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Encyclopedia > Canadian nationalism


Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. It has also been applied to movements promoting pride in the nation, race, culture, heritage, general values or traditions of Canada, though there is usually a distinction drawn between Canadian nationalism and more general patriotism. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 661 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1412 × 1280 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flag of Canada flying in the wind, taken by the uploader. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 661 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1412 × 1280 pixel, file size: 703 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flag of Canada flying in the wind, taken by the uploader. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


Most self-identified Canadian nationalists today are generally members of the mainstream left and oppose the economic and cultural "Americanization" of Canada. There are some right-wing nationalists, and they will generally put more emphasis on preserving Canada's British and French heritage. What all Canadian nationalists have in common is an interest in at least one of the following: “Leftism” redirects here. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...

  • Appreciation of the great historic epics and national myths of Canadian history
  • Preservation of national unity
  • Preservation of economic independence
  • Preservation of political independence
  • Preservation or promotion of Canadian culture

In general, Canadian nationalists are highly concerned about the protection of Canadian sovereignty. It has likewise often been suggested that anti-Americanism, or at least hostility towards the United States often plays a prominent role in Canadian nationalist ideologies. When nationalists speak of "independence", it is widely understood that the actual meaning is "independence from the United States". Canadian nationalists may in fact promote stronger ties to other nations, and encourage closer integration with the European Union or the United Nations as a way of offsetting US influences. A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nations past. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... It has been said that Canadian culture rests solely in the effort to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour, the United States. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


One of Canada's most aggressive nationalist leaders former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker once explained his views to the New York Times by expressing "I am not anti-American. But I am strongly pro-Canadian." John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Contents

History of Canadian Nationalism

The goal of all economic and political nationalists has been the creation and than maintainance of Canadian sovereignty. During Canada's colonial past there were various movements in both Upper Canada (present day Ontario) and Lower Canada (present day Quebec) to acheive independence from the British Empire. These culminated in the failed Rebellions of 1837. Afterwards Canadian patriots began focusing on self government and political reform within the British Empire. This was a cause championed by early Liberals such as the Reform Party (pre-Confederation) and the Clear Grits. While Canada's early Conservatives, supported by loyalist institutions and big business supported stronger links to Britain. Following the achievement of constitutional independence in 1867 (Confederation) both of Canada's main parties followed separate nationalistic themes. The early Liberal Party of Canada generally favoured greater diplomatic and military independence from the British Empire while the early Conservative Party of Canada fought for economic independence from the United States. Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... The Reform movement, sometimes referred to as the Reform Party, began in the 1830s as the movement in the English speaking parts of British North America (Canada). ... Clear Grits were Upper Canadian reformers with support concentrated among southwestern Ontario farmers, who were frustrated and disillusioned by the 1849 Reform government of Robert Baldwin and Louis_Hippolyte Lafontaines lack of radicalism. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ...


Starting before Confederation in 1867 the debate over Free Trade virsus protectionism was a defining issue in Canadian politics. Nationalists, along with British loyalists were opposed to the idea of free trade or reciprocity for fear of having to compete with American industry and losing sovereignty to the United States. This issue dominated Canadian politics during the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the Tories taking a populist, anti-free trade stance. Conservative leader, Sir John A. Macdonald advocated an agenda of economic nationalism known as the National Policy which was very popular in the industrialized Canadian east. While the Liberal Party of Canada took a more classical liberal approach and supported the idea of an "open market" with the United States, something feared in eastern Canada but popular with farmers in western Canada [1]. The National Policy also included plans to expand Canadian territory into the western prairies and populate the west with immigrants. Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ...


In each "free trade election", the Liberals were defeated, forcing them to give up on the idea. For decades afterwards, the issue was not re-visited until the 1980s when the issue was resurrected by Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Mulroney reversed his party's protectionist tradition, and, after claiming to be against free trade during his leadership campaign in 1983, went forward with negotiations for a free trade agreement with the United States. His government believed that this would cure Canada's ills and unemployment, which had been caused by a growing deficit and a terrible economic recession during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The agreement was drawn up in 1987 and an election was held on the issue in 1988. The Liberals, in a reversal of their traditional role, campaigned against free trade under former Prime Minister John Turner. The Tories won the election with a large majority, partially due to Mulroney's support in Quebec among Quebec nationalists to whom he promised "distinct society" status for their province. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... In macroeconomics, the definition of recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... John Napier Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ...


Despite the majority victory in the election of 1988 opponents of free trade pointed to the fact that the PC Party of Brian Mulroney received a majority of seats in parliament with only 43% of the vote while together the Liberal Party and New Democratic Party both of whom opposed the agreement received 51% of the vote. Showing opposition from a clear majority of the population. Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ...


Another early source of pan-Canadian nationalism came from Quebec in the early 20th century. Henri Bourassa, Mayor of Montebello and one-time Liberal Member of Parliament created the Canadian Nationalist League (Ligue nationaliste canadienne) supporting an independent role for Canada in foreign affairs opposed to both British and American imperialism [2]. Bourassa also supported Canadian economic autonomy. Bourassa was instrumental in defeating Sir Wilfrid Laurier in the federal election of 1911 over the issue of a Canadian Navy controlled by the British Empire, something he furiously opposed. Ironically he aided the Conservative Party of Sir Robert Borden in that election, a party with strong British imperialist sympathies [3]. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Henri Bourassa Joseph-Napoléon-Henri Bourassa (September 1, 1868- August 30, 1952) was a French Canadian political leader and publisher. ... View of Montebello and Pico Rivera from Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier, notice the Downtown Los Angeles skyline in the distant background Montebello is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... The Ligue nationaliste canadienne, also known as the Ligue nationaliste, was a nationalist and anti-imperialist organization in Quebec, Canada during the early 20th century. ... Laurier re-directs here. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1911 election The Canadian federal election of 1911 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Conservative Party may refer to: Conservative Party of Canada (since 2003) Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-2003) Conservative Party of Canada (historical) (until 1942) Conservative Party (Chile) (historical) Colombian Conservative Party Conservative Peoples Party (Denmark) New Zealand Conservative Party (defunct) Conservative Party of Nicaragua Norwegian Conservative Party (H... Sir Robert Laird Borden (June 26, 1854–June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911 to July 10, 1920. ...


In the Federal election of 1917 he was also instrumental in opposing the Borden government's plan for conscription and as a result assisted the Laurier Liberals in Quebec. His vision of a unified, bi-cultural, tolerant and sovereign Canada remains an ideological inspiration to many Canadian nationalists. Alternatively his French Canadian nationalism and support for maintaining French Canadian culture would inspire Quebec nationalists many of whom were supporters of the Quebec sovereignty movement. The Canadian parliament after the 1917 election The 1917 Canadian federal election (sometimes referred to as the khaki election) was held on December 17, 1917, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 13th Parliament of Canada. ... Prior to the 1917 federal election in Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada split into two factions: the Laurier Liberals, who opposed conscription of soldiers to support Canadas involvement in World War I and who were led by former Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier; and the Liberal Unionists who... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ...


Modern attempts at forming a popular Canadian nationalist party have failed. The National Party of Canada was the most succesful of recent attempts, led by historian Mel Hurtig the Nationals recieved more than 183, 000 votes or 1.38% of the popular vote in 1993. Infighting however led to the party's demise shortly afterwards, this was followed by the formation of the Canadian Action Party in 1997. Created by a former Liberal Minister of Defence named Paul Hellyer the CAP has failed to attract significant attention from the electorate since that time. An organic farmer and nationalist activist from Saskatchewan named David Orchard attempted to bring a nationalist agenda to the forefront of the former Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Inspite of attracting thousands of new members to a declining party he was unsuccesful in taking over the leadership and preventing the merger with the former Canadian Alliance [4] [5]. The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... Mel Hurtig (born June 24, 1932) is a Canadian publisher, author, political activist and former political candidate. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... The Canadian Action Party (CAP) is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1997. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Honourable Paul Theodore Hellyer, PC (born August 6, 1923 in Waterford, Ontario) is a Canadian politician and commentator who has had a long and varied career. ... Organic farming is a way of farming that avoids the use of synthetic chemicals and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and usually subscribes to the principles of sustainable agriculture. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ...


At present and for most of the late 20th century, the centre-left, social democratic, New Democratic Party (NDP) has by far been the most popular voice of Canadian nationalist viewpoints. In politics, the term centre-left is commonly used to describe and denote political parties or organisations that stretch from the centre to the left or are moderately left-wing, as opposed to extreme left wing beliefs such as communism. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ...


Various activist/lobby groups such as the Council of Canadians, along with other progressive, environmentalist and labour groups have campaigned tirelessly against attempts to integrate the Canadian economy and harmonize government policies with that of the United States. They point to threats allegedly posed to Canada's environment, natural resources, social programs, the rights of Canadian workers and cultural institutions. These echo the concerns of a large segment of the Canadian population. The nationalist Council of Canadians took an a role of leadership in protesting discussions on the Security and Prosperity Partnership and earlier talks between previous Canadian and U.S. governments on "deep integration". The Council of Canadians is a left-wing think tank in Canada that was founded in 1985. ... Progressive can refer to: Progressive music, including Progressive rock, Progressive metal and Progressive electronica Political Progressivism Several Progressive Parties Progressive Era in the United States (1890-1913) Progressive, a company providing auto insurance The Progressive, a left-wing monthly magazine The progressive tense in grammar Progressive lenses, used to correct... Bold textHello ... labor may refer to: Work of any kind Wage labor, in which a worker sells their labor and the employer buys it Manual labor, physical work done by people Childbirth, especially from the start of uterine contractions to delivery Labor (economics), one of the three main factors of production Labor... The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America is a continent-level dialogue, founded on March 23, 2005 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. ... Deep integration is a term used to describe a plan to unite Canada and Mexico with the United States. ...


Criticism of Canadian nationalism

"Canadian nationalism," as it is widely understood today, is not synonymous with Canadian patriotism, but is rather a distinct political movement. Canadian nationalists will often argue that anyone who disagrees with their agenda is a "bad Canadian" or a "sell-out," a tactic which has earned them many critics. The Council of Canadians, for example, which bills itself as one of Canada's leading nationalist organizations, has always been extremely critical of rightwing (and centre-right) politicians and parties who support integration with the United States. Their most common targets have included former Prime Minster Brian Mulroney, current Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Preston Manning, Stockwell Day, the Canadian Alliance, the Conservative Party of Canada, amongst other conservative movements and individuals. In particular, the council routinely characterizes Canadian "neoconservatives" as being the individuals most responsible for destroying Canadian sovereignty from within. Conservative critics will thus often characterize modern Canadian nationalism as being a primarily leftist movement, allied too heavily with the Canadian labour movement and New Democratic Party. Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... The Council of Canadians is a left-wing think tank in Canada that was founded in 1985. ... Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a right-wing populist Canadian politician. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ...


There is also a political faction on the Left critical of what they call "left nationalism", arguing that it is a mistake to combine left politics with nationalism. Political currents which oppose left nationalism include the International Socialists, the New Socialist Group and Socialist Voice. However these organizations are marginal in terms of membership when compared to Canadian organizations of the Left that choose to embrace nationalism (such as the Council of Canadians and Canadian Labour Congress). Marxist theoreticians who have written critiques of left nationalism include William Carroll, David McNally, Paul Kellogg, Steve Moore and Debi Wells. In 2003, the debate took written form in the pages of Canadian Dimension and on a web-based publication ViveleCanada.ca. International Socialists is the name of the number of Trotskyist organisations in the International Socialist Tendency. ... The New Socialist Group is a Trotskyist organization led by professor David McNally of York University in Toronto, Ontario. ... The Council of Canadians is a left-wing think tank in Canada that was founded in 1985. ... The Canadian Labour Congress, or CLC (in French le Congrès du travail du Canada or CTC) is the central labour body in Canada to which most Canadian labour unions are affiliated. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Paul Kellogg was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1879. ... Canadian Dimension is a Canadian leftist magazine founded in 1963 by Cy Gonick, and published out of Winnipeg Manitoba 6 times a year. ...


List of self-identified nationalist groups in Canada

1. Leftwing and Centre-Left, Economic/Political and Cultural nationalist groups

The Waffle (also known as the Movement for an Independent Socialist Canada) was a radical wing of Canadas New Democratic Party and later an independent political party. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... David Lewis (born Losz),[1] CC, MA (June 23, or October 1909 -May 23, 1981)[1][2] was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician. ... A ginger group is a formal or informal grouping of people within a larger organisation that actively works for more radical change to the policies, practices or office-holders of the organisation, while still supporting the goals of the organisation. ... The New Politics Initiative (or NPI) was a faction of Canadas New Democratic Party. ... The Canadian Action Party (CAP) is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1997. ... Vive le Canada is an Internet-based grassroots organization stressing Canadian Nationalism. ... The Canadian National Federation is a Canadian political advocacy organization. ... The Council of Canadians is a left-wing think tank in Canada that was founded in 1985. ... The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Mel Hurtig (born June 24, 1932) is a Canadian publisher, author, political activist and former political candidate. ...

2. Far Right, ethnic nationalist and racist groups

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Canadian Heritage Alliance is a Canadian white supremacist organization that was founded in 2000 in Kitchener, Ontario and is now based in London, Ontario. ... The Nationalist Party of Canada is a white supremacist Canadian political party that was founded in 1977 in Toronto by Don Andrews (born Vilim Zlomislic), who continues as leader of the party. ... The Canada First movement was organized in Toronto in the 1870s to promote the creation of a Canadian nationality in the new country. ... The Confederation of Regions Party (CoR) was a right-wing Canadian political party founded in 1984 by Elmer Knutson. ... English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... The Confederation of Regions Party (CoR) was a right-wing Canadian political party founded in 1984 by Elmer Knutson. ... The term multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...

3. Examples of cultural Canadian government departments in charge of cultural nationalism

The Department of Canadian Heritage, also referred to as Heritage Canada or simply Department of Heritage, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, and sports and multiculturalism. ... The Heritage Canada Foundation (also known as Heritage Canada; in French, La fondation Héritage Canada also known as Héritage Canada) is a registered charity with the mandate to encourage the protection and promotion of the built, natural, historic and scenic heritage of Canada. ... The Canada Council for the Arts, commonly called the Canada Council, was introduced by Parliament in 1957. ...

Some important historical Canadian nationalist leaders

“Trudeau” redirects here. ... William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... George-Étienne Cartier The Honourable Sir George-Étienne Cartier, KBE, PC (September 6, 1814 – May 20, 1873) was a French-Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation. ... Henri Bourassa Joseph-Napoléon-Henri Bourassa (September 1, 1868- August 30, 1952) was a French Canadian political leader and publisher. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... James Laxer (b. ... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... Maude Barlow Maude Victoria Barlow (born May 19, 1947) is a Canadian author and activist. ...

See also

Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... The term multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...

Links to economic nationalist parties/organizations


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