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Encyclopedia > Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi1
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Canal du Midi, near Toulouse
State Party Flag of France France
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Identification #770
Region2 Europe and North America
Inscription History
Formal Inscription: 1996
20th WH Committee Session
WH link: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/770

1 Name as officially inscribed on the WH List
2 As classified officially by UNESCO
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... ImageMetadata File history File links Canal_du_midi_toulouse. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

The Canal du Midi or Canal des Deux Mers (Occitan: Canal de las Doas Mars / Canal del Miègjorn) is a 240 km long canal in the south (le Midi) of France. The canal connects the Garonne River to the Étang de Thau on the Mediterranean. The canal runs from the city of Toulouse down to the Mediterranean port of Sète (which was founded to serve as the eastern terminus of the Canal.) Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The Garonne (Occitan: Garona) is a river in southwest France, with a length of 575 km (357 miles). ... Étang de Thau or Bassin de Thau is the largest of a string of étangs (lakes) that stretch along the Languedoc-Roussillon, French coast from the Rhône River to the foothills of the Pyrenees which form the border to Spain. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics... Sète. ...

Contents

History

 The Canal du Midi basin at the town of Castelnaudary
The Canal du Midi basin at the town of Castelnaudary

The original purpose of the Canal du Midi was to be a shortcut between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, avoiding the long sea voyage around hostile Spain, Barbary pirates, and a trip that in the 17th century required a full month of sailing. Image File history File links Castelnaudary_canal_midi. ... Image File history File links Castelnaudary_canal_midi. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The Canal du Midi was opened officially as the Canal Royal de Languedoc on May 15, 1681. It was built under the supervision of Pierre-Paul Riquet, a rich tax-farmer. He bankrupted himself in the personal undertaking and died destitute in 1680, just months before the Canal was opened to navigation. Riquet was not alone in the undertaking: his 12,000 workers toiled for fifteen years to create the Canal. May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Pierre-Paul Riquet (June 29, 1609 (some sources say 1604) - October 4, 1680) was the engineer and canal-builder responsible for the construction of the Canal du Midi during the second half of the 17th century. ... Tax farming refers to the method of tax collection practiced in France during the days of the Ancien Régime (prior to Louis XVI). ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ...


Characteristics of the Canal

The Canal du Midi, south of Toulouse, with a typical small boat.
The Canal du Midi, south of Toulouse, with a typical small boat.
The Canal du Midi, approaching the round lock at Agde. Note the tow path along the Canal.
The Canal du Midi, approaching the round lock at Agde. Note the tow path along the Canal.
World's first canal tunnel, at Malpas
World's first canal tunnel, at Malpas
Seven connected locks at Fonséranes, Béziers

The Canal has 103 locks which serve to climb and descend a total of 190 meters. The Canal has 328 structures, including not only the locks but also bridges, dams and a tunnel. Image File history File links BarqueCanalDuMidi. ... Image File history File links BarqueCanalDuMidi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 447 KB) Canal du Midi, à gauche le Chemin de la flegme, au centre vers lécluse ronde dAgde, à droite le Bois de Boulogne. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 447 KB) Canal du Midi, à gauche le Chemin de la flegme, au centre vers lécluse ronde dAgde, à droite le Bois de Boulogne. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (517 × 730 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: own picture by w:nl:Gebruiker:Boerkevitz, originally as http://nl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (517 × 730 pixel, file size: 234 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: own picture by w:nl:Gebruiker:Boerkevitz, originally as http://nl. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


At the town of Béziers the Canal crosses over the river Orb. To accomplish this feat, a pont-canal (bridge canal) was built. Béziers (Besièrs in Occitan, and Besiers in Catalan) is a town in Languedoc, in the southwest of France. ... The Orb is a 145 km long stream in the Hérault département of Southern France that flows into the Mediterranean Sea, in Valras-Plage. ...


The design of the Canal included the first canal passage ever built through a tunnel (the Malpas tunnel). The Canal du Midi passes through a passage 173 meters long under a hill at Enserune.


The Canal also involved building the first artificial reservoir for feeding a canal waterway — a massive dam, 700 meters long, 30 meters above the riverbed and 120 meters thick at its base, which was built by the labor of hundreds of local women carrying soil in baskets.


The construction of the Canal du Midi was considered by people in the 17th century as the biggest project of the day. Even today, it is seen as a marvelous engineering accomplishment.


See also

The Pont Marengo (Marengo bridge) crosses the Canal du Midi and links Carcassonne to the local railway station. ... Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ...

External links

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Canal du Midi


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Canal du Midi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (320 words)
The Canal connects the Garonne River to the Mediterranean.
The original purpose of the Canal du Midi was to be a shortcut between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, avoiding the long sea voyage around hostile Spain, Barbary pirates, and a trip that in the 17th century required a full month of sailing.
The Canal du Midi basin at the town of Castelnaudary
Canal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (609 words)
Canals are so deeply identified with Venice that many canal cities have been nicknamed "the Venice of..." The city is built on marshy islands, with wooden piles supporting the buildings, so that here it is not so much the waterways which are man-made, as the land.
In Europe and then in the young United States, inland canals preceded the development of railroads during the earliest phase of the Industrial Revolution; some canals were later drained and used as railroad rights-of-way.
Canals have found another use in the 21st century, as wayleaves for fibre optic telecommunications networks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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