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Encyclopedia > Canadians of convenience

The term "Canadians of convenience" became prominent in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. It is a pejorative term intended to refer to multiple citizenship Canadians who immigrated to Canada, met the residency requirement to obtain citizenship, moved back to their original home country, but continue to hold onto their Canadian citizenship, with those who support the term claiming they do so as a safety net. Statistics and analyses are unavailable on the distinction between evacuees who were long-term residents of Lebanon and those who were not and on how many of the long-term residents had returned to Lebanon immediately after acquiring their Canadian citizenship. Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ... Citizenship in Canada can be obtained by a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years before applying for citizenship and be able to speak English or French. ... The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by the state (such as welfare, unemployment insurance, universal healthcare, homeless shelters, and perhaps various subsidized services such as transit), which prevent any individual from falling into poverty beyond a certain level. ...


Coining of the term

Although the term was used by others (such as Peter Worthington of the Toronto Sun) earlier during the conflict in Lebanon, it was made most prominent by posts by Garth Turner, a then Conservative MP for Halton, on his blog, and the subsequent reactions. Turner questioned the fairness of paying CAD$75,000 for each evacuee, saying, among other things, "that’s a hell of a lot of money to donate to people who do not live here, don’t pay taxes here, and may never come here again in their lives." The actual cost was about $6,300 for each evacuee ($94 million for 15,000 people). Peter Worthington (born February 16, 1927) is a Canadian journalist. ... The Toronto Sun is an English language daily newspaper published in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... John Garth Turner, PC, MP, BA, MA (born March 14, 1949) is a Canadian business journalist, broadcaster, and politician. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of November 10, 2005. ... Halton is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada, represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1867 to 1988 and since 1997, and in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1867 to 1902 and since 1999. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The National Post has asserted, with no evidence, that of the 15,000 evacuated, about 7,000 may have returned to Lebanon within a month of being evacuated. [1]

Support of the term

Turner was criticized by some for suggesting that there are two classes of Canadian citizens. Other editorials supported the use of the phrase Canadians of convenience and said many immigrants meet their minimum residence requirement to gain Canadian citizenship (which, since 1977, can essentially never be revoked -- see History of Canadian nationality law), leave the country, and only call upon their Canadian citizenship again when in need of publicly-funded medicare (e.g., for an operation) or emergency evacuation from a war zone. The Economist noted that "Of the 5.5 million Canadians born abroad, 560,000 declared in the most recent census that they hold passports from another country. This feeds the belief that some are using Canada as a safety net." Canada was the second nation in the then British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act 1946. ... The term medicare (in lowercase) (French: assurance maladie) is the unofficial name for Canadas universal public health insurance system. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...

Government policy

The official policy of the government of Canada is that a dual-citizen is the responsibility of the foreign government when living in the foreign country; however, in practice Canada generally does not distinguish between dual-citizen and single-citizen Canadians, as was the case during the 2006 evacuation from Lebanon. Prime Minister Stephen Harper said he plans to review current practice. Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...

Canada permits multiple citizenship. Some countries do not grant citizenship to new applicants unless they renounce their original citizenship. For example, Canada currently grants Canadian citizenship to Chinese applicants without requiring that they give up Chinese citizenship; however, Canadians applying for Chinese citizenship are required by China to "not retain foreign nationality."[1] Other countries that do not allow multiple citizenship include Norway and South Korea. Persons from those countries who become a Canadian citizen may lose their original citizenship because of the laws of the other country. Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ...

Unlike some of the countries mentioned above, Israel allows multiple citizenship. However, it bars its passport holders from holding citizenship of an enemy state (mostly citizenships from Arab states). Also, Canadians who hold Saudi citizenship are permitted by the Canadian government to keep it but, like most Saudis who hold non-Saudi citizenship, keep their foreign citizenship confidential while in the Kingdom. This is because it is illegal to carry more than one passport in Saudi Arabia. If a second passport is discovered, it will be confiscated[2],[3],[4],[5], and the bearer may be arrested. Arab States redirects here. ...

See also

Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... In economics and political science, free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. ... This article is about the emigration term. ... Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ... The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The purpose of the Oath of Citizenship, as opposed to the Oath of Allegiance, is for new Canadian citizens to pledge their loyalty not only to the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, as representative of the State, but also to the laws and customs of their new country. ... The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


  • "Convenient Canadians", The Toronto Sun, 21 July 2006
  • "Here's your torch", The Turner Report, 29 July 2006, URL accessed 6 September 2006
  • "Letter from Egypt", The Turner Report, 7 August 2006, URL accessed 6 September 2006
  • "I'm a lumberjack, and you're not", The Economist, 3 August 2006, URL accessed 6 September 2006
  • "O Canada, do we stand on guard for thee?", Macleans, 7 August 2006, URL accessed 6 September 2006
  • Dual Citizenship Faces Review, National Post, 21 September 2006, URL accessed 21 September 2006
  • The Passport Package: Rethinking the Citizenship Benefits of Non-Resident Canadians, C.D. Howe Institute, Backgrounder, No. 99, December 2006, URL accessed 6 December 2006

The Toronto Sun is a large English language newspaper published in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Macleans is Canadas leading weekly news magazine. ... The National Post is a Canadian English-language national newspaper based in Don Mills, Ontario, a district of Toronto. ... --BaronLarf 16:30, August 17, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


  1. ^ Articles 13 of the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, URL accessed 21 October 2006



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