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Encyclopedia > Canadian football
Diagram of a Canadian football field.
Diagram of a Canadian football field.
Footballs and a helmet at a CFL team practice.

Canadian football is a form of football played chiefly in Canada in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100.6 m) long and 65 yards (59.4 m) wide, attempting to advance a prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's end zone. In Canada, the term football is used to refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or either sport specifically, depending on the context. The two sports have shared origins and are closely related; there are, however, significant differences: see comparison of Canadian and American football for a detailed comparison. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 756 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2900 × 2300 pixel, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 756 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2900 × 2300 pixel, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 411 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 411 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... CFL is an acronym for: Canadian Football League Compact fluorescent light bulb Continental Football League Courant, Fredericks and Lewy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Diagram of a Canadian football field Diagram of an American football field Canadian and American football are very similar, as both have their origins in rugby. ...


Rugby football in Canada had its origins in the early 1860s,[1] and over time, the unique code known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League (CFL), the sport's top professional league, and Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1884 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union. Currently active teams such as the Toronto Argonauts and Hamilton Tiger-Cats have similar longevity. The CFL is the most popular and only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is the country's single largest sporting event and is watched by nearly one third of Canadian television households.[2] Canadian football is also played at the high school, junior, collegiate, and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League and Quebec Junior Football League are a large league for players aged 18-22, many post-secondary institutions compete in Canadian Interuniversity Sport for the Vanier Cup, and senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... “CFL” redirects here. ... Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... The Toronto Argonauts are a Canadian Football League team based in Toronto, Ontario. ... The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Flying Wildcats. ... Then Prime Minister Joe Clark presents the 1979 Grey Cup to victorious Edmonton Eskimos Danny Kepley and Tom Wilkinson. ... CJFL Logo The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 20 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. ... The Quebec Junior Football League operated from 1970 to the present, as a successor to the Quebec Juvenile Football League. ... Not to be confused with CIS national football team or CIS (rugby). ... The Vanier Cup (French: Coupe Vanier) is the championship trophy of Canadian Interuniversity Sport mens football. ... The Alberta Football League (AFL) is a semi-professional Canadian football competition. ... The Canadian Football Hall of Fame officially opened as a museum to dedicate football in Canada on November 28, 1972. ...

Contents

History

A game between the Hamilton Tigers and an unknown Ottawa team, 1910.
A game between the Hamilton Tigers and an unknown Ottawa team, 1910.
A game between the 4th Canadian Armoured Division Atoms and 1st Canadian Army Red and Blue Bombers, in Utrecht, Netherlands, October 1945.
A game between the 4th Canadian Armoured Division Atoms and 1st Canadian Army Red and Blue Bombers, in Utrecht, Netherlands, October 1945.
Touchdown monument outside the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in Hamilton, Ontario.
Touchdown monument outside the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in Hamilton, Ontario.

The first documented football match was a game played at University College, University of Toronto on November 9, 1861. A football club was formed at the university soon afterwards, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. Image File history File linksMetadata Ottawa_and_Hamilton_Tigers_football_game_5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ottawa_and_Hamilton_Tigers_football_game_5. ... The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Flying Wildcats. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... List of military divisions — List of Canadian divisions in WWII The Canadian 4th Armoured Division was created by conversion of 4th Canadian Infantry Division at the beginning of 1942 in United Kingdom in August and October. ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2400, 1010 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Hamilton, Ontario Canadian Football Hall of Fame List of attractions in Hamilton, Ontario ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2400, 1010 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Hamilton, Ontario Canadian Football Hall of Fame List of attractions in Hamilton, Ontario ... The Canadian Football Hall of Fame officially opened as a museum to dedicate football in Canada on November 28, 1972. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... UC during winter time University College, University of Toronto (abbreviated as UC) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Toronto. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. However, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game of rugby played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The title of the worlds oldest football club, or the oldest club in a particular country, is often disputed, or is claimed by several different clubs, across several different codes of football. ...


Rugby soon became popular at McGill University. This varsity play helped to evolve the game now known as American football in the United States, after McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874. (Rutgers and Princeton had played the first American college game in 1869 and other schools had their own early football origins developing at this time.) McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Rutgers University Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is located in New Brunswick, Piscataway, Camden and Newark, New Jersey. ... In the United States Princeton is the name of several places in the United States of America: Princeton, Florida Princeton, Illinois Princeton, Indiana Princeton, Iowa Princeton, Kansas Princeton, Kentucky Princeton, Louisiana Princeton, Maine Princeton, Massachusetts Princeton, Minnesota Princeton, Missouri Princeton, New Jersey Princeton, North Carolina Princeton, South Carolina Princeton, Texas...


Predecessors of the Canadian Football League included the Canadian Rugby Football Union (CRFU), and the Canadian Rugby Union. The CRFU, original forerunner to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1882. Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ...


As the rules of American football are very similar to Canadian football, the CFL has maintained a close relationship with its American counterpart, the National Football League (NFL). Many American players come to the CFL after failed bids to catch on in the NFL. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... NFL redirects here. ...


League play

Canadian football is played at several levels in Canada. The professional league in which the sport is played is the eight-team Canadian Football League (CFL), and its champion is awarded the Grey Cup, the oldest trophy in professional football. The CFL regular season begins in June, and play-offs are completed by mid-November. In cities with outdoor stadiums such as Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Montreal, Hamilton, and Regina, low temperatures and icy field conditions can seriously affect the outcome of a game. “CFL” redirects here. ... Then Prime Minister Joe Clark presents the 1979 Grey Cup to victorious Edmonton Eskimos Danny Kepley and Tom Wilkinson. ... This article is about the Canadian city. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Nickname: Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Location of Regina in the SE quadrant of Saskatchewan Coordinates: , Country Province District Municipality of Sherwood Established 1882 Government  - City Mayor Pat Fiacco  - Governing body Regina City Council  - MPs Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer  - MLAs Joanne Crofford Doreen Hamilton Ron...


Amateur football is governed by Football Canada. At the university level, 27 teams play in four conferences under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport; the CIS champion is awarded the Vanier Cup. Junior football is played by many after high school before joining the university ranks. There are 20 junior teams in 3 divisions in the Canadian Junior Football League competing for the Canadian Bowl. Also the Quebec Junior Football League included team from Ontario and Quebec battle for the Manson Cup Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... CIS Logo Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) is the national governing body of university sport in Canada. ... The Vanier Cup (French: Coupe Vanier) is the championship trophy of Canadian Interuniversity Sport mens football. ... CJFL Logo The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 20 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. ... List of Canadian Bowl Championships 2006 Vancouver Island Raiders - 27 Edmonton Wildcats - 26 2005 Edmonton Huskies - 34 St Leonard Cougars - 15 2004 Edmonton Huskies 24 Okanagan Sun 7 2003 Saskatoon Hilltops 59 Victoria Rebels 0 2002 Saskatoon Hilltops 20 St. ...


Semi-professional leagues have grown in popularity in recent years, with the Alberta Football League becoming especially popular. The Canadian Major Football League is the governing body for the semi-professional game. A semi-professional athlete is one who is paid money to play and thus is not an amateur, but for whom sport is not a full-time occupation, generally because the level of pay is too low to make a reasonable living based solely upon that source, thus making the... The Alberta Football League (AFL) is a semi-professional Canadian football competition. ...


The field

The Canadian football field is 110 yards (100.6 m) long and 65 yards (59.4 m) wide with end zones 20 yards (18.3 m) deep. At each goal line is a set of forty-foot (12.2 m) high goalposts, which consist of two uprights joined by a crossbar 18.5 feet (5.6 m) long which is ten feet (3.1 m) above the goal line. The goalposts may be H-shaped (both posts fixed in the ground) although in the higher-calibre competitions the tuning-fork design (supported by a single curved post behind the goal line, so that each post starts ten feet (3.1 m) above the ground) is preferred. The sides of the field are marked by white sidelines, the goal line is marked in white, and white lines are drawn laterally across the field every 5 yards (4.6 m) from the goal line. A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... On the sporting field, goalposts are posts between which players must carry, kick or pass a ball or similar object in order to score points, or simply a goal. ...


Play of the game

Teams advance across the field through the execution of quick, distinct plays, which involve the possession of a brown, prolate spheroid ball with ends tapered to a point. The ball has two one-inch-wide stripes. A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ...


Kickoff

Play begins with one team place-kicking the ball from its own 35-yard line. Both teams then attempt to catch the ball. The player who recovers the ball may run while holding the ball, or throw the ball to a teammate, so long as the throw is not forward.


Stoppage of play

Play stops when the ball carrier's knee, elbow, or any other body part aside from the feet and hands, is forced to the ground (a tackle); when a touchdown (see below) or a field goal is scored; when the ball leaves the playing area by any means (being carried, thrown, or fumbled out of bounds); or when the ball carrier is in a standing position but can no longer move. If no score has been made, the next play starts from scrimmage.


Scrimmage

Before scrimmage, an official places the ball at the spot it became dead, but no nearer than 24 yards from the sideline or 1 yard from the goal line. The line parallel to the goal line passing through the ball (line from sideline to sideline for the length of the ball) is referred to as the line of scrimmage. This line is a sort of "no-man's land"; players must stay on their respective sides of this line until the play has begun again. For a scrimmage to be valid the team in possession of the football must have seven players, excluding the quarterback, within one yard of the line of scrimmage. The defending team, however, must stay a yard or more back from the line of scrimmage.


Live play

Montreal Alouettes quarterback Anthony Calvillo looks down field with the ball during the 93rd Grey Cup game at BC Place.
Montreal Alouettes quarterback Anthony Calvillo looks down field with the ball during the 93rd Grey Cup game at BC Place.
Edmonton's Commonwealth Stadium: the largest venue in the Canadian Football League and the only one with a natural grass playing surface.
Edmonton's Commonwealth Stadium: the largest venue in the Canadian Football League and the only one with a natural grass playing surface.

On the field at the beginning of a play are two teams of 12 (unlike 11 in American Football). The team in possession of the ball is the offence and the team defending is referred to as the defence. Play begins with a backwards pass through the legs by a member of the offensive team, to the quarterback or punter. If the quarterback or punter receives the ball, he may then do any of the following: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 762 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Canadian Football League Grey Cup 93rd Grey Cup Anthony Calvillo Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 762 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Canadian Football League Grey Cup 93rd Grey Cup Anthony Calvillo Metadata This file contains additional information... The Montreal Alouettes (French: Alouettes de Montréal) are a Canadian Football League team based in Montreal, Quebec. ... Anthony Calvillo looks down field with the ball during the 93rd Grey Cup game. ... Date November 27, 2005 Stadium BC Place Stadium City Vancouver Most Valuable Player Ricky Ray, Edmonton Most Valuable Canadian Mike Maurer, Edmonton Parade Marshall Pamela Anderson National Anthem Jully Black Coin toss Rt. ... BC Place Stadium is Canadas first domed stadium. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 608 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Canadian Football League Sport in Canada ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 608 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian football Canadian Football League Sport in Canada ... Commonwealth Stadium is a venue located in the Norwood Area of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, primarily used by the Edmonton Eskimos of the CFL. Built in 1978 to host the Commonwealth Games, the stadium seats 60,081 (for regular season football)[1] but can be expanded. ... “CFL” redirects here. ...

  • run with the ball, attempting to run farther down field (gaining yardage). The ball-carrier may run in any direction he sees fit (including backwards).
  • drop-kick the ball, dropping it onto the ground and kicking it on the bounce. (This play is exceedingly rare in both Canadian and American football, although in the Canadian game it is sometimes used as a last-second "desperation play" if the team is behind by less than three points.)
  • pass the ball laterally or backwards to a teammate. This play is known as a lateral, and may come at any time on the play. A pass which has any amount of forward momentum is a forward pass (see below); forward passes are subject to many restrictions which do not apply to laterals.
  • hand-off--hand the ball off to a teammate, typically a running back or the fullback.
  • punt the ball; dropping it in the air and kicking it before it touches the ground.
  • place the ball on the ground for a place kick
  • throw a forward pass, where the ball is thrown to a receiver located farther down field (closer to the opponent's goal) than the thrower is. Forward passes are subject to the following restrictions:
    • They must be made from behind the line of scrimmage
    • Only one forward pass may be made on a play
    • The pass must be made in the direction of an eligible receiver.

Each play constitutes a down. The offence must advance the ball at least ten yards towards the opponents' goal line within three downs or forfeit the ball to their opponents. Once ten yards have been gained the offence gains a new set of three downs (rather than the four downs given in American Football). It must be noted that they do not accumulate, so that if one completes 10 yards on their first play, they lose the other two downs, instead of being granted three on top of their remaining two. If a team fails to gain ten yards in two downs they usually punt the ball on third down or try to kick a field goal (see below), depending on their position on the field. A field goal (formerly goal from the field) in American football and Canadian football (collectively called gridiron football) is a goal that may be scored during general play (from the field). Execution of a field goal A field goal may be scored by a placekick or the very rare drop...


Change in possession

The ball changes possession in the following instances:

  • If the offence scores; the defence has the right to claim possession (either by starting from scrimmage at their own 35 yard line, or by receiving a kickoff). The defence may also elect to kick the ball to their opponents; teams with a strong place-kicker and a stout defence may choose to do this to gain better field position for their own offence. This also applies when the defence scores on a turnover which is returned for a touchdown — technically, they become the offence for the conclusion of the play, and the scored-upon team has the right to claim possession.
  • If the defence scores on a safety, they have the right to claim possession.
  • If one team kicks the ball; the other team has the right to recover the ball and attempt a return. If a kicked ball goes out of bounds, or the kicking team scores a single or field goal as a result of the kick, the other team likewise gets possession.
  • If the offence fails to make ten yards in three plays, the defence takes over on downs.
  • If the offence attempts a forward pass and it is intercepted by the defence; the defence takes possession immediately (and may try and advance the ball on the play). Note that incomplete forward passes (those which go out of bounds, or which touch the ground without being first cleanly caught by a player) result in the end of the play, and are not returnable by either team.
  • If the offence fumbles (a ball carrier drops the football, or has it dislodged by an opponent, or if the intended player fails to catch a lateral pass or a snap from centre, or a kick attempt is blocked by an opponent), the ball may be recovered (and advanced) by either team. If a fumbled ball goes out of bounds, the team whose player last touched it is awarded possession at the spot where it went out of bounds. A fumble by the offence in their own end zone, which goes out of bounds, results in a safety.
  • When the first half ends, the team which kicked to start the first half may receive a kickoff to start the second half.

Rules of contact

There are many rules to contact in this type of football. First, the only player on the field who may be legally tackled is the player currently in possession of the football (the ball carrier). Second, a receiver, that is to say, an offensive player sent down the field to receive a pass, may not be interfered with (have his motion impeded, be blocked, etc). unless he is within one yard of the line of scrimmage (as opposed to 5 yards in American football). Any player may block another player's passage, so long as he does not hold or trip the player he intends to block. The kicker may not be contacted after the kick, and the quarterback, having already thrown the ball, may not be hit or tackled.


Infractions and penalties

Infractions of the rules are punished with penalties, typically of 5, 10, or 15 yards. Minor violations such as offside (a player from either side encroaching into scrimmage zone before the play starts) are penalized five yards, more serious penalties (such as holding) are penalized 10 yards, and severe violations of the rules are typically penalized 15 yards. Depending on the penalty, the penalty yardage may be assessed from the original line of scrimmage, the spot the violation occurred, or the place the ball ended after the play. Penalties on the offence may, or may not, result in a loss of down; penalties on the defence may result in a first down being automatically awarded to the offence. For particularly severe conduct, the game official(s) may eject players (ejected players may be substituted for), or in exceptional cases, declare the game over and award victory to one side or the other. Penalties do not affect the yard line which the offence must reach in order to reach first down (unless the penalty results in a first down being awarded); if a penalty against the defence results in the first down yardage being attained, then the offence is awarded a first down.


Penalties may occur before a play starts (such as offsides), during the play (such as holding), or in a dead-ball situation (such as unsportsmanlike conduct). Unsportsmanlike conduct is a term used in most professional sports to refer to a particular player or team who have acted inappropriately and/or unprofessionally in the context of the game. ...


Penalties never result in a score for the offence (a penalty by the defence committed in their end zone is not ruled a touchdown); on rare occasions, penalties against the offence in their own end zone may result in a safety being scored by the defence. If the penalty yardage, once assessed would move the ball into an end zone (or further than half the distance between the end zone and the spot the penalty is assessed from), a penalty of half-the-distance is assessed instead. Note that in Canadian football (unlike American football), no scrimmage may start inside either one-yard line.


In most cases, the non-penalized team will have the option of declining the penalty; in which case the results of the previous play stand as if the penalty had not been called. One notable exception to this rule is if the kicking team on a 3rd down punt play is penalized before the kick occurs; the receiving team may not decline the penalty and take over on downs. (After the kick is made, change of possession occurs and subsequent penalties are assessed against either the spot where the ball is caught, or the runback).


Other kicks

Canadian football distinguishes three ways of kicking the ball:

Place kick 
Kicking a ball held on the ground by a teammate, or, on a kickoff (resuming play following a score), placed on a tee.
Drop kick 
Kicking a ball after bouncing it on the ground. Although rarely used today, it has the same status in scoring as a place kick. This play is part of the game's rugby heritage, and was largely made obsolete when the ball with pointed ends was adapted. Unlike the American game, Canadian rules allow a drop kick to be attempted at any time by any player, but the move is very rare.
Punt 
Kicking the ball after it has been released from the kicker's hand and before it hits the ground). Punts may not score a field goal, even if one should travel through the uprights. As with drop kicks, players may punt at any time.

On punts and field goal attempts (but not kickoffs), members of the kicking team, other than the kicker and any teammates who are onside (behind the kicker at the time of the kick), may not approach within five yards of the ball until it has been touched by the receiving team. A drop kick is someones dropping a ball and then kicking it when it bounces off the ground. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


Scoring

The methods of scoring are:

Touchdown 
Achieved when the ball is in possession of a player in the opponent's goal area, or when the ball in the possession of a player crosses or touches the plane of the opponent's goal-line, worth 6 points. A touchdown in Canadian football is often referred to as a "major score" or simply a "major."
Conversion (or Convert) 
After a touchdown, the team that scored attempts one scrimmage play from any point between the hash marks on or outside the opponents' 5-yard line. If they make what would normally be a field goal, they score one point; what would normally be a touchdown scores two points (a "two-point conversion"). It is also possible for the defence to score a safety (i.e. by recovering a turnover and running the ball all the way to their opponents' end zone). No matter what happens on the convert attempt, play then continues with a kickoff (see below).
Field goal 
Scored by a drop kick or place kick (except on a kickoff) when the ball, after being kicked and without again touching the ground, goes over the cross bar and between the goal posts (or goal posts produced) of the opponent's goal (worth three points).
Safety 
Scored when the ball becomes dead in the possession of a team in its own goal area, or when the ball touches or crosses the dead-line, or side-line-in-goal and touches the ground, a player, or some object beyond these lines as a result of the team scored against making a play. It is worth two points. This is different from a Single (see below) in that the team scored against begins with possession of the ball.
Single 
Scored when the ball becomes dead in the possession of a team in its own goal area, or when the ball touches or crosses the dead-line, or side-line-in-goal, and touches the ground, a player, or some object beyond these lines as a result of the ball having been kicked from the field of play into the goal area by the scoring team. It is worth one point. This is different from a Safety (see above) in that team scored against receives possession of the ball from a kick.
Officially, the single is called a rouge (French for "red") but is often simply referred to as a single. The exact derivation of the term is unknown but it has been thought that, in early Canadian football, the scoring of a single was signalled with a red flag.

Resumption of play

Resumption of play following a score is conducted under procedures which vary with the type of score.

  • Following a touchdown and convert attempt (successful or not), play resumes with the scoring team kicking off from its own 35-yard line (45-yard line in amateur leagues).
  • Following a field goal, the non-scoring team may choose for play to resume either with a kickoff as above, or by scrimmaging the ball from its own 35-yard line.
  • Following a safety, the scoring team may choose for play to resume in either of the above ways, or it may choose to kick off from its own 35-yard line.
  • Following a single, play resumes with the non-scoring team scrimmaging from its own 35-yard line.

Game timing

Montreal Alouettes cheerleaders entertain the crowd during a timeout in a game against the Hamilton Tiger-Cats at Molson Stadium, Montreal, 2006.
Montreal Alouettes cheerleaders entertain the crowd during a timeout in a game against the Hamilton Tiger-Cats at Molson Stadium, Montreal, 2006.

The game consists of two 30-minute halves, each of which is divided into two 15-minute quarters. The clock counts down from 15:00 in each quarter. Timing rules change when there are three minutes remaining in a half. A short break interval occurs after the end of each quarter (a longer break at halftime), and the two teams then change goals. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Montreal Alouettes (French: Alouettes de Montréal) are a Canadian Football League team based in Montreal, Quebec. ... Cheerleading is recreational activity and sometimes competitive sport involving organised routines including elements of dance and gymnastics to encourage crowds to cheer on sports teams. ... The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a Canadian Football League team based in Hamilton, Ontario, founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Tigers and the Hamilton Flying Wildcats. ... The Percival Molson Memorial Stadium is a stadium owned by McGill University and is the home of the Montreal Alouettes and the McGill Redmen. ...


In the first 27 minutes of a half, the clock stops when:

  • points are scored,
  • the ball goes out of bounds,
  • a forward pass is incomplete,
  • the ball is dead and a penalty flag has been thrown,
  • the ball is dead and teams are making substitutions (e.g., possession has changed, punting situation, short yardage situation),
  • the ball is dead and a player is injured, or
  • the ball is dead and a captain calls a time-out.

The clock starts again when the referee determines the ball is ready for scrimmage, except for team time-outs (where the clock starts at the snap), after a time count foul (at the snap) and kickoffs (where the clock starts not at the kick but when the ball is first touched after the kick). A time-out in sport is when the game is stopped for a short amount of time. ...


In the last three minutes of a half, the clock stops whenever the ball becomes dead. On kickoffs, the clock starts when the ball is first touched after the kick. On scrimmages, when it starts depends on what ended the previous play. The clock starts when the ball is ready for scrimmage except that it starts on the snap when on the previous play

  • the ball was kicked off,
  • the ball was punted,
  • the ball changed possession,
  • the ball went out of bounds,
  • there were points scored,
  • there was an incomplete forward pass,
  • there was a penalty applied (not declined), or
  • there was a team time-out.

The clock does not run during convert attempts in the last three minutes of a half. If the 15 minutes of a quarter expire while the ball is live, the quarter is extended until the ball becomes dead. If a quarter's time expires while the ball is dead, the quarter is extended for one more scrimmage. A quarter cannot end while a penalty is pending: after the penalty yardage is applied, the quarter is extended one scrimmage. Note that the non-penalized team has the option to decline any penalty it considers disadvantageous, so a losing team cannot indefinitely prolong a game by repeatedly committing penalties.


Players

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 514 pixelsFull resolution (1566 × 1006 pixel, file size: 1. ...

umpire

The University of Alberta Golden Bears (yellow and white, offence) are first-and-ten at their 54-yard line against the Calgary Dinos (red and black, defence) in a CIS football game at McMahon Stadium in 2006. The twelve players of each side and the umpire (one of seven officials) are shown. The Golden Bears are in a one-back offence with five receivers.

P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ... Navy quarterback Aaron Polanco sets up to throw. ... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with American football. ... The wide receiver (WR) position in American and Canadian football is the pass-catching specialist. ... The wide receiver (WR) position in American and Canadian football is the pass-catching specialist. ... Defensive end is the name of a defensive position in the sport of American football. ... A linebacker is a position in American and Canadian football. ... NFL officials (striped shirts) and guests prepare to toss the coin to start the 40th annual Pro Bowl. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Defensive back (DB) is a player in American football whose role is primarily pass coverage; that is, the defensive back will stay near a receiver and try to deflect or intercept any passes thrown to him. ... Defensive back (DB) is a player in American football whose role is primarily pass coverage; that is, the defensive back will stay near a receiver and try to deflect or intercept any passes thrown to him. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Alberta Golden Bears are the mens athletic teams that represent the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... In American and Canadian football, a down refers to a period in which a play transpires. ... The Calgary Dinos are the athletic teams that represent the University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Not to be confused with CIS national football team or CIS (rugby). ... McMahon Stadium (pronounced ) is a Canadian football stadium located in Calgary, Alberta. ... NFL officials (striped shirts) and guests prepare to toss the coin to start the 40th annual Pro Bowl. ... P.J. Daniels was a star running back for Georgia Tech from 2002-2005. ...

Offence

The offensive positions found in Canadian football (and American football) have, for the most part, evolved throughout the years, and are not officially defined in the rules. However, among offensive players, the rules recognize three different types of players:

Down linemen
Down linemen are players who, at the start of every play, line up at the line of scrimmage; once in their stance they may not move until the play begins. The offence must have at least seven players lined up at the line of scrimmage on every play. The exception to this rule is the player (typically the centre) who snaps the ball to the quarterback. Linemen generally do not run with the ball (unless they recover it on a fumble) or receive a hand-off or lateral pass, but there is no rule against it. However, the centre and the two linemen on either side, also known as guards, are ineligible receivers; they may not receive a forward pass either. (Other players who line up at the line of scrimmage may receive forward passes).
Backs
Backs line up behind the linemen; they may run with the ball, receive handoffs, laterals, and forward passes. They may also be in motion before the play starts.

Specific offensive positions include:


Backs/Receivers:

Quarterback
Generally the leader of the offence. Calls all plays, receives the ball off of snap, and initiates the action usually by running the ball himself, passing the ball to a receiver, or handing the ball off to another back.
Fullback
Multiple roles including pass protection, receiving, and blocking for the running back. On short yardage situations may also carry the ball.
Running back/Tailback
As the name implies, the main runner on the team. Also an eligible receiver and blocker on pass plays.
Wide receiver
Lines up on the line of scrimmage, usually at a distance from the centre. Runs down the field in order to catch a forward pass from the quarterback.
Slotback
Similar to the wide receiver, but lines up closer to the offensive line. May be as many as five yards behind the line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped and may also make a running start toward the line of scrimmage prior to the snap.

Down Linemen:

Centre
Snaps the ball to the quarterback. Most important pass blocker on pass plays. Calls offensive-line plays.
Left/right guard
Stands to the left and right of the centre helps protect the quarterback, Usually very good run blockers to open holes up the middle for runners.
Left/right tackle
Stands on the ends of the offensive line, The biggest men on the line, usually well over 300 pounds (140 kg). Usually very good pass blockers.
Offensive lineman
Collective name for centre, guards, and tackles.

The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French:) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ...

Defence

BC Lions quarterback Dave Dickenson calls out a play at the line of scrimmage in a game against the Saskatchewan Roughriders at BC Place. The Lions (wearing orange jerseys) have extra blockers in to counter a blitzing Saskatchewan defence.
BC Lions quarterback Dave Dickenson calls out a play at the line of scrimmage in a game against the Saskatchewan Roughriders at BC Place. The Lions (wearing orange jerseys) have extra blockers in to counter a blitzing Saskatchewan defence.

The rules do not constrain how the defence may arrange itself (other than the requirement that they must remain one yard behind the line of scrimmage until the play starts). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixelsFull resolution (1128 × 686 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixelsFull resolution (1128 × 686 pixel, file size: 631 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The British Columbia Lions are a Canadian Football League team based in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... David Dickenson (born January 11, 1973 in Great Falls, Montana) is a professional Canadian football player. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a Canadian Football League team based in Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1910. ... BC Place Stadium is Canadas first domed stadium. ... In American football, a blitz is a defensive maneuver in which one or more linebackers or defensive backs, who normally remain behind the line of scrimmage during a play, are instead sent across the line to the opponents side in order to try to tackle the quarterback. ...

Cornerback
Covers the wide receivers on most plays.
Safety
Covers deep. Last line of defence, can offer run support or blitz.
Defensive halfback
Covers the slotback and helps contain the run from going to the outside.
Defensive back
Collective term for cornerback, safety, and defensive halfback.
Nose tackle
Lineman across from centre, tries to get past the offensive-line or take double team and open holes for blitzes.
Defensive tackle
Inside defensive linemen try to break through the offensive line and open holes for linebackers.
Defensive end
Main rushing lineman. Rushes the quarterback and contain
Middle linebacker
Lines up across from the centre 3 to 4 yards back. Quarterback of the defence. Calls plays for lineman and linebackers.
Weak-side linebacker
Lines up on the short side of field, and can drop into pass coverage or contain.
Strong-side linebacker
Lines up on the opposite side and usually rushes.

Special teams

Special teams generally refers to kicking plays, which typically involve a change in possession.

Holder
Receives the snap on field goal tries and converts; places the ball in position and holds it to be kicked by the kicker. This position is generally filled by a reserve quarterback; occasionally the starting quarterback or punter will fill in as holder.
Kicker
Kicks field goals, converts, kick-offs
Punter
Punts ball, usually on third downs
Returners
Fast, agile runners who specialize in fielding punts and kickoffs, attempting to advance them for better field position or a score.

See also

This is a glossary of terms used in Canadian football. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Canadian Football Timelines (1860 – present). Football Canada. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  2. ^ William Houston (2006-12-20). Grey Cup moves to TSN in new deal. The Globe And Mail. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.

Football Canada is the governing body for amateur Canadian football. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Canadian football

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