. Comparative studies between CISH and FISH have shown that these two techniques show excellent correlation (49-54). The lack of a separate chromosome 17 probe on the same section is an issue with regards to acceptance of CISH.


Currently the recommended assays are a combination of IHC and FISH, whereby IHC scores of 0 and 1+ are negative, scores of 3+ are positive, and scores of 2+ and 2+/3+ are refereed to FISH for definitive diagnosis (55).

  • Trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent

It has been shown, in both in vitro and in vivo studies, that Trastuzumab inhibits HER-2 overexpressed human tumour cell proliferation and is a potent mediator of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) (56-62).

  • Single agent therapy

Trastuzumab is approved as a second-line treatment option for advanced metastatic disease. This approval was made on the results of a large multinational study. In 1999, Cobleigh and co-workers, published results which correlated with previous small-scale studies (63). In this study, patients were treated with trastuzumab single-agent therapy with 4 mg/kg bodyweight, followed by weekly doses of 2 mg/kg. Overall response rate was 15% complete response (CR) 4%, partial response (PR) 11%] with a median duration of response of 9.1 months.


The use of trastuzumab as a first-line single agent treatment of metastatic breast cancer, administering standard (4mg/kg initial dose, followed by 2mg/kg weekly) and double dose (8mg/kg initial dose, followed by 4mg/kg weekly), found that results compared with those obtained in second-line treatment trials (CR in 6 patients (5.3%) PR in 20 patients (18%), overall response rate of 23%), however no increase in efficacy was noted between standard and increased doses (64). Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...

  • Trastuzumab/ conventional chemotherapeutic combination

Several studies have been published and are currently underway in examining the role of trastuzumab in adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast carcinoma. In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ...


Data from cell cultures suggest synergistic relationship between trastuzumab and a range of chemotherapeutic agents including vinorelbine, docetaxel, cisplatin and etoposide. Increases in cytotoxic effects were seen in combinations of trastuzumab with epirubicin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, methotrexate and vinblastine (4,65). Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when growing cells in a synthetic environment. ... Vinorelbine (Navelbine) is a chemotherapy drug that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer including breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. ... Docetaxel chemical structure Docetaxel is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Cisplatin or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Etoposide: chemical structure Etoposide phosphate (Eposin®, Etopophos®, Vepesid®, VP-16®) is an inhibitor of the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for malignancies such as lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being poisonous to cells. ... Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy. ... Doxorubicin or adriamycin is a DNA-interacting drug widely used in chemotherapy. ... Paclitaxel (Taxol®) is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Methotrexate (rINN) (IPA: ), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite drug used in treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. ... Vinblastine is a drug used to treat certain kinds of cancer, including Hodgkins lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer or testicular cancer. ...


In a randomised trail of 469 patients, combinations of trastuzumab and chemotherapy were “associated with a longer time to disease progression (median, 7.4 vs. 4.6 months; P<0.001), a higher rate of objective response (50 percent vs. 32 percent, [[P<0.001]]), a longer duration of response (median, 9.1 vs. 6.1 months; P<0.001), a lower rate of death at 1 year (22 percent vs. 33 percent, P=0.008), longer survival (median survival, 25.1 vs. 20.3 months; P=0.01), and a 20 percent reduction in the risk of death” (66). Recently two articles have been published on the role of trastuzumab following surgical resection of early-stage breast cancer and neo-adjunctive or adjuvant chemotherapy regimes. Romond and Perez compared adjuvant chemotherapy with and without accompanying trastuzumab treatment, and concluded that trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel after doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide improved outcomes with surgically removed HER-2 positive breast cancers (67). Piccart-Gebhart and co-workers compared the effect of one or two years of trastuzumab given every three weeks to patients who had completed regional therapy and at least four cycles of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy through a large international, multicentre, randomized trial. This study involved 5081 women and concluded that “one year of treatment with trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival among women with HER2-positive breast cancer” (68). Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ...


Cardiac toxicity has been found as a significant, although easily managed, side-effect of trastuzumab treatment, especially in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, with up to 27% of a group given anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and trastuzumab presented with cardiac dysfunction (66). Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart muscle damage. ...

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Rituximab

Rituximab (Rituxantm, Genentech Inc.) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for CD20. The use of CD20 as a target for therapeutic antibodies is an example of how increased knowledge of cellular components and their expression has benefited patients. CD20 is widely expressed on B-cells, it does not shed, modulate or internalise. Although the function of CD20 is relatively unknown it has been indicated that CD20 could play a role in Ca2+ influx across plasma membranes, maintaining intracellular Ca2+ concentration and allowing activation of B cells (69). Also, apart from the Fc portion mediated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-mediated cytotoxicity; the exact mode of action of rituximab is unclear, but it has been found to have a general regulatory effect on the cell cycle, and to increase MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen) (70), elicit shedding of CD23 (71), down regulate the B-cell receptor (72), and induce apoptosis (73-75). Rituximab, sold under the trade names Rituxan® and MabThera®, is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of B cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma and some autoimmune disorders. ... CD20 is a non-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all mature B-cells. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycleor the daughter cyles (CDC), is the series of events in a eukaryotic cell between one hundred cell division and the next. ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large genomic region or gene family found in most vertebrates. ... CD23 or Fc epsilon RII is the low affinty receptor for IgE, an antibody isotype involved in allergy and (arguably) resistance to parasites and is important in regulation of IgE levels. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ...

  • Rituximab in lymphoma treatment

The first published paper on the in vivo effects of anti-CD20 antibodies emerged in 1994 (76). Experiments involving primates showed that treatment with anti-CD20 reduced peripheral B-cells by 98%, and peripheral lymph node and bone marrow B-cells by up to 95%. From these results the potential of rituximab was evident and within three years it received FDA-approval. Structure of the lymph node. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...


Initially trials focused upon patients with refractory low-grade lymphoma (77-79). Rituximab was found to produce a 48% overall response rate (6% complete responses) in a group of 166 patients, with a median response duration of 12 months (79). It was found that patients with follicular centre cell lymphoma were especially responsive (60% response rate). Treatment induced toxicity was generally mild. The skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity. ...


In patients who initially responded to rituximab therapy, but whose tumour progressed, retreatment with rituximab produced a response rate of 40%, with a median duration of 16 months (80).

  • Rituximab in first line therapy

In a retrospective study it was found that higher response rates were obtained in patients who received fewer previous chemotherapeutic courses, with response rates occurring in 57% of patients who received only one regime, versus 38% in those who received three or more (79).


Subsequent trials on previously untreated patients have correlated well with the initial study of McLaughlin and co-workers. Hainsworth and co-workers reported, with a four week treatment regime, a response rate of 54% and a further 36% of patients had stable disease. Retreatment increased the response rate to 72% (18% complete response). The progression-free survival was 77% at one year (81).

  • Rituximab and chemotherapy combination

In vitro studies have indicated that rituximab can sensitize malignant cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy agents (82,83). See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Trials of rituximab and chemotherapeutic combinations have been very successful. The most studied regime combinations involve those with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydoxorubicin, oncovin and prednisone) and chemotherapy containing purine analogues such as fludarabine. Initial studies reported that co-treatment of rituximab and CHOP to patients with follicular lymphoma increased the response rate (55% CR, 40% PR) (84). Median time to disease progression was 82.3 months (85). Further studies reported even better results when fludarabine was also administered, in which case the CR rate rose to 80% (86). The word chop can refer to: Look up Chop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary To (verb chop) by striking. ... Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Cytoxan, Neosar) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... Doxorubicin or adriamycin or hydroxyldaunorubicin is a DNA-interacting drug widely used in chemotherapy. ... Vincristine (Oncovin®) is an alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally and can be used for a large number of different conditions. ... Fludarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in the firstline treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common of the indolent non-Hodgkins lymphomas. ...

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Radioimmunotherapy

Radioimmunotherapy involves the use of radioactively conjugated murine antibodies against cellular antigens. Most research currently involved their application to lymphomas, as these are highly radio-sensitive malignancies. To limit radiation exposure, murine antibodies were especially chosen, as their high immunogenicity promotes rapid clearance from the body. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) utilizes an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell (1). ... Lymphoma is a general term for cancers that develop in the lymphatic system. ...

  • 90Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan

Ibritumomab is a murine antibody chemically linked to tiuxetan, which chelates 90Y, and received FDA-approval in 2002. 90Y is a beta radiator, has a half-life of 64 h and a tissue penetration of 1-5mm. Its use has been investigated, primarily in the treatment of follicular lymphoma. Ibritumomab Tiuxetan , also sold under the trade name Zevalin® is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for some forms of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, a myeloproliferative disorder of the lymphatic system. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


Current trials focus on the use of 90Y-ibritumomab after rituximab/ CHOP therapy. In one phase II trial, 33 patients were enrolled, and prior to 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, 96% of patients had objective responses, following 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan 86% of patients had a CR (87).

  • 131I-tositumomab

Tositumomab is a murine IgG2a anti-CD20 antibody and is covalently bound to 131I. This treatment received FDA-approval in 2003. 131I emits both beta and gamma irradiation, and because it is broken down rapidly in the body it may pose a radiation risk to health-care workers and patients families. However, basic precautions reduce any possible risks (88). Clinical trials have established the efficacy of 131I-tositumomab in patients with relapsed or chemotherapy/rituxan refractory follicular lymphoma. The most recently published trial involved previously untreated patients with advanced-stage follicular B-cell lymphoma. 95% percent of patients had a radiologically confirmed response, and 75% had a complete response. In patients who had a CR, 80% also had complete molecular responses, by PCR detection of the BCL2 gene (89). A relapse occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. ...

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Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab is an anti-CD52 humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of chronic lymphatic leukaemia refractory to fludarabine, and received FDA-approval in 2001. The function of CD52 is unknown, but is found on >95% of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Upon binding to CD-52, alemtuzumab initiates its cytotoxic effect by complement fixation and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanisms. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most frequent form of leukaemia in Western countries, and although somewhat responsive to standard chemotherapy, few complete remissions occur (90). Alemtuzumab (marketed as Campath or Campath-1H) is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and T-cell lymphoma. ... Fludarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in the firstline treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or CLL, is a cancer in which too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) are produced. ...


The efficacy of Alemtuzumab, in relation to CLL, was examined in a phase II trial in which 50 patients were treated. Complete responses in the bone marrow were seen in 32% of patients and 90% of patients showed rapid elimination of malignant cells from peripheral blood. However only in 5% of patients was lymphadenopathy normalised (91). Furthermore, toxicity was significant and all patients suffered from severe lymphopenia, leading to severe infection and death in some cases. Subsequent trials reported similar results (92,93). Alemtuzumab therapy is also indicated for T-prolymphocytic leukaemia (TPPL), for which no standard treatment exists. This is a highly aggressive tumour, with a median survival of 7.5 months. In a preliminary study, a complete response of 60% was reported versus 12% for conventional chemotherapy (94). Lymphadenopathy is swelling of one or more lymph nodes. ... Lymphopenia is the condition in which there exists an abnormally low number of lymphocytes in the blood. ...


In a retrospective study of 76 patients with T-PLL treated with alemtuzumab, an overall response rate of 51% with 40% complete responses was reported (95).

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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is an immunoconjugate of an anti-CD33 antibody chemically linked to calicheamicin, a cytotoxic agent. It is indicated for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and received FDA-approval in 2000. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed as Mylotarg) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. ...


The patient group most likely to benefit from gemtuzumab is young adults. Trials have reported high complete responses (85%), when combined with intensive chemotherapy (96-98). As a single agent in age unbiased studies, complete remission is achieved in 15% of patients in their first AML relapse, and a complete response in 30% (99). There are minimal side-effects associated with Gemtuzumab therapy.

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Cetuximab

Cetuximab is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It functions by competitively inhibiting ligand binding, thereby preventing EGFR activation. It received FDA-approval in 2004, and is indicated for the treatment of colorectal cancer in combination with irinotecan in patients refractory to irinotecan chemotherapy or as single agent treatment in patients intolerant to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Studies have also been carried out on numerous other malignancies, especially non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer. Cetuximab (Erbitux®) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody given by intravenous injection for treatment of colorectal cancer. ... GOD DAMN IT WHY DOES IT KEEP SAYINBG I HAVE PRIVATE MESSAGES!!! I DIDNnT DO ANY FUCKING THING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Irinotecan is a chemotherapy agent that is a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ...


Pre-approval trials reported modest response rates. As a single agent, cetuximab showed a response rate of 10.8% in patients with EGFR overexpressed metastatic colon cancer. In combination with irinotecan the response rate rose to 22.9% (100).


Overexpression of EGFR was seen as the basis of cetuximab therapy; however no trials have reported any correlation between expression levels and clinical response (101-103). With a significant number of EGFR negative patients achieving major objective responses. This has prompted some trials to recruit EGFR negative patients.


Other anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in development include: ABX-EGF, hR3, and EMD 72000. Although they hold significant promise for the future, as of yet none of the agents are currently beyond phase I human trials.

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Bevacizumab

Bevacizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody which binds to and sterically interferes with the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), thereby preventing receptor activation. The rationale behind VEGF inhibition is its marked increase in expression and its role in tumour angiogenesis. It received FDA-approval in 2004 and is indicated for colon cancer; but has been applied to numerous other cancers in small scale studies, especially renal cell carcinoma. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is an anti-angiogenesis drug used in treatment of cancer. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF is an important signal protein involved in angiogenesis. ... Receptor may refer to: In telecommunication, a receiver. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF is an important signal protein involved in angiogenesis. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ...


In a large randomised trial, the effect of bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy agents in previously untreated individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer was examined. Results obtained showed that bevacizumab increased the duration of survival, progression-free survival, the rate of response and the duration of response in a statistically relevant manner. It concluded that “the addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer” (104). Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true, but is not improbable if the null hypothesis is false. ...

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Novel therapies

  • Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT)

ADEPT involves the application of cancer associated monoclonal antibodies which are linked to a drug-activating enzyme. Subsequent systemic administration of a non-toxic prodrug results in its conversion to a toxic drug, and resulting in a cytotoxic effect which can be targeted at malignant cells. A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) which is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. ...


The clinical success of ADEPT treatments has been limited to date (105,106). However is does hold great promise, and recent reports suggest that it will have a role in future oncological treatment algorithms.

  • Drug and Gene therapy: Immunoliposomes:

Immunoliposomes are antibody-conjugated liposomes. Liposomes can carry drugs or therapeutic nucleotides and when conjugated with monoclonal antibodies, may be directed against malignant cells. Although this technique is still in its infancy and will remain confined to the laboratory for the foreseeable future, significant advances have been made. Immunoliposomes have been successfully used in vivo to achieve targeted delivery of tumour-suppressing genes into tumours, by using an antibody fragment against the human transferrin receptor (107). Tissue-specific gene delivery using immunoliposomes has also been achieved in brain, and breast cancer tissue (108,109). A liposome is a spherical vesicle with a membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer used to deliver drugs or genetic material into a cell. ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ...

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109. Krauss WC, Park JW, Kirpotin DB, Hong K, Benz CC. Emerging antibody-based HER2 (ErbB-2/neu) therapeutics. Breast Dis 2000; 11: 113-124.

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See also

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5T4 is an antigen expressed in a number of carcinomas (oncofetal antigen or oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein). ... Immunotherapy is a form of medical treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a therapeutic goal. ...

References

  1.   Waldmann, Thomas A. (2003). "Immunotherapy: past, present and future". Nature Medicine 9: 269–277.
Tumors (and related structures), Cancer, and Oncology edit
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant

Topography: Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum - Duodenum - Endometrium - Esophagus - Eye - Gallbladder - Head/Neck - Liver - Larynx - Lung - Mouth - Pancreas - Penis - Prostate - Kidney - Ovaries - Skin - Stomach - Testicles - Thyroid Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either found in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... Bold textA more uncommon cancer predominate in females, if found early on before symptoms, can be cured by removing Gallbladder, most often it is found after symptoms occur (abdominal pain, Jaundice) and has spread to other organs such as liver and the outlook at this point is poor. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or liver cancer) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is a malignant tumour within the pancreatic gland. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin, which can have many causes, including repeated severe sunburn or long-term exposure to the sun. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs, particularly the esophagus, small intestine. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...


Morphology: Papilloma/carcinoma - Choriocarcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/fibrosarcoma - Metastasis - Lipoma/liposarcoma - Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma - Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma - Mesothelioma - Angioma/angiosarcoma - Osteoma/osteosarcoma - Chondroma/chondrosarcoma - Glioma - Lymphoma/leukemia Papilloma refers to a benign epithelial tumor. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Choriocarcinoma is a rare cancer of the placenta, curable by chemotherapy. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and, less frequently, of retinal pigment epithelial cells (of the eye, see uveal melanoma). ... Soft Fibroma (fibroma molle). ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... A lipoma is a common, benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ... A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of muscle. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells arise from skeletal muscle. ... Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... An osteoma is a new piece of bone growing on another piece, typically the skull. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Leukemia (or leukaemia; see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


Treatment: Surgery - Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy - Immunotherapy - Experimental cancer treatment Intraoperative X-Ray of a Humerus fixated by Kirschner wires Surgery (from the Greek meaning hand work) is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Related structures: Cyst - Dysplasia - Hamartoma - Neoplasia - Nodule - Polyp - Pseudocyst This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Dysplasia (latin for bad form) is an abnormality in the appearance of cells indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia. ... A hamartoma is an abnormal growth of normal cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... A pseudocyst is a pathological collection of fluid. ...


Misc: Tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes - Staging/grading - Carcinogenesis/metastasis - Carcinogen - Research - Paraneoplastic phenomenon - ICD-O - List of oncology-related terms A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand the development of cancer and identify potential therapies. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Immunotherapy Cancer Treatment (1257 words)
One immediate goal of research in cancer immunology is the development of methods to harness and enhance the body's natural tendency to defend itself against malignant tumors.
Immunotherapy seems to offer great promise as a new dimension in cancer treatment, but it is still very much in its infancy.
Immunotherapy of cancer began about one hundred years ago when Dr. William Coley, at the Sloan-Kettering Institute, showed that he could control the growth of come cancers and cure a few advanced cancers with injections of a mixed vaccine of streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria known as Coley's toxin.
CancerNetwork: (7985 words)
Thus, BCG immunotherapy is remarkably effective in transitional-cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra, producing a complete response rate similar to that reported in the bladder, but does not appear to reduce the occurrence of upper tract tumors.
In patients given interleukin-2 immunotherapy, serum vitamin C levels were depressed to undetectable levels in 12 of 15 patients [38],and 60% of patients were found to be hypovitaminemic for vitamin A, 80% for beta-carotene, 90% for vitamin B6, and 45% for folate [39].
Immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer and CIS is clearly a valuable adjunct to local surgical resection, and has revolutionized the care of patients with this disease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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