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Encyclopedia > Cancer
Cancer
Classification & external resources
When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. Cancer cells avoid apoptosis and continue to multiply in an unregulated manner
DiseasesDB 28843
MedlinePlus 001289
MeSH C04

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). Cancer may affect people at all ages, but risk tends to increase with age. It is one of the principal causes of death in developed countries. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... This list shows causes of human deaths, worldwide, for a single year (2002) arranged by the associated mortality rate. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


There are many types of cancer. Severity of symptoms depends on the site and character of the malignancy and whether there is metastasis. A definitive diagnosis usually requires the histologic examination of tissue by a pathologist. This tissue is obtained by biopsy or surgery. Most cancers can be treated and some cured, depending on the specific type, location, and stage. Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As research develops, treatments are becoming more specific for the type of cancer pathology. Drugs that target specific cancers already exist for several types of cancer. If untreated, cancers may eventually cause illness and death, though this is not always the case. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The unregulated growth that characterizes cancer is caused by damage to DNA, resulting in mutations to genes that encode for proteins controlling cell division. Many mutation events may be required to transform a normal cell into a malignant cell. These mutations can be caused by radiation, chemicals or physical agents that cause cancer, which are called carcinogens, or by certain viruses that can insert their DNA into the human genome. Mutations occur spontaneously, and may be passed down from one cell generation to the next as a result of mutations within germ lines. However, some carcinogens also appear to work through non-mutagenic pathways that affect the level of transcription of certain genes without causing genetic mutation. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ...


Many forms of cancer are associated with exposure to environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, radiation, alcohol, and certain viruses. Some risk factors can be avoided or reduced. In epidemiology, environmental factors are those determinants of disease that are not transmitted genetically. ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ...

Contents

History

Today, the Greek term carcinoma is the medical term for a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells. It is Celsus who translated carcinos into the Latin cancer, also meaning crab. Galen used "oncos" to describe all tumours, the root for the modern word oncology.[1] In medicine, carcinoma apanting dog named rufis It is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium, an animal anatomical structure. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Galen (Greek: Γαληνός, Galinos; Latin: Claudius Galenus; AD 129 –c. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ...

Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name.
Breast cancer in a mastectomy specimen (top). The cancerous tumour (pale yellow) resembles the figure of a crab, giving the disease its name.

Hippocrates described several kinds of cancers. He called benign tumours oncos, Greek for swelling, and malignant tumours carcinos, Greek for crab or crayfish. This name probably comes from the appearance of the cut surface of a solid malignant tumour, with a roundish hard center surrounded by pointy projections, vaguely resembling the shape of a crab (see photo). He later added the suffix -oma, Greek for swelling, giving the name carcinoma. Since it was against Greek tradition to open the body, Hippocrates only described and made drawings of outwardly visible tumors on the skin, nose, and breasts. Treatment was based on the humor theory of four bodily fluids (black and yellow bile, blood, and phlegm). According to the patient's humor, treatment consisted of diet, blood-letting, and/or laxatives. Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body, but humor-theory based treatment remained popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (414x618, 339 KB) Summary Top photo taken by emmanuelm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (414x618, 339 KB) Summary Top photo taken by emmanuelm. ... Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (c. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish or crawdad, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... The humor theory or humour theory was a theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


Though treatment remained the same, in the 16th and 17th centuries it became more acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death. The German professor Wilhelm Fabry believed that breast cancer was caused by a milk clot in a mammary duct. The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius, a follower of Descartes, believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes, and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer. His contemporary Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads, and concluded that it was contagious.[2] Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... Wilhelm Fabry (also William Fabry, Guilelmus Fabricius Hildanus, or Fabricius von Hilden) (June 25, 1560 in Hilden-1634). ... Franciscus Sylvius (1614-1672), also known as Franz De Le Boe, was physician and scientist (chemist, physiologist and anatomist). ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


With the widespread use of the microscope in the 18th century, it was discovered that the 'cancer poison' spread from the primary tumor through the lymph nodes to other sites ("metastasis"). The use of surgery to treat cancer had poor results due to problems with hygiene. The renowned Scottish surgeon Alexander Monro saw only 2 breast tumor patients out of 60 surviving surgery for two years. In the 19th century, asepsis improved surgical hygiene and as the survival statistics went up, surgical removal of the tumor became the primary treatment for cancer. With the exception of William Coley who in the late 1800s felt that the rate of cure after surgery had been higher before asepsis (and who injected bacteria into tumors with mixed results), cancer treatment became dependent on the individual art of the surgeon at removing a tumor. During the same period, the idea that the body was made up of various tissues, that in turn were made up of millions of cells, laid rest the humor-theories about chemical imbalances in the body. The age of cellular pathology was born. Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Three generations of distinguished Scots physicians — grandfather, father, and son — were all called Alexander Monro. ... Asepsis is the practice to reduce or eliminate contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) from entering the operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection. ... William Coley was a cancer researcher who developed a treatment based on provoking an immune response to bacteria. ... Cellular pathology is the branch of general pathology studying the cellular basis of disease. ...


When Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discovered radiation at the end of the 19th century, they stumbled upon the first effective non-surgical cancer treatment. With radiation came also the first signs of multi-disciplinary approaches to cancer treatment. The surgeon was no longer operating in isolation, but worked together with hospital radiologists to help patients. The complications in communication this brought, along with the necessity of the patient's treatment in a hospital facility rather than at home, also created a parallel process of compiling patient data into hospital files, which in turn led to the first statistical patient studies. Maria Skłodowska-Curie (born Maria Skłodowska; known in France, where she lived most of her life, as Marie Curie, aka Madame Curie; Warsaw, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934, Sancellemoz, France) was a Polish-French physicist and chemist. ... // Pierre Curie (Paris, France, May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ...


Cancer patient treatment and studies were restricted to individual physicians' practices until World War II, when medical research centers discovered that there were large international differences in disease incidence. This insight drove national public health bodies to make it possible to compile health data across practises and hospitals, a process that many countries do today. The Japanese medical community observed that the bone marrow of bomb victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was completely destroyed. They concluded that diseased bone marrow could also be destroyed with radiation, and this led to the discovery of bone marrow transplants for leukemia. Since WWII, trends in cancer treatment are to improve on a micro-level the existing treatment methods, standardize them, and globalize them as a way to find cures through epidemiology and international partnerships. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In optics one considers angles of incidence. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ...


Nomenclature and classification

The following closely related terms may be used to designate abnormal growths:

  • Neoplasia and neoplasm are the scientific designations for cancerous diseases. This group contains a large number of different diseases. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant.
  • Cancer is a widely used word that is usually understood as synonymous with malignant neoplasm. It is occasionally used instead of carcinoma, a sub-group of malignant neoplasms. Because of its overwhelming popularity relative to 'neoplasia', it is used frequently instead of 'neoplasia', even by scientists and physicians, especially when discussing neoplastic diseases as a group.
  • Tumor in medical language simply means swelling or lump, either neoplastic, inflammatory or other. In common language, however, it is synonymous with 'neoplasm', either benign or malignant. This is inaccurate since some neoplasms do not usually form tumors, for example leukemia or carcinoma in situ.
  • Paraneoplasia is a disturbance associated with a neoplasm but not related to the invasion of the primary or a secondary (metastatic) tumour. Disturbances can be hormonal, neurological, hematological, biochemical or otherwise clinical.

Cancers are classified by the type of cell that resembles the tumor and, therefore, the tissue presumed to be the origin of the tumor. The following general categories are usually accepted: Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... In medicine, carcinoma apanting dog named rufis It is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ...

Malignant tumors are usually named using the Latin or Greek root of the organ as a prefix and the above category name as the suffix. For instance, a malignant tumor of liver cells is called hepatocarcinoma; a malignant tumor of the fat cells is called liposarcoma. For common cancers, the English organ name is used. For instance, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast or mammary ductal carcinoma. Here, the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of the cancer under the microscope, resembling normal breast ducts. In medicine, carcinoma apanting dog named rufis It is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium, an animal anatomical structure. ... A pregnant womans breasts. ... The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... For the article about the punctuation symbol, see Colon (punctuation). ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracal cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity) and pericardium (heart sac). ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Germinomas are neoplasia (commonly referred to as cancers or tumors) which most closely resemble germ line cells. ... The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Choriocarcinoma is a rare cancer of the placenta, curable by chemotherapy. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Benign tumors are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For instance, a benign tumor of the smooth muscle of the uterus is called leiomyoma (the common name of this frequent tumor is fibroid).


Adult cancers

In the USA and other developed countries, cancer is presently responsible for about 25% of all deaths.[3] On a yearly basis, 0.5% of the population is diagnosed with cancer.


The statistics below are for adults in the United States, and will vary substantially in other countries:

Male Female
most common cause of death[3] most common cause of death[3]
prostate cancer (33%) lung cancer (31%) breast cancer (32%) lung cancer (27%)
lung cancer (13%) prostate cancer (10%) lung cancer (12%) breast cancer (15%)
colorectal cancer (10%) colorectal cancer (10%) colorectal cancer (11%) colorectal cancer (10%)
bladder cancer (7%) pancreatic cancer (5%) endometrial cancer (6%) ovarian cancer (6%)
cutaneous melanoma (5%) leukemia (4%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4%) pancreatic cancer (6%)

Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is a malignant tumour within the pancreatic gland. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer arising from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. ...

Childhood cancers

Cancer can also occur in young children and adolescents, but it is rare. Some studies have concluded that pediatric cancers, especially leukemia, are on an upward trend.[4][5]


The age of peak incidence of cancer in children occurs during the first year of life. Leukemia (usually ALL) is the most common infant malignancy (30%), followed by the central nervous system cancers and neuroblastoma. The remainder consists of Wilms' tumor, lymphomas, rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from muscle), retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.[3] Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells, characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant and immature white blood cells (referred to as lymphoblasts) in the bone marrow. ... Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in infancy and childhood. ... Wilms tumor is a neoplasm of the kidneys that typically occurs in children. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells are thought to arise from skeletal muscle progenitors. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ...


Female and male infants have essentially the same overall cancer incidence rates, but white infants have substantially higher cancer rates than black infants for most cancer types. Relative survival for infants is very good for neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor and retinoblastoma, and fairly good (80%) for leukemia, but not for most other types of cancer. Wilms tumor is a neoplasm of the kidneys that typically occurs in children. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ...


Causes and pathophysiology

Main article: Carcinogenesis

Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ...

Origins of cancer

Cell division or cell proliferation is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under many circumstances. Normally the balance between proliferation and programmed cell death is tightly regulated to ensure the integrity of organs and tissues. Mutations in DNA that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to either a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body or invade other tissues, and they are rarely a threat to life unless they extrinsically compress vital structures. Malignant tumors can invade other organs, spread to distant locations (metastasize) and become life-threatening. Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


A few types of cancer in non-humans have been found to be contagious ("parasitic cancer"), such as Sticker's sarcoma, which affects dogs. The closest known analog to this in humans is individuals who have "caught cancer" from tumors hiding inside organ transplants.[6] A parasitic cancer or transmittable cancer is a cancer cell or cluster of cancer cells that can be transmitted from animal to animal. ... Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), also called transmissible venereal tumor (TVT), Sticker tumor and infectious sarcoma is a tumor of the dog and other canids that mainly affects the external genitalia, and is transmitted from animal to animal during copulation. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ...


Molecular biology

Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.

Carcinogenesis, which means the initiation or generation of cancer, is the process of derangement of the rate of cell division due to damage to DNA. Cancer is, ultimately, a disease of genes. In order for cells to start dividing uncontrollably, genes which regulate cell growth must be damaged. Proto-oncogenes are genes which promote cell growth and mitosis, a process of cell division, and tumor suppressor genes discourage cell growth, or temporarily halt cell division in order to carry out DNA repair. Typically, a series of several mutations to these genes are required before a normal cell transforms into a cancer cell. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ...


Proto-oncogenes promote cell growth through a variety of ways. Many can produce hormones, a "chemical messenger" between cells which encourage mitosis, the effect of which depends on the signal transduction of the receiving tissue or cells. Some are responsible for the signal transduction system and signal receptors in cells and tissues themselves, thus controlling the sensitivity to such hormones. They often produce mitogens, or are involved in transcription of DNA in protein synthesis, which creates the proteins and enzymes responsible for producing the products and biochemicals cells use and interact with. Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... A mitogen is a substance that causes a cell to begin dividing. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ...


Mutations in proto-oncogenes can modify their expression and function, increasing the amount or activity of the product protein. When this happens, they become oncogenes, and thus cells have a higher chance to divide excessively and uncontrollably. The chance of cancer cannot be reduced by removing proto-oncogenes from the genome as they are critical for growth, repair and homeostasis of the body. It is only when they become mutated that the signals for growth become excessive. Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... It has been suggested that Reactive homeostasis be merged into this article or section. ...


Tumor suppressor genes code for anti-proliferation signals and proteins that suppress mitosis and cell growth. Generally tumor suppressors are transcription factors that are activated by cellular stress or DNA damage. Often DNA damage will cause the presence of free-floating genetic material as well as other signs, and will trigger enzymes and pathways which lead to the activation of tumor suppressor genes. The functions of such genes is to arrest the progression of cell cycle in order to carry out DNA repair, preventing mutations from being passed on to daughter cells. Canonical tumor suppressors include the p53 protein, which is a transcription factor activated by many cellular stressors including hypoxia and ultraviolet radiation damage. In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Despite nearly half of all cancers possibly involving alterations in p53, its tumor suppressor function is poorly understood. It is clear it has two functions: one a nuclear role as a transcription factor, and the other a cytoplasmic role in cell cycle and division regulation and apoptosis. TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ...


The Warburg effect is the preferential use of glycolysis for energy to sustain cancer growth. p53 has been shown to regulate the shift from the respiratory to the glycolytic pathway. Synthesis of Cytochrome c Oxidase 2 (SCO2) has been recognized as the downstream mediator of this effect. SCO2 is critical for regulating the cytochrome c oxidase complex within the mitochondria, and p53 can disrupt the SCO2 gene. P53 regulation of SCO2 and mitochondrial respiration may provide a possible explanation for the Warburg effect.[7] The Warburg effect is the inhibition of carbon dioxide fixation, and subsequently photosynthesis, by high oxygen concentrations. ...


However, a mutation can damage the tumor suppressor gene itself, or the signal pathway which activates it, "switching it off". The invariable consequence of this is that DNA repair is hindered or inhibited: DNA damage accumulates without repair, inevitably leading to cancer.


In general, mutations in both types of genes are required for cancer to occur. For example, a mutation limited to one oncogene would be suppressed by normal mitosis control and tumor suppressor genes, which was first hypothesised as the Knudson hypothesis. A mutation to only one tumor suppressor gene would not cause cancer either, due to the presence of many "backup" genes that duplicate its functions. It is only when enough proto-oncogenes have mutated into oncogenes, and enough tumor suppressor genes deactivated or damaged, that the signals for cell growth overwhelm the signals to regulate it, that cell growth quickly spirals out of control. Often, because these genes regulate the processes that prevent most damage to genes themselves, the rate of mutations increase as one gets older, because DNA damage forms a feedback loop. Knudson’s two hit model has recently been challenged by several investigators. Inactivation of one allele of some tumor suppressor genes is sufficient to cause tumors. This phenomenon is called haploinsufficiency and has been demonstrated by a number of experimental approaches. Tumors caused by haploinsufficiency usually have a later age of onset when compared with those by a two hit process.[8] Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Knudson hypothesis is the hypothesis that cancer is the result of accumulated mutations to a cells DNA. It was first proposed by Carl O. Nordling in 1953, [1][2] and later formulated by Alfred G. Knudson in 1971. ... In information technology, backup refers to the copying of data so that these additional copies may be restored after a data loss event. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ... Haploinsufficiency occurs when a diploid organism only has a single copy of a wild-type gene, with the other copy being inactivated by hereditary mutation or another mechanism. ...


Usually, oncogenes are dominant, as they contain gain-of-function mutations, while mutated tumor suppressors are recessive, as they contain loss-of-function mutations. Each cell has two copies of the same gene, one from each parent, and under most cases gain of function mutation in one copy of a particular proto-oncogene is enough to make that gene a true oncogene, while usually loss of function mutation needs to happen in both copies of a tumor suppressor gene to render that gene completely non-functional. However, cases exist in which one loss of function copy of a tumor suppressor gene can render the other copy non-functional. This phenomenon is called the dominant negative effect and is observed in many p53 mutations. In genetics, the term dominant gene refers to the allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. ... A gain-of-function mutation is a mutation in DNA that causes the gene to be modified such that the gene product gas a new and abnormal function. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... A loss-of-function mutation is a mutation in the coding sequence of a gene, which causes the function of the gene product, usually a protein to be either reduced or completely absent. ...


Mutation of tumor suppressor genes that are passed on to the next generation of not merely cells, but their offspring can cause increased likelihoods for cancers to be inherited. Members of these families have increased incidence and decreased latency of multiple tumors. The mode of inheritance of mutant tumor suppressors is that an affected member inherits a defective copy from one parent, and a normal copy from the other. Because mutations in tumor suppressor genes act in a recessive manner (although there are exceptions), the loss of the normal copy creates the cancer phenotype. For instance, individuals who are heterozygous for p53 mutations are often victims of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and those who are heterozygous for Rb mutations develop retinoblastoma. Similarly, mutations in the APC gene are linked to adenopolyposis colon cancer, with thousands of polyps in colon while young, while mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 lead to early onset of breast cancer. In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... An organism is a heterozygote or heterozygous for a gene or trait if it has different alleles at the genes locus for each homologous chromosome. ... Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disorder. ... The Retinoblastoma protein, or pRb, is a tumor suppressor protein found to be dysfunctional in a number of types of cancer. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... BRCA 1 (named for breast cancer 1) is a human gene located on the long arm of the 17th chromosome (17q21). ... BRCA2 refers to either a gene (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 2, located on human chromosome 13, 13q12-13) or the protein coded for by that gene. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Cancer pathology is ultimately due to the accumulation of DNA mutations that negatively effect expression of tumour suppressor proteins or positively effect the expression of proteins that drive the cell cycle. Substances that cause these mutations are known as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are known as carcinogens. Particular substances have been linked to specific types of cancer. Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer. Prolonged exposure to radiation, particularly ultraviolet radiation from the sun, leads to melanoma and other skin malignancies. Breathing asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma. In more general terms, chemicals called mutagens and free radicals are known to cause mutations. Other types of mutations can be caused by chronic inflammation, as neutrophil granulocytes secrete free radicals that damage DNA. Chromosomal translocations, such as the Philadelphia chromosome, are a special type of mutation that involve exchanges between different chromosomes. The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek : a, not and sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the Innate immune system and as healthy nor unhealthy on its own: Inflammation helps fight disease, but it comes at the cost of suspending the bodys normal immune and catabolic... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome. ... Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific genetic, chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and involves an exchange of material between chromosomes 9 and 22. ...


Many mutagens are also carcinogens, but some carcinogens are not mutagens. Examples of carcinogens that are not mutagens include alcohol and estrogen. These are thought to promote cancers through their stimulating effect on the rate of cell mitosis. Faster rates of mitosis increasingly leave less opportunities for repair enzymes to repair damaged DNA during DNA replication, increasing the likelihood of a genetic mistake. A mistake made during mitosis can lead to the daughter cells receiving the wrong number of chromosomes, which leads to aneuploidy and may lead to cancer. In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation which is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Estriol. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Aneuploidy is a change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal disorder. ...


Furthermore, many cancers originate from a viral infection; this is especially true in animals such as birds, but also in humans, as viruses are responsible for 15% of human cancers worldwide. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus. Experimental and epidemiological data imply a causative role for viruses and they appear to be the second most important risk factor for cancer development in humans, exceeded only by tobacco usage.[9] The mode of virally-induced tumors can be divided into two, acutely-transforming or slowly-transforming. In acutely transforming viruses, the viral particles carry a gene that encodes for an overactive oncogene called viral-oncogene (v-onc), and the infected cell is transformed as soon as v-onc is expressed. In contrast, in slowly-transforming viruses, the virus genome is inserted, especially as viral genome insertion is an obligatory part of retroviruses, near a proto-oncogene in the host genome. The viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements in turn cause overexpression of that proto-oncogene, which in turn induces uncontrolled cellular proliferation. Because viral genome insertion is not specific to proto-oncogenes and the chance of insertion near that proto-oncogene is low, slowly-transforming viruses have very long tumor latency compared to acutely-transforming viruses, which already carry the viral-oncogene. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... HPV redirects here. ... Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... A promoter is a DNA sequence that contains the information, in the form of DNA sequences, that permits the proper activation or repression of the gene which it controls, i. ...


It is impossible to tell the initial cause for any specific cancer. However, with the help of molecular biological techniques, it is possible to characterize the mutations or chromosomal aberrations within a tumor, and rapid progress is being made in the field of predicting prognosis based on the spectrum of mutations in some cases. For example, some tumors have a defective p53 gene. This mutation is associated with poor prognosis, since those tumor cells are less likely to go into apoptosis or programmed cell death when damaged by therapy. Telomerase mutations remove additional barriers, extending the number of times a cell can divide. Other mutations enable the tumor to grow new blood vessels to provide more nutrients, or to metastasize, spreading to other parts of the body. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Malignant tumor cells have distinct properties:

A cell that degenerates into a tumor cell does not usually acquire all these properties at once, but its descendant cells are selected to build them. This process is called clonal evolution. A first step in the development of a tumor cell is usually a small change in the DNA, often a point mutation, which leads to a genetic instability of the cell. The instability can increase to a point where the cell loses whole chromosomes, or has multiple copies of several. Also, the DNA methylation pattern of the cell changes, activating and deactivating genes without the usual regulation. Cells that divide at a high rate, such as epithelials, show a higher risk of becoming tumor cells than those which divide less, for example neurons. A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... The loss of cell division when one cell contact with another cell when optimum size and volume of the tissue has been formed. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... DNA methylation is a type of chemical modification of DNA that can be inherited without changing the DNA sequence. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ...


Morphology

Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.

Cancer tissue has a distinctive appearance under the microscope. Among the distinguishing traits are a large number of dividing cells, variation in nuclear size and shape, variation in cell size and shape, loss of specialized cell features, loss of normal tissue organization, and a poorly defined tumor boundary. Immunohistochemistry and other molecular methods may characterise specific markers on tumor cells, which may aid in diagnosis and prognosis. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ...


Biopsy and microscopical examination can also distinguish between malignancy and hyperplasia, which refers to tissue growth based on an excessive rate of cell division, leading to a larger than usual number of cells but with a normal orderly arrangement of cells within the tissue. This process is considered reversible. Hyperplasia can be a normal tissue response to an irritating stimulus, for example callus. Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ... This article is about calluses and corns of human skin. ...


Dysplasia is an abnormal type of excessive cell proliferation characterized by loss of normal tissue arrangement and cell structure. Often such cells revert to normal behavior, but occasionally, they gradually become malignant. Dysplasia (latin for bad form) is an abnormality in the appearance of cells indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia. ...


The most severe cases of dysplasia are referred to as "carcinoma in situ." In Latin, the term "in situ" means "in place", so carcinoma in situ refers to an uncontrolled growth of cells that remains in the original location and shows no propensity to invade other tissues. Nevertheless, carcinoma in situ may develop into an invasive malignancy and is usually removed surgically, if possible. Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ...


Heredity

Most forms of cancer are "sporadic", and have no basis in heredity. There are, however, a number of recognised syndromes of cancer with a hereditary component, often a defective tumor suppressor allele. Examples are: In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ...

BRCA 1 (named for breast cancer 1) is a human gene located on the long arm of the 17th chromosome (17q21). ... BRCA2 refers to either a gene (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 2, located on human chromosome 13, 13q12-13) or the protein coded for by that gene. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or multiple endocrine adenomas, or multiple endocrine adenomatosis -- MEA) consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. ... Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disorder. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either found in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... Turcot syndrome is the association between familial adenomatous polyposis and brain tumors. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either found in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ...

Lifestyle factors

The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Source:NIH.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Source:NIH.

The most consistent finding, over decades of research, is the strong association between tobacco use and cancers of many sites. Hundreds of epidemiological studies have confirmed this association. Further support comes from the fact that lung cancer death rates in the United States have mirrored smoking patterns, with increases in smoking followed by dramatic increases in lung cancer death rates and, more recently, decreases in smoking followed by decreases in lung cancer death rates in men. Lifestyle choices cause cancer: tobacco, diet, exercise, alcohol, tanning choices, and certain sexually transmitted diseases are the major risks. "Most cancers are related to known lifestyle factors."[10] From the National Cancer Institute. ... From the National Cancer Institute. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ...


There is also a growing body of research that correlates cancer incidence with the lower levels of melatonin produced in the body when people spend more time in bright-light conditions[citation needed], as happens typically in the well-lit nighttime environments of the more developed countries. This effect is compounded in people who sleep fewer hours and in people who work at night, two groups that are known[citation needed] to have higher cancer rates. Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ...


Epidemiology

Cancer epidemiology is the study of the incidence of cancer as a way to infer possible trends and causes. The first such cause of cancer was identified by British surgeon Percivall Pott, who discovered in 1775 that cancer of the scrotum was a common disease among chimney sweeps. The work of other individual physicians led to various insights, but when physicians started working together they could make firmer conclusions. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Percival Pott (January 6, 1714 – December 22, 1788, London, England) was an English physician and surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen. ... ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Chimney sweep in the 1850s A Chimney sweep is a person who cleans chimneys for a living. ...


A founding paper of this discipline was the work of Janet Lane-Claypon, who published a comparative study in 1926 of 500 breast cancer cases and 500 control patients of the same background and lifestyle for the British Ministry of Health. Her ground-breaking work on cancer epidemiology was carried on by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, who published "Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death In Relation to Smoking. A Second Report on the Mortality of British Doctors" followed in 1956 (otherwise known as the British doctors study). Richard Doll left the London Medical Research Center (MRC), to start the Oxford unit for Cancer epidemiology in 1968. With the use of computers, the unit was the first to compile large amounts of cancer data. Modern epidemiological methods are closely linked to current concepts of disease and public health policy. Over the past 50 years, great efforts have been spent on gathering data across medical practise, hospital, provincial, state, and even country boundaries, as a way to study the interdependence of environmental and cultural factors on cancer incidence. Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon (1877–1967) was an English physician and one of the founders of the science of epidemiology, pioneering the use of so-called cohort studies and case-control studies. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll CH OBE FRS (28 October 1912–24 July 2005) was a British epidemiologist, physiologist, and a pioneer in the research linking smoking to health problems. ... Austin Bradford Hill (July 8, 1897 - April 18, 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, was the first to demonstrate the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Look up Smoking in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British doctors study is the generally accepted name of a prospective clinical trial which has been running from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


The biggest problem facing cancer epidemiology today is the changing concept of 'cancer incidence'. For example, a breast cancer tumor with a very slow growth rate may be found with a mammogram at 50 years, while the same tumor may have been found as a noteworthy 'lump' at 70 years, depending on the specific growth factors affecting that particular patient's case. As diagnostic tools improve, this has a direct impact on the epidemiological data. In optics one considers angles of incidence. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Mammography is the process of using low-dose X-rays (usually around 0. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but...


In some Western countries, such as the USA,[3] and the UK[11] cancer is overtaking cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death. In many Third World countries cancer incidence (insofar as this can be measured) appears much lower, most likely because of the higher death rates due to infectious disease or injury. With the increased control over malaria and tuberculosis in some Third World countries, incidence of cancer is expected to rise; this is termed the epidemiologic transition in epidemiological terminology. Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ...


Cancer epidemiology closely mirrors risk factor spread in various countries. Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) is rare in the West but is the main cancer in China and neighboring countries, most likely due to the endemic presence of hepatitis B and aflatoxin in that population. Similarly, with tobacco smoking becoming more common in various Third World countries, lung cancer incidence has increased in a parallel fashion. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Prevention

Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the incidence of cancer. This can be accomplished by avoiding carcinogens or altering their metabolism, pursuing a lifestyle or diet that modifies cancer-causing factors and/or medical intervention (chemoprevention, treatment of pre-malignant lesions). The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation which is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Chemoprophylaxis refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease. ...


Much of the promise for cancer prevention comes from observational epidemiologic studies that show associations between modifiable life style factors or environmental exposures and specific cancers. Evidence is now emerging from randomized controlled trials designed to test whether interventions suggested by the epidemiologic studies, as well as leads based on laboratory research, actually result in reduced cancer incidence and mortality.


Examples of modifiable cancer risk include alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers), smoking (although 20% of women with lung cancer have never smoked, versus 10% of men[12]), physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers), and being overweight (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers). Based on epidemiologic evidence, it is now thought that avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, being physically active, and maintaining recommended body weight may all contribute to reductions in risk of certain cancers; however, compared with tobacco exposure, the magnitude of effect is modest or small and the strength of evidence is often weaker. Other lifestyle and environmental factors known to affect cancer risk (either beneficially or detrimentally) include certain sexually transmitted diseases, the use of exogenous hormones, exposure to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation, certain occupational and chemical exposures, and infectious agents. Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... UV redirects here. ...


See alcohol and cancer for more on that topic. The U.S. National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Cancer Trends Progress Report Alcohol Consumption states that drinking alcohol increases the risk of the following cancers in both men and women: mouth esophagus pharynx larynx liver cancer — The chances of getting liver cancer increase markedly with five or more drinks per...


Diet and cancer

The consensus on diet and cancer is that obesity increases the risk of developing cancer. Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g. gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States). Studies have shown that immigrants develop the risk of their new country, suggesting a link between diet and cancer rather than a genetic basis.[citation needed] In medicine, stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Despite frequent reports of particular substances (including foods) having a beneficial or detrimental effect on cancer risk, few of these have an established link to cancer. These reports are often based on studies in cultured cell media or animals. Public health recommendations cannot be made on the basis of these studies until they have been validated in an observational (or occasionally a prospective interventional) trial in humans.


The case of beta-carotene provides an example of the necessity of randomized clinical trials. Epidemiologists studying both diet and serum levels observed that high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, were associated with a protective effect, reducing the risk of cancer. This effect was particularly strong in lung cancer. This hypothesis led to a series of large randomized trials conducted in both Finland and the United States (CARET study) during the 1980s and 1990s. This study provided about 80,000 smokers or former smokers with daily supplements of beta-carotene or placebos. Contrary to expectation, these tests found no benefit of beta-carotene supplementation in reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality. In fact, the risk of lung cancer was slightly, but not significantly, increased by beta-carotene, leading to an early termination of the study.[13] Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Placebo effect” redirects here. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ...


Other chemoprevention agents

Daily use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), typically for 5 years, has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in high-risk women by about 50%. A recent study reported that the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene has similar benefits to tamoxifen in preventing breast cancer in high-risk women, with a more favorable side effect profile. [14] Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Raloxifene is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. ... Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ...


Finasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, has been shown to lower the risk of prostate cancer, though it seems to mostly prevent low-grade tumors. [15] The effect of COX-2 inhibitors such as rofecoxib and celecoxib upon the risk of colon polyps have been studied in familial adenomatous polyposis patients [16] and in the general population. [17][18] In both groups, there were significant reductions in colon polyp incidence, but this came at the price of increased cardiovascular toxicity. Finasteride (marketed as Proscar, Propecia, Fincar, Finpecia, Finax, Finast, Finara, Finalo, Prosteride, Gefina, Finasterid IVAX) is an antiandrogen which acts by inhibiting 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. ... 5α-reductase inhibitors (or 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors) are a group of drugs with antiandrogenic activity, used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic (or androgenetic) alopecia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Rofecoxib (IPA: ) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) developed by Merck & Co. ... Celecoxib (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue (tumor) projecting from a mucous membrane. ... The incidence of disease is defined as the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population during a defined time interval. ...


Genetic testing

Genetic testing for high-risk individuals is already available for certain cancer-related genetic mutations. Carriers of genetic mutations that increase risk for cancer incidence can undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing surgery. Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ...

Gene Cancer types Availability
BRCA1, BRCA2 Breast, ovarian, pancreatic Commercially available for clinical specimens
MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS, PMS2 Colon, uterine, small bowel, stomach, urinary tract Commercially available for clinical specimens

BRCA 1 (named for breast cancer 1) is a human gene located on the long arm of the 17th chromosome (17q21). ... BRCA2 refers to either a gene (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 2, located on human chromosome 13, 13q12-13) or the protein coded for by that gene. ... MLH1 is a gene commonly associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. ... MSH2 is a gene commonly associated with Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. ... MSH6 is a gene commonly associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. ... Premenstrual stress syndrome Pocahontas Middle School ...

Diagnosing cancer

Most cancers are initially recognized either because signs or symptoms appear or through screening. Neither of these lead to a definitive diagnosis, which usually requires the opinion of a pathologist. Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ...


Signs and symptoms

Roughly, cancer symptoms can be divided into three groups:

Every single item in the above list can be caused by a variety of conditions (a list of which is referred to as the differential diagnosis). Cancer may be a common or uncommon cause of each item. Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Pain (disambiguation). ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body (or the body of another red blooded animal). ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Pain (disambiguation). ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health, is a reduction of the total body weight, which can mean loss of fluid, muscle or bone mass, or fat. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... In medical circles, wasting refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to waste away. ... Sweat redirects here. ... Sleep hyperhidrosis, more commonly known as the night sweats, is the occurrence of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) during sleep. ... Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, refers to a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... In medicine, differential diagnosis (sometimes abbreviated DDx or ΔΔ) is the systematic method physicians use to identify the disease causing a patients symptoms. ...


Biopsy

A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist. Tissue can be obtained from a biopsy or surgery. Many biopsies (such as those of the skin, breast or liver) can be done in a doctor's office. Biopsies of other organs are performed under anesthesia and require surgery in an operating room. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... An operating theatre or operating room is a room within a hospital within which surgical operations are carried out. ...


The tissue diagnosis indicates the type of cell that is proliferating, its histological grade and other features of the tumor. Together, this information is useful to evaluate the prognosis of this patient and choose the best treatment. Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry may provide information about future behavior of the cancer (prognosis) and best treatment. In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH Cytogenetics is the study of the structure of chromosome material. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ...


Screening

Cancer screening is an attempt to detect unsuspected cancers in the population. Screening tests suitable for large numbers of healthy people must be relatively affordable, safe, noninvasive procedures with acceptably low rates of false positive results. If signs of cancer are detected, more definitive and invasive follow up tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis. Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in an unsuspecting population. ... Scientists recognize two different sorts of error:[1] Statistical error: the difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value (see errors and residuals in statistics) that is caused by random, and inherently unpredictable fluctuations in the measurement apparatus. ...


Screening for cancer can lead to earlier diagnosis. Early diagnosis may lead to extended life. A number of different screening tests have been developed. Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination. Screening by regular mammograms detects tumors even earlier than self-examination, and many countries use it to systematically screen all middle-aged women. Colorectal cancer can be detected through fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy, which reduces both colon cancer incidence and mortality, presumably through the detection and removal of pre-malignant polyps. Similarly, cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions. Over time, such testing has been followed by a dramatic reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Testicular self-examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer. Prostate cancer can be screened for by a digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing. Breast self-examination (BSE) is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible breast cancer. ... Mammography is the process of using low-dose X-rays (usually around 0. ... Fecal occult blood is a term for blood present in the feces that is not visibly apparent. ... Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... As testicular cancer is a significant killer of males, doctors recommend monthly self-examination. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ... A rectal examination or rectal exam is an internal examination of the rectum by a physician. ... Prostate specific antigen (PSA, also known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, γ-seminoprotein and P-30 antigen) is a protein manufactured almost exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm to swim freely. ...


Screening for cancer is controversial in cases when it is not yet known if the test actually saves lives. The controversy arises when it is not clear if the benefits of screening outweigh the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests and cancer treatments. For example: when screening for prostate cancer, the PSA test may detect small cancers that would never become life threatening, but once detected will lead to treatment. This situation, called overdiagnosis, puts men at risk for complications from unnecessary treatment such as surgery or radiation. Follow up procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer (prostate biopsy) may cause side effects, including bleeding and infection. Prostate cancer treatment may cause incontinence (inability to control urine flow) and erectile dysfunction (erections inadequate for intercourse). Similarly, for breast cancer, there have recently been criticisms that breast screening programs in some countries cause more problems than they solve. This is because screening of women in the general population will result in a large number of women with false positive results which require extensive follow-up investigations to exclude cancer, leading to having a high number-to-treat (or number-to-screen) to prevent or catch a single case of breast cancer early. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Prostate specific antigen (PSA, also known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, γ-seminoprotein and P-30 antigen) is a protein manufactured almost exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm to swim freely. ... Overdiagnosis is either (i) the diagnosis of asymptomatic disease or (ii) the false positive result of the application of diagnostic criteria that would not have given symptoms during the lifetime of a patient. ... Prostate biopsy is a procedure in which small samples are removed from a mans prostate gland to be tested for the presence of cancer. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Cervical cancer screening via the Pap smear has the best cost-benefit profile of all the forms of cancer screening from a public health perspective as, being largely caused by a virus, it has clear risk factors (sexual contact), and the natural progression of cervical cancer is that it normally spreads slowly over a number of years therefore giving more time for the screening program to catch it early. Moreover, the test itself is easy to perform and relatively cheap. The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ...


For these reasons, it is important that the benefits and risks of diagnostic procedures and treatment be taken into account when considering whether to undertake cancer screening.


Use of medical imaging to search for cancer in people without clear symptoms is similarly marred with problems. There is a significant risk of detection of what has been recently called an incidentaloma - a benign lesion that may be interpreted as a malignancy and be subjected to potentially dangerous investigations. Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ... In medicine, an incidentaloma is a tumor (-oma) found by coincidence (incidental) without clinical symptoms and suspicion. ...


Canine cancer detection has shown promise, but is still in the early stages of research. Canine cancer detection is an approach to cancer screening that relies upon the olfactory ability of dogs to detect very low concentrations of the alkanes and aromatic compounds generated by tumors. ...


Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy or other methods. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient (performance status). A number of experimental cancer treatments are also under development. A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Immunotherapy is a form of medical treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a therapeutic goal. ... Monoclonal antibody therapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (-mab) to specifically target cells. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients general wellbeing. ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body is the goal of treatment. Sometimes this can be accomplished by surgery, but the propensity of cancers to invade adjacent tissue or to spread to distant sites by microscopic metastasis often limits its effectiveness. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is often limited by toxicity to other tissues in the body. Radiation can also cause damage to normal tissue.


Because "cancer" refers to a class of diseases, it is unlikely that there will ever be a single "cure for cancer" any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases. Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Surgery

In theory, cancers can be cured if entirely removed by surgery, but this is not always possible. When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, complete surgical excision is usually impossible. A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Examples of surgical procedures for cancer include mastectomy for breast cancer and prostatectomy for prostate cancer. The goal of the surgery can be either the removal of only the tumor, or the entire organ. A single cancer cell is invisible to the naked eye but can regrow into a new tumor, a process called recurrence. For this reason, the pathologist will examine the surgical specimen to determine if a margin of healthy tissue is present, thus decreasing the chance that microscopic cancer cells are left in the patient. In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... A Prostatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. ... In mathematics, a recurrence relation, also known as a difference equation, is an equation which defines a sequence recursively: each term of the sequence is defined as a function of the preceding terms. ... Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty (a branch of pathology) that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, and molecular examination of cells and tissues. ...


In addition to removal of the primary tumor, surgery is often necessary for staging, e.g. determining the extent of the disease and whether it has metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Staging is a major determinant of prognosis and of the need for adjuvant therapy. The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ...


Occasionally, surgery is necessary to control symptoms, such as spinal cord compression or bowel obstruction. This is referred to as palliative treatment. Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by a tumor, abscess or other lesion. ... Bowel obstruction is a mechanical blockage of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


Chemotherapy

Main article: Chemotherapy
See also: History of cancer chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs ("anticancer drugs") that can destroy cancer cells. It interferes with cell division in various possible ways, e.g. with the duplication of DNA or the separation of newly formed chromosomes. Most forms of chemotherapy target all rapidly dividing cells and are not specific for cancer cells. Hence, chemotherapy has the potential to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues that have a high replacement rate (e.g. intestinal lining). These cells usually repair themselves after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... The era of chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first uses of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


Because some drugs work better together than alone, two or more drugs are often given at the same time. This is called "combination chemotherapy"; most chemotherapy regimens are given in a combination.


The treatment of some leukaemias and lymphomas requires the use of high-dose chemotherapy, and total body irradiation (TBI). This treatment ablates the bone marrow, and hence the body's ability to recover and repopulate the blood. For this reason, bone marrow, or peripheral blood stem cell harvesting is carried out before the ablative part of the therapy, to enable "rescue" after the treatment has been given. This is known as autologous transplantation. Alternatively, bone marrow may be transplanted from a matched unrelated donor (MUD). Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to ablate the bone marrow and immune system prior to bone marrow transplantation or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. ...


Monoclonal antibody therapy

Immunotherapy is the use of immune mechanisms against tumors. These are used in various forms of cancer, such as breast cancer (trastuzumab/Herceptin®) and leukemia (gemtuzumab ozogamicin/Mylotarg®). The agents are monoclonal antibodies directed against proteins that are characteristic to the cells of the cancer in question, or cytokines that modulate the immune system's response. Monoclonal antibody therapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (-mab) to specifically target cells. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Herceptin Logo Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is an anti-cancer therapy that acts on the HER2/neu (erbB2) receptor. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed as Mylotarg) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ...


Immunotherapy

Main article: Cancer immunotherapy

Other, more contemporary methods for generating non-specific immune response against tumours include intravesical BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, and use of interferon and interleukin. Vaccines to generate non-specific immune responses are the subject of intensive research for a number of tumours, notably malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (-mab) to specifically target cells. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ...


Radiation therapy

Main article: Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy, X-ray therapy, or irradiation) is the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy can be administered externally via external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or internally via brachytherapy. The effects of radiation therapy are localised and confined to the region being treated. Radiation therapy injures or destroys cells in the area being treated (the "target tissue") by damaging their genetic material, making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow and divide. Although radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, most normal cells can recover from the effects of radiation and function properly. The goal of radiation therapy is to damage as many cancer cells as possible, while limiting harm to nearby healthy tissue. Hence, it is given in many fractions, allowing healthy tissue to recover between fractions. Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... External beam radiotherapy otherwise known as teletherapy, is the mostfrequently used form of radiotherapy. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ...


Radiation therapy may be used to treat almost every type of solid tumor, including cancers of the brain, breast, cervix, larynx, lung, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, uterus, or soft tissue sarcomas. Radiation is also used to treat leukemia and lymphoma. Radiation dose to each site depends on a number of factors, including the radiosensitivity of each cancer type and whether there are tissues and organs nearby that may be damaged by radiation. Thus, as with every form of treatment, radiation therapy is not without its side effects.


Hormonal suppression

The growth of some cancers can be inhibited by providing or blocking certain hormones. Common examples of hormone-sensitive tumors include certain types of breast and prostate cancers. Removing or blocking estrogen or testosterone is often an important additional treatment. Estriol. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


Symptom control

Although the control of the symptoms of cancer is not typically thought of as a treatment directed at the cancer, it is an important determinant of the quality of life of cancer patients, and plays an important role in the decision whether the patient is able to undergo other treatments. Although all practicing doctors have the therapeutic skills to control pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage and other common problems in cancer patients, the multidisciplinary specialty of palliative care has arisen specifically in response to the symptom control needs of this group of patients. The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms or slowing the diseases progress, rather than providing a cure. ...


Pain medication, such as morphine and oxycodone, and antiemetics, drugs to suppress nausea and vomiting, are very commonly used in patients with cancer-related symptoms. For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ...


Chronic pain due to cancer is almost always associated with continuing tissue damage due to the disease process or the treatment (i.e. surgery, radiation, chemotherapy). Although there is always a role for environmental factors and affective disturbances in the genesis of pain behaviors, these are not usually the predominant etiologic factors in patients with cancer pain. Furthermore, many patients with severe pain associated with cancer are nearing the end of their lives and palliative therapies are required. Issues such as social stigma of using opioids, work and functional status, and health care consumption are not likely to be important in the overall case management. Hence, the typical strategy for cancer pain management is to get the patient as comfortable as possible using opioids and other medications, surgery, and physical measures. Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ...


Treatment trials

Clinical trials, also called research studies, test new treatments in people with cancer. The goal of this research is to find better ways to treat cancer and help cancer patients. Clinical trials test many types of treatment such as new drugs, new approaches to surgery or radiation therapy, new combinations of treatments, or new methods such as gene therapy. In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is the application of the scientific method to human health. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in particular. ...


A clinical trial is one of the final stages of a long and careful cancer research process. The search for new treatments begins in the laboratory, where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems promising, the next step may be testing a treatment in animals to see how it affects cancer in a living being and whether it has harmful effects. Of course, treatments that work well in the lab or in animals do not always work well in people. Studies are done with cancer patients to find out whether promising treatments are safe and effective.


Patients who take part may be helped personally by the treatment(s) they receive. They get up-to-date care from cancer experts, and they receive either a new treatment being tested or the best available standard treatment for their cancer. Of course, there is no guarantee that a new treatment being tested or a standard treatment will produce good results. New treatments also may have unknown risks, but if a new treatment proves effective or more effective than standard treatment, study patients who receive it may be among the first to benefit.


Cancer vaccines

Considerable research effort is now devoted to the development of vaccines (to prevent infection by oncogenic infectious agents, as well as to mount an immune response against cancer-specific epitopes) and to potential venues for gene therapy for individuals with genetic mutations or polymorphisms that put them at high risk of cancer. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... An epitope is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or cytotoxic T cells. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in particular. ...


As of October 2005, researchers found that an experimental vaccine for HPV types 16 and 18 was 100% successful at preventing infection with these types of HPV and, thus, are able to prevent the majority of cervical cancer cases.[19] 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles... HPV is an initialism that can mean : Human Powered Vehicle Human papillomavirus a type of STD High Production Volume Chemicals Health Purchasing Victoria Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...


Complementary and alternative medicine

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments are the diverse group of medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not part of conventional medicine. Oncology, the study of human cancer, has a long history of incorporating unconventional or botanical treatments into mainstream cancer therapy. Some examples of this phenomenon include the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel, which is derived from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree, and ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid, a derivative of Vitamin A that induces cures in an aggressive leukemia known as acute promyelocytic leukemia. Many "complementary" and "alternative" medicines for cancer have not been studied using the scientific method, such as in well-designed clinical trials, or they have only been studied in preclinical (animal or in-vitro) laboratory studies. Many times, "complementary" and "alternative" medicines are supported by marketing materials and "testimonials" from users of the substances. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Atra or ATRA can refer to: Stachybotrys chartarum All-trans retinoic acid This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ...


"Complementary medicine" refers to substances used along with conventional medicine, while "alternative medicine" refers to compounds used instead of conventional medicine. A study of CAM use in patients with cancer in the July 2000 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology found that 69 percent of 453 cancer patients had used at least one CAM therapy as part of their cancer treatment.[20]


Some complementary measures include botanical medicine, such as an NIH trial currently underway testing mistletoe extract combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors, acupuncture for managing chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and in controlling pain associated with surgery, prayer, psychological approaches such as "imaging" or meditation to aid in pain relief or improve mood.[21] The use of plants or plant extracts for medicinal purposes (especially plants that are not part of the normal diet) ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Acupuncture (from Lat. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... Cancer guided imagery is an internal process that creates messages with images. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


A wide range of alternative treatments have been offered for cancer over the last century. The appeal of alternative cures arises from the daunting risks, costs, or potential side effects of many conventional treatments, or in the limited prospect for cure. No alternative therapies have been shown in randomized controlled trials to effectively cure cancer by themselves, although the Journal of Urology published a study in 2005 [22] demonstrating that a consuming plant based diet and making other lifestyle changes was able to reduce cancer markers in a group of men with prostate cancer using no conventional treatments. Other (unproven) anti-cancer diets include the grape diet and the cabbage diet.


Coping with cancer

Many local organizations offer a variety of practical and support services to people with cancer. Support can take the form of support groups, counseling, advice, financial assistance, transportation to and from treatment, films or information about cancer. Neighborhood organizations, local health care providers, or area hospitals may have resources or services available. Cancer support groups provide a setting in which cancer patients can talk about living with cancer with others who may be having similar experiences. ... This article refers to interpersonal or mental health counseling. ...


While some people are reluctant to seek counseling, studies show that having someone to talk to reduces stress and helps people both mentally and physically. Counseling can also provide emotional support to cancer patients and help them better understand their illness. Different types of counseling include individual, group, family, self-help (sometimes called peer counseling), bereavement, patient-to-patient, and sexuality.


Many governmental and charitable organizations have been established to help patients cope with cancer. These organizations often are involved in cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and cancer research. Examples include: American Cancer Society, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Lance Armstrong Foundation, BC Cancer Agency, Macmillan Cancer Relief , the Terry Fox Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Cancer Research Foundation, Canadian Cancer Society, International Agency for Research on Cancer, The Cancer Council Australia and the National Cancer Institute (US). The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), a not-for-profit alliance of 20 of the world’s leading cancer centers, is dedicated to improving the quality and effectiveness of care provided to patients with cancer. ... Lance Armstrong at LAF Community Program Conference The Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) is a United States charitable organization that provides support for people with cancer. ... The BC Cancer Agency is part of the Provincial Health Services Authority in British Columbia, Canada. ... Macmillan Cancer Relief is one of the largest British charities and provides free care and support to sufferers of cancer. ... Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness-promotion group in the United Kingdom, formed in 2002 by the merger of the Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. ... The Cancer Research Foundation is a tax-exempt, Public Charity based in the United States created exclusively to raise funds to further and support cancer research. ... The Canadian Cancer Society is a volunteer-based organization which seeks to eradicate cancer and to enhance the quality of life of those suffering from cancer. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... The Cancer Council Australia is a national, private organization which aims to promote cancer-control policies and to reduce the illness caused by cancer in Australia. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ...


Social impact

Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease. While this certainly applies to certain particular types, the truths behind the historical connotations of cancer are increasingly being overturned by advances in medical care. Some types of cancer have a prognosis that is substantially better than nonmalignant diseases such as heart failure and stroke. A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ...


Progressive and disseminated malignant disease has a substantial impact on a cancer patient's quality of life, and many cancer treatments (such as chemotherapy) may have severe side-effects. In the advanced stages of cancer, many patients need extensive care, affecting family members and friends. Palliative care solutions may include permanent or "respite" hospice nursing. Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms or slowing the diseases progress, rather than providing a cure. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


Cancer research

Main article: Cancer research

Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand disease processes and discover possible therapies. Although understanding of cancer has greatly increased since the last decades of the 20th century, few radically new therapies have been discovered. Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ...


Targeted therapy which first became available in the late 1990s has had a significant impact in the treatment of some types of cancer, and is currently a very active research area. This constitutes the use of agents specific for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells. Small molecules (such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and gefitinib) and monoclonal antibodies have proven to be a major step in oncological treatment. Targeted therapy can also involve small peptidic structures as ´homing device´ which can bind to cell surface receptors or affected extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor. Radionuclides which are attached to this peptides (e.g. RGDs) eventually kill the cancer cell if the nuclide decays in the vicinity of the cell (vide supra Radiation therapy). Especially oligo- or multimeris of these binding motifs are of great interest, since this can lead to enhanced tumor specificity and avidity. Targeted cancer therapy is a type of chemotherapy which blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and tumor growth. ... Imatinib is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer. ... Gefitinib is a new drug used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Targeted cancer therapy is a type of chemotherapy which blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and tumor growth. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


I AM FAT MAN!111111


See also

Look up Cancer in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that French Wiktionary be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), a not-for-profit alliance of 20 of the world’s leading cancer centers, is dedicated to improving the quality and effectiveness of care provided to patients with cancer. ... The U.S. National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Cancer Trends Progress Report Alcohol Consumption states that drinking alcohol increases the risk of the following cancers in both men and women: mouth esophagus pharynx larynx liver cancer — The chances of getting liver cancer increase markedly with five or more drinks per... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ... The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is an organization based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that focuses on aspects of cancer research. ... The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer or EORTC is an international non-profit organisation that develops, coordinates and stimulates cancer laboratory and clinical research in Europe. ... // Immune deficiency (physiologically or due to chemotherapy) in cancer patients, allows for serious exposure to opportunistic micro organisms that may cause death (2). ...

References

  1. ^ Ralph W. Moss, Ph.D Galen on Cancer - How Ancient Physicians Viewed Malignant Disease 1989 Speech
  2. ^ Marilyn Yalom "A history of the breast" 1997 Publisher: New York : Alfred A. Knopf ISBN 0-679-43459-3
  3. ^ a b c d e Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ (2005). "Cancer statistics, 2005". CA Cancer J Clin 55 (1): 10-30. PMID 15661684. 
  4. ^ Dalmasso P, Pastore G, Zuccolo L, Maule MM, Pearce N, Merletti F, Magnani C (2005). "Temporal trends in the incidence of childhood leukemia, lymphomas and solid tumors in north-west Italy,. A report of the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont". Haematologica 90 (9): 1197-204. PMID. 
  5. ^ Agha M, Dimonte B, Greenberg M, Greenberg C, Barr R, McLaughlin JR (2005). "Incidence trends and projections for childhood cancer in Ontario". Int J Cancer. PMID. 
  6. ^ Study Finds That a Type of Cancer in Dogs Is Contagious. Retrieved on January 19, 2007.
  7. ^ Matoba S, Kang J, Patino W, Wragg A, Boehm M, Gavrilova O, Hurley P, Bunz F, Hwang P (2006). "p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration.". Science 312 (5780): 1650-3. PMID 16728594. 
  8. ^ Fodde R, Smits R (2002). "Cancer biology. A matter of dosage.". Science 298 (5594): 761-3. PMID 12399571. 
  9. ^ zur Hausen H (1991). "Viruses in human cancers.". Science 254 (5035). PMID. 
  10. ^ Update: Is There a Cancer Epidemic in the United States? American Council on Science and Health, 1995.
  11. ^ Cancer: Number one killer (9 November 2000). BBC News online. Retrieved 2005-01-29.
  12. ^ Lung Cancer in American Women: Facts. Retrieved on January 19, 2007.
  13. ^ National Cancer Institute Questions and Answers About Beta Carotene Chemoprevention Trials U.S. National Institutes of Health
  14. ^ Vogel V, Costantino J, Wickerham D, Cronin W, Cecchini R, Atkins J, Bevers T, Fehrenbacher L, Pajon E, Wade J, Robidoux A, Margolese R, James J, Lippman S, Runowicz C, Ganz P, Reis S, McCaskill-Stevens W, Ford L, Jordan V, Wolmark N (2006). "Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial". JAMA 295 (23): 2727-41. PMID 16754727. 
  15. ^ Thompson I, Goodman P, Tangen C, Lucia M, Miller G, Ford L, Lieber M, Cespedes R, Atkins J, Lippman S, Carlin S, Ryan A, Szczepanek C, Crowley J, Coltman C (2003). "The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer". N Engl J Med 349 (3): 215-24. PMID 12824459. 
  16. ^ Hallak A, Alon-Baron L, Shamir R, Moshkowitz M, Bulvik B, Brazowski E, Halpern Z, Arber N (2003). "Rofecoxib reduces polyp recurrence in familial polyposis". Dig Dis Sci 48 (10): 1998-2002. PMID 14627347. 
  17. ^ Baron J, Sandler R, Bresalier R, Quan H, Riddell R, Lanas A, Bolognese J, Oxenius B, Horgan K, Loftus S, Morton D (2006). "A randomized trial of rofecoxib for the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas". Gastroenterology 131 (6): 1674-82. PMID 17087947. 
  18. ^ Bertagnolli M, Eagle C, Zauber A, Redston M, Solomon S, Kim K, Tang J, Rosenstein R, Wittes J, Corle D, Hess T, Woloj G, Boisserie F, Anderson W, Viner J, Bagheri D, Burn J, Chung D, Dewar T, Foley T, Hoffman N, Macrae F, Pruitt R, Saltzman J, Salzberg B, Sylwestrowicz T, Gordon G, Hawk E (2006). "Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas". N Engl J Med 355 (9): 873-84. PMID 16943400. 
  19. ^ Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, Ferris DG, Jenkins D, Schuind A, Zahaf T, Innis B, Naud P, De Carvalho NS, Roteli-Martins CM, Teixeira J, Blatter MM, Korn AP, Quint W, Dubin G (2004). "Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 364 (9447): 1757-65. PMID. 
  20. ^ National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s Cancer FAQ. Retrieved on March 1, 2007.
  21. ^ National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s Cancer FAQ. Retrieved on March 1, 2007.
  22. ^ Ornish D et al. (2005). "Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostrate cancer". The Journal of Urology 174 (3): 1065-9; discussion 1069-70. PMID 16094059. 

General references

January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... -1... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Professional and research

Canadian Cancer Statistics 2006 - This publication reports cancer incidence and mortality in Canada, analyzed by gender, age and province/territory.

New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... Logo of the GreenFacts website GreenFacts, formerly the GreenFacts Foundation, is an international non-profit organization founded in 2001 in Brussels, Belgium. ...

Support and advocacy


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Cancer Society :: Information and Resources for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Prostate, Lung and Other Forms (196 words)
People treated for colon cancer may want to watch what they eat, a new study suggests.
Lower your cancer risk with timely screening tests, help to quit smoking, good food choices, and an active lifestyle.
All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted by the American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cancer (malignant tumors) information at MedicineNet.com (672 words)
A cancerous growth or tumor is sometimes referred to as a malignant growth or tumor.
Cancer may also be called malignancy, a malignant tumor, or a neoplasm (literally, a new growth).
For 2006, the estimated number of new cases of colon cancer is 106,680, and the estimated number of new cases of rectal cancer is 41,930.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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