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Canals are artificial channels for water. Canal may refer to: Look up canal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Canal_du_midi_toulouse. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Canal_du_midi_toulouse. ... The Canal du Midi or Canal des Deux Mers (Occitan: Canal de las Doas Mars / Canal del Miègjorn) is a 240 km long canal in the south (le Midi) of France. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land...


There are two main types of canals: irrigation canals, which are used for the delivery of water, and waterways, which are navigable transportation canals used for passage of goods and people, often connected to (and sometimes connecting) existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


This article deals primarily with artificial waterways (i.e. canals built primarily for transportation purposes). For canals used for water supply, see Aqueduct. For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types of artificial waterways

Some canals are part of an existing waterway. This is usually where a river has been canalised : making it navigable by widening and deepening some parts (by dredging and/or weirs), and providing locks with "cuts" around the weirs or other difficult sections. In France, these are called lateral canals and in the UK they are generally called navigations and the length of the artificial waterway often exceeds the natural. Smaller transportation canals can carry barges or narrowboats, while ship canals allow sea-going ships to travel from one sea or ocean to another, or to an inland port (eg Manchester Ship Canal, Caledonian Canal, Kiel Canal ). The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... Moored narrowboats near Tardebigge, Worcestershire, England Horse drawing a narrowboat on the Kennet and Avon Canal. ... A ship canal is a canal especially constructed to carry ocean-going ships, as opposed to barges. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... The canal at its Manchester end, looking towards Old Trafford. ... The Caledonian Canal in Scotland connects the Scottish east coast at Inverness with the west coast near Fort William. ... The Kiel Canal (in German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a 98 kilometre long waterway linking the North Sea at Brunsbüttel, Germany to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau, Germany. ...


History

Ancient canals

The Grand Canal of China at Suzhou
The Grand Canal of China at Suzhou

The oldest-known canals were built in Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC, in what is now modern-day Iraq and Syria. The Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India (from circa 2600 BC) had a sophisticated canal irrigation system. Agriculture was practiced on a large scale and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed, including the reservoirs built at Girnar in 3000 BC.[1] In Egypt, canals date back at least to the time of Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 – 2283 BC), who ordered a canal built to bypass the cataract on the Nile near Aswan[2] In ancient China, large canals for river transport were established as far back as the Warring States (481-221 BC), the longest one of that period being the Hong Gou (Canal of the Wild Geese), which according to the ancient historian Sima Qian connected the old states of Song, Zhang, Chen, Cai, Cao, and Wei.[3] By far the longest canal of early medieval times was the Grand Canal of China, still the longest canal in the world today. It is 1794 kilometers (1115 miles) long and was built to carry the Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou. The project began in 605, although the oldest sections of the canal may have existed since circa 486 BC. Even in its narrowest urban sections it is rarely less than 30 m (100 ft) wide. Image File history File links Kaiserkanal bei Suzhou (eigene Aufnahme; Template:GNU-FDL) Hph from de: wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Grand Canal of China ... Image File history File links Kaiserkanal bei Suzhou (eigene Aufnahme; Template:GNU-FDL) Hph from de: wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Grand Canal of China ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The // (c. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Girnar (also known as Girnar Hill) is a collection of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Meryre Nomen [1] Pepi Horus name Merytawy Died 2283 BC Burial Pyramid in South Saqqara Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 – 2283 BC) was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... Emperor Yang of Sui China (560-618), or Yang-ti was the son and heir of Emperor Wen of Sui, and then the second emperor of Chinas Sui Dynasty. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; Wade-Giles: Peiching or Pei-ching; IPA: ; literally Northern capital;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Events Aj Ne Ohl Mat becomes ruler of Palenque As a result of quarrel between Numan III, the Lakhmid ruler, and the Persian Chosroes the Persian border with Arabia is no long guarded. ... Centuries: 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - 4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE - 480s BCE - 470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE - 486 BCE - 485 BCE 484 BCE...


The Romans also built canals such as Foss Dyke which was constructed in about around 120 AD in Britain. The Foss Dyke, or Fosse Dyke is the oldest canal in England, constructed by the Romans around 120 AD and still in use. ...


Canals in the Middle Ages

Canal building was revived in Europe because of commercial expansion from the 12th Century CE. River navigations were improved progressively by the use of single, or flash locks. Taking boats through these used large amounts of water leading to conflicts with watermill owners and to correct this, the pound or Chamber lock first appeared, in 10th Century CE in China and in Europe in 1373 in Vreeswijk, Netherlands.[4] Another important development was the mitre gate which was probably introduced in Italy by Bertola da Novate in the sixteenth century. This allowed wider gates and also removed the height restriction of guillotine locks. Early locks were designed with a single gate, known as a flash lock. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... The old sluice For the Dutch-Swedish musician, see Cornelis Vreeswijk Vreeswijk is a former village and municipality in the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... A guillotine lock is a type of canal lock. ...


To break out of the limitations caused by river valleys, the first summit level canals were developed with the Grand Canal of China in 581-617 CE whilst in Europe the first, also using single locks, was the Stecknitz Canal in Germany in 1398. But the first to use pound locks was the Briare Canal connecting the Loire and Seine catchment areas in France (1642) followed by the more ambitious Canal du Midi (1683) connecting the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. This included a staircase of 8 locks at Béziers, a 157m tunnel and three major aqueducts. A summit level canal is an artificial waterway connecting two separate river valleys. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The Canal de Briare is one of the oldest canals in France. ... This article is about the French department. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... The Canal du Midi or Canal des Deux Mers (Occitan: Canal de las Doas Mars / Canal del Miègjorn) is a 240 km long canal in the south (le Midi) of France. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...


Canal building progressed steadily in Germany in the 17th and 18th centuries with three great rivers, the Elbe, Oder and Weser being linked by canals. In post-Roman Britain, the first canal built appears to have been the Exeter Canal, which opened in 1563. The oldest canal built for industrial purposes in North America is Mother Brook in Dedham, MA. It was constructed in 1639 to provide water power for mills. In Russia, a nationwide canal system connecting the Baltic and Caspian seas via the Neva and Volga rivers was opened in 1718[5]. This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Exeter canal was built in 1563 which means it predates the canal mania period and is one of the oldest artificial waterways in the UK. It was built to bypass the blocking of the River Exe by the Earls of Devon. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Mother Brook is the modern name for a stream that flows from the Charles River in Dedham, MA, to the Neponset River in the Hyde Park section of Boston, MA. Mother Brook was also known variously as East Brook and Mill Brook in Colonial times. ... Dedham is a town located in Norfolk County, Massachusetts. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij PereÅ¡eek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


But the greatest stimulus to canal systems came from the Industrial Revolution with its need for cheap transport of raw materials and manufactured items. The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ...


Industrial revolution

USA canals circa 1825
USA canals circa 1825

In Europe, particularly Britain, and then in the young United States and the Canadian colonies, inland canals preceded the development of railroads during the earliest phase of the Industrial Revolution. The opening of the Bridgewater Canal in 1761 which halved the price of coal in Manchester triggered a period of "canal mania" in Britain so that between 1760 and 1820 over one hundred canals were built across the country. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 930 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canal List of canals in the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 930 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canal List of canals in the... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... The Bridgewater Canal is a canal in North West England, near Manchester. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

See also: History of the British canal system

Lowell, Massachusetts, considered to be "The Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution," has 6 miles of canals, built from around 1790 to 1850, that provided waterpower and a means of transportation for the city. Navigable canals reached into previously isolated areas and brought them in touch with the world economy. By 1825 the Erie Canal, 363 miles long with 82 locks, opened up a connection from the populated Northeast to the fertile Great Plains. The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in Britains Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of mass transit by road of raw materials and finished products... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


The 19th Century

Competition from the railway network from the 1830s and later the roads made the smaller canals obsolete for commercial transportation, and most of the British canals fell into decay. Only the Manchester Ship Canal and the Aire and Calder Canal bucked this trend. But in other countries canals grew in size as construction techniques improved. During the 19th century in the US, the length of canals grew from 100 miles to over 4,000, with a complex network making the Great Lakes navigable, in conjunction with Canada, although some canals were later drained and used as railroad rights-of-way. The canal at its Manchester end, looking towards Old Trafford. ... The Aire and Calder Navigation is a river and canal system of the River Aire and the River Calder in the county of West Yorkshire, England. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... A right-of-way (plural: rights-of-way) is an easement or strip of land granted to a railroad company upon which to build a railroad. ...


In France, a steady linking of all the river systems - Rhine, Rhône, Sâone and Seine, and the North Sea - was capped in 1879 by the establishment of the Freycinet gauge so that canal traffic doubled in the first decades of the 20th century. 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Péniche on the Saint-Denis Canal The Freycinet gauge (gabarit Freycinet) is a standard governing the dimensions of the locks of some canals, put in place as a result of a law passed during the tenure of Charles de Freycinet as prime minister of France, dating from 5th August...


Many notable sea canals were completed in this period, starting with the Suez Canal (1869), and the Kiel Canal (1897), which carries tonnage many times that of most other canals, though the Panama Canal was not opened until 1914. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Kiel Canal (in German Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a 98 kilometre long waterway linking the North Sea at Brunsbüttel, Germany to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau, Germany. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ...


In the 19th century, a number of canals were built in Japan including the Biwako canal and the Tone canal. These canals were partially built with the help of engineers from the Netherlands and other countries.[6]


Modern uses

A picturesque stretch on the Calder and Hebble Navigation, England
A picturesque stretch on the Calder and Hebble Navigation, England

Large scale ship canals such as the Panama Canal and Suez Canal continue to operate in a cargo carrying capacity as do European barge canals. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2061x2791, 1290 KB)canal as it joins the rochdale File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2061x2791, 1290 KB)canal as it joins the rochdale File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Looking towards the terminal basin of the Calder and Hebble Navigation, from a point near the junction with the Rochdale Canal The Calder and Hebble Navigation is a wide-locked (140) navigable inland waterway system in West Yorkshire, England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ...


The narrow early industrial canals however have ceased to carry significant amounts of trade and many have been abandoned. In some cases railways have been built along the canal route an example being the Croydon Canal The Croydon Canal ran 9. ...


A movement that began in Britain and France to use the early industrial canals for pleasure boats has spurred rehabilitation of stretches of historic canals. In some cased abandoned canals such as the Kennet and Avon Canal have been restored and are now used by pleasure boaters. The canal at Bathampton, near Bath The Kennet and Avon Canal is a canal in southern England. ...


Canals have found another use in the 21st century, as wayleaves for fibre optic telecommunications networks. An easement is the right of use over the real property of another. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


Features

At their simplest canals consists of a trench filled with water. Depending on the stratum the canal passes through it may be necessary to line the cut with some form of watertight material such as clay or concrete. When this is done with clay this is known as puddling. In building and maintaining canals or reservoirs, puddling is lining the channel with waterproof clay. ...


Canals need to be flat and while small irregularities in the lie of the land can be dealt with through cuttings and embankments for larger deviations other approaches have been adopted. Currently the most common is the pound lock which consists of a chamber within which the water level can be raised or lowered connecting either two bits of canal at a different level or the canal with a river or the sea. When there is a hill to be climbed flights of many locks in short succession may be used. Canal locks in England. ...

The flight of 16 locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal, Wiltshire, England
The flight of 16 locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal, Wiltshire, England

Prior to the development of the pound lock in 984AD in China by Chhaio Wei-Yo[7] and later in Europe in the 15th century either flash locks consisting of a single gate were used or ramps sometimes equipped with rollers were used to change level. Flash locks were only really practical where there was a large amount of water available. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1815 × 1380 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 789 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1815 × 1380 pixel, file size: 1. ... The flight of 16 locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal Caen Hill Locks are a flight of locks on the Kennet and Avon Canal, at Devizes, Wiltshire England. ... The canal at Bathampton, near Bath The Kennet and Avon Canal is a canal in southern England. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Canal locks in England. ...


Locks use a lot of water so some builders have adopted other approaches. These include boat lifts which involve caisson of water in which boats float being moved between two levels and inclined planes where a caisson is hauled up a steep railway. Strépy-Thieu boat lift (Belgium). ... Inclined plane on Marne-Rhine Canal An inclined plane is a system used on some canals for raising boats between different water levels. ...


For smaller drops in the land where an embankment would be impractical (such as when passing over a river) aqueducts are sometimes used. This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ...


Another option when dealing with hills was to tunnel through them. An example of this approach is the Harecastle Tunnels on the Trent and Mersey Canal. Tunnels are only really practical for smaller canals. Harecastle Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal. ... The Trent and Mersey Canal is a canal linking the River Trent at Shardlow in Derbyshire to the River Mersey at Runcorn in Cheshire. ...


For moving cargos between land and boats the solutions used tend to be much the same as those used on rivers with quays with or without cranes being by far the most common method.


Cities on water

Canals are so deeply identified with Venice that many canal cities have been nicknamed "the Venice of..." The city is built on marshy islands, with wooden piles supporting the buildings, so that there is not so much the waterways which are man-made, as the land. The islands have a long history of settlement, and by the 12th century Venice was a powerful city state. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ...

Tourist boats, also known as canal-bus, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Tourist boats, also known as canal-bus, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Amsterdam was built in a similar way, with buildings on wooden piles. The pace of draining of fenland and polder in the Low Countries quickened in the 14th century and canalization made the village of Amsterdam a port. It became a city around 1300. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Satellite image of Noordoostpolder, Netherlands (595. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ...


Other famous canal cities include Brugge in Flanders, Birmingham in England and St Petersburg in Russia. Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Anthem De Vlaamse Leeuw (The Flemish Lion) Location of Belgian Flanders in Europe The Flemish Region Capital Brussels Official languages Dutch1 Recognised regional languages Flemish: Dutch Brussels: French and Dutch Government  -  Minister-President Kris Peeters Area  -  Total 13,522 km²   sq mi  Population  -  2006 [1] census 6,078,600   -  Density... Birmingham (pron. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Canal estates are a form of subdivision popular in cities like Miami, Florida and the Gold Coast, Queensland; the Gold Coast has over 700 km of residential canals. Wetlands are difficult areas upon which to build housing estates, so dredging part of the wetland down to a navigable channel provides fill to build up another part of the wetland above the flood level for houses. Land is built up in a finger pattern that provides a suburban street layout of waterfront housing blocks. This practice is not popular with environmentalists. For other uses, see Miami (disambiguation). ... Gold Coast is a city and local government area in the southeast corner of Queensland, Australia. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A river or canal is Navigatable if the water is deep and wide enough, and not flowing too fast. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ...


Boats

Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks on the Panama Canal
Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks on the Panama Canal

While coastal canals and ship canals have tended to be used by whichever boats will fit, inland canals have often have had boats specifically built for them. An example of this is the British narrowboat which is up to 72 feet long and 7 feet wide as was primarily built for British midland canals. In this case the limiting factor was the size of the locks. The size of the locks is also the limiting factor on the Panama canal where Panamax boats are limited to a length of 294.1 metres and a width of 32.3metres. For the lockless Suez Canal the limiting factor for Suezmaxes is generally draft which is limited to 16 meters. At the other end of the scale tub-boat canals such as the Bude Canal were limited to boats of under 10 tons for much of their length due to the capacity of their inclined planes or boat lifts. Most canals have a limit on height imposed either by bridges or tunnels. Download high resolution version (1500x1009, 123 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1009, 123 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... Miraflores is the name of one of the three locks that form part of the Panama Canal and the name of the small lake that separates these locks from the Pedro Miguel locks upstream. ... Moored narrowboats near Tardebigge, Worcestershire, England Horse drawing a narrowboat on the Kennet and Avon Canal. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... The Bude Canal was originally planed as a highly ambitious project to build about 95 miles of canal for taking mineral rich sand from Bude, England to the Cornish hinterland to improve the quality of the land. ...


Gallery

Miscellaneous

For a time in the early 20th century, it was believed that there were many canals on Mars. Map of Mars by Giovanni Schiaparelli. ...


Famous canals

Canal in the centre of Amsterdam.
Canal in the centre of Amsterdam.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x852, 367 KB)A canal in the centre of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2002-06-01 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (571x852, 367 KB)A canal in the centre of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2002-06-01 Source: http://www. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... The List of waterways is a link page for any river, canal, estuary or firth. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... Lingqu Canal (Simplified Chinese:灵渠,Traditional Chinese:靈渠, Pinyin: Líng Qú) is located in Xingan county, near Guilin, in Guangxi province, China. ... Birmingham Canal Navigations (BCN) is a network of canals linking Birmingham, England to Wolverhampton and the Black Country. ... The Birmingham and Fazeley Canal is a canal in the West Midlands of England, between Birmingham and Fazeley, just outside Tamworth. ... Floating market of Damnoen Saduak, Ratchaburi province A khlong (also commonly but less correctly called a klong; Thai คลอง) is a canal in the central plain of Thailand spawned by the Chao Phraya, the Ta Chi and the Mae Klong rivers. ... Gold Coast is a city and local government area in the southeast corner of Queensland, Australia. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... The Corinth Canal The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. ... Cape Cod Canal The Cape Cod Canal is a man-made waterway traversing the narrow neck of land that anchors Cape Cod to mainland Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Old section of the canal, and boat lift no. ... La Louvière is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... The Albert Canal is a canal located in northeastern Belgium. ... Saimaa Canal (Finnish: Saimaan kanava, Swedish: Saima kanal) is a canal in a system of 120 interconnected lakes in the south-central and south-east part of Finland. ... Lappeenranta (or Villmanstrand in Swedish) is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about 30 km from the Russian border. ... A map of the White Sea–Baltic Sea Canal. ... A ship transits the Welland Canal, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Canal at Swains Lock The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, also known as the C&O Canal, operated from 1850 until 1924 parallel to the Potomac River in Maryland from Cumberland, Maryland to Washington, DC. The total length of the canal is about 182 miles (300 km). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Locks in Summer The Rideau Canal, also known as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The Shubenacadie Canal is a Canadian canal in central Nova Scotia, linking Halifax Harbour with Shubenacadie Grand Lake and hence the Shubenacadie River which drains into the Bay of Fundy. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Lachine Canal in 1920 The Lachine Canal (Canal de Lachine in French) is a canal passing through the southwestern part of the Island of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, through the boroughs of Lachine and Le Sud-Ouest on land originally granted by the King of France to the Sulpician Order. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The canal at its Manchester end, looking towards Old Trafford. ... The Danube-Black Sea Canal is a canal in Romania which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube to Agigea (southern arm) and Năvodari (northern arm) on the Black Sea. ... Californias Delta-Mendota Canal is a 120-mile-long component of the Central Valley Project, a system of irrigation and hydroelectric canals and dams. ... Bergs slussar (locks) at Berg near Linköping, descending to lake Roxen Göta Kanal is a Swedish canal constructed in the early 19th century. ...

Lists of Canals

The following is a List of canals in the United States: Transportation Canals in operation Augusta Canal Cal-Sag Channel (Chicago) Cape Cod Canal (Massachusetts) Cascades Canal Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, part of the Illinois Waterway Dalles-Celilo Canal Delaware Canal (Pennsylvania) Delaware & Raritan Canal... This is a list of navigable canals that are at least partially located in France. ... This is a list of navigable canals that are at least partially located in Germany. ... This article covers the island of Ireland, that is, both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland Grand Canal Royal Canal Ballymore/Ballyconnell Canal See Also Rivers of Ireland Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Ireland ... For canals of Northern Ireland see the Canals of Ireland article // History See History of the British canal system for a more detailed history. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
canals

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... Strépy-Thieu boat lift (Belgium). ... Canal locks in England. ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking on a special road along the canal, the tow-path. ... Moored narrowboats near Tardebigge, Worcestershire, England Horse drawing a narrowboat on the Kennet and Avon Canal. ... The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project proposes linking the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka by creating a shipping canal through the shallow sea sometimes called Setu Samudram, and through the island chain of Ramas Bridge, also known as Adams Bridge. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flow rate, also volume flow rate and rate of fluid flow, is the volume of fluid which passes through a given volume per unit time (for example gallons per minute or squeaks per parsec). ... Magdeburg Water Bridge in Magdeburg, Germany (completed in 2003). ... Waterway restoration is the activity of restoring a canal or river, including special features such as warehouse buildings, locks, boat lifts, and boats. ... Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. ... A weigh lock is a specialized canal lock designed to determine the weight of barges in order to asses toll payments based upon the weight and value of the cargo carried. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  2. ^ Charles Hadfield World Canals: Inland Navigation Past and Present Page 16 ISBN 0-7153-8555-0
  3. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 269.
  4. ^ The International Canal Monuments List
  5. ^ Volga-Baltic Waterway
  6. ^ Charles Hadfield World Canals: Inland Navigation Past and Present Page 191 ISBN 0-7153-8555-0
  7. ^ Charles Hadfield World Canals: Inland Navigation Past and Present Page 22 ISBN 0-7153-8555-0

Volga-Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea. ...

References

  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.

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