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Encyclopedia > Canadian federal election, 1993
Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories.
Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories.

The Canadian federal election of 1993 was held on October 25 of that year. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the Canadian House of Commons at that time. It was one of the most eventful elections in Canadian history, with more than half of the electorate switching parties from the 1988 election. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (774x608, 48 KB)election 1993 canada Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (774x608, 48 KB)election 1993 canada Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


The election was called by new Progressive Conservative Party leader Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate. Despite an unpopular legacy from the Brian Mulroney years, Conservative support had recovered in the lead-up to the election, and was near the rival Liberals when the writs were dropped. However, this momentum did not last, and the Conservatives suffered the worst defeat in their history. The PCs lost more than half their vote from 1988 and were reduced to only two seats, down from 151. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... --142. ... Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... Drop the writ is a procedure in a parlimentary government, where the prime minister goes to the head of state, and asks for the disolusion of parliment, so than an election can be called to elect a new parliment. ...


The Liberals, led by Jean Chrétien, won a strong majority in the House and formed the next government of Canada. The traditional third party, the New Democratic Party, also fared poorly, winning only nine seats. Two new parties emerged in this election. The sovereigntist Bloc Québécois won almost half the votes in Quebec and became the Official Opposition, while the Western-based Reform Party won nearly as many seats. The Bloc Québécois had been founded only two years before, and was competing in its first election. Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy and moderate democratic socialist tendencies. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ...

Contents


Background

The Liberal Party had dominated Canadian politics for much of the 20th century. The party had been in office for all but 22 years between 1896 and 1984. In 1984, however, Brian Mulroney led the Progressive Conservatives to the largest electoral landslide in Canadian history, winning a majority of the seats in every province. Especially important was the Conservative breakthrough in Quebec, a province where they had been almost unelectable for much of the century. Between 1896 and 1984, the Conservatives had only managed to win the most seats in that province once, in the 1958 landslide. Image File history File linksMetadata Kim_Campbell2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kim_Campbell2. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... --142. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jean_Chretien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jean_Chretien. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... The Right Honourable Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, PC (born January 11, 1934, Shawinigan, Quebec) was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1896 election The Canadian federal election of 1896 was held on July 11, 1896 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ...


Mulroney was re-elected in 1988, with a considerably smaller mandate. That election was almost wholly focused on the proposed Free Trade Agreement with the United States. Over the next five years, the popularity of Mulroney and his party collapsed. The late 1980s recession badly harmed the Canadian economy, as unemployment increased dramatically and the federal deficit grew. When the Conservatives had come to office in 1984, the federal deficit was at an unprecedented $34.5 billion. Despite pledges to reduce it, the deficit had grown to over $40 billion by 1993. The federal debt had also grown to $500 billion.[1] In an attempt to restore the fiscal balance, Mulroney had brought in the highly unpopular Goods and Services Tax.[2] Mulroney had also promised to change the constitutional status quo in favour of increasing provincial automony. This was one of the most important reasons for his party's support in Quebec. He attempted to amend the constitution twice, but both reform proposals failed. The Meech Lake Accord failed when the provincial legislatures of Newfoundland and Manitoba adjourned without bringing the issue to a vote. The Charlottetown Accord was overwhelmingly defeated by the Canadian people in a 1992 referendum. Moreover, the Mulroney government continued to be dogged by a series of major and minor scandals. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... The recession of the late nineteen-eighties was an economic recession that hit much of the world beginning in 1987. ... In economics, a person who is able and willing to work at prevailing wage rate yet is unable to find a paying job is considered unemployed. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax or GST (Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level sales tax introduced in Canada in 1991 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed constitutional amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Official languages None Capital St. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (some French services are provided, but French does not have official status at the provincial level) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total... The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. ... A political scandal is a scandal in which politicians engage in various illegal or unethical practices. ...


These factors combined to make Mulroney the least popular leader since opinion polling began in the 1940s.[3] The Progressive Conservative Party's popularity reached a low of just over 15% in 1991.[4] In February 1993, Mulroney announced his resignation as party leader. Minister of Justice Kim Campbell quickly emerged as the leading candidate to replace Mulroney as party leader and prime minister. Despite a vigorous challenge from Environment Minister Jean Charest, Campbell emerged victorious from the June convention and became Canada's first female prime minister. The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) of Canada is the minister in the Cabinet of Canada who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, The Minister of the Environment (French: Ministre de lEnvironnement) is responsible for overseeing the federal governments environment department, Environment Canada. ... The Honourable John James Jean Charest (sha-ræ), PC, MNA (born June 24, 1958) is a Quebecois lawyer and politician. ...


The other traditional parties were also not faring well. The Liberals had selected veteran politician Jean Chrétien as their leader in 1990, but he proved to be unpopular, especially in his native Quebec. The New Democratic Party (NDP) had won a record 44 seats in 1988, and in the following few years, their support continued to grow. At one point, the NDP led the opinion polls. This helped the NDP win a series of victories at the provincial level. Under the leadership of Mike Harcourt, the New Democrats were elected in British Columbia, and in a surprise victory, Bob Rae led the party to office in Ontario. Within a few years, however, both these provincial governments became deeply unpopular, and support for the federal NDP also began to fall. In a deviation from their traditional position as staunch federalists, the NDP chose to align itself with the Liberals and Conservatives on the "yes" side of the 1992 referendum. Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... Michael Harcourt (born 1943) is a politican in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735... Robert Keith (Bob) Rae, PC , OC, O.Ont , QC , LL.B , LL.D (born August 2, 1948, in Ottawa, Ontario) was the 21st premier of Ontario, and the first leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP) to serve in that capacity. ... Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...


The greatest difference from 1988 was the rise of two new parties. After the failure of the Meech Lake Accord, Lucien Bouchard led a group of Conservative and Liberal MPs to form the separatist Bloc Québécois. This party quickly gained the support of Quebec sovereigntists and access to the networks of the provincial Parti Québécois. Gilles Duceppe won a 1990 by-election, and throughout the period leading up to the election, the Bloc polled as the most popular party in Quebec. The Reform Party of Canada was a Western-based populist party led by Preston Manning, the son of former Alberta Premier Ernest Manning. It originally campaigned under the slogan "the West wants in". Reform had nominated candidates in the 1988 election, but had failed to win any seats, and had had only a limited impact. Many in the West had been angered by Mulroney's focus on Quebec and were still antipathetic to the Liberals. Reform also drew support from former supporters of the NDP, the traditional voice of Western protest. Despite the stark ideological differences, Reform's unabashed populism struck a responsive chord in many NDP voters. In 1989, Deborah Grey won a by-election in an Edmonton-area riding to become the first Reform MP in parliament. As Conservative support collapsed over the next four years, Reform support increased and almost surpassed that of the Tories. The Honourable Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the Canadian federation. ... The Parti Québécois or PQ is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement though unlike other social democratic parties it has no formal ties with labour. ... Gilles Duceppe Gilles Duceppe, M.P. (born July 22, 1947 in Montreal) is a Quebec nationalist and social democratic politician in Canada. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Categories: Canada-related stubs | Alberta premiers ... Ernest Charles Manning Ernest Charles Manning, PC , CC , AOE , LL.D (September 20, 1908 - February 19, 1996), A Canadian politician, was Premier of Alberta between 1943 and 1968, the longest term of office of any Alberta premier, and the second longest serving premier in Canada (only after George H. Murray... Deborah Cleland Grey (born July 1, 1952) is a former prominent Canadian Member of Parliament from Alberta for the Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance and Conservative Party of Canada. ... More than one place has the name Edmonton. ...


Campaign

Polls During the Campaign
Polling firm Date PC Lib NDP BQ Ref
Angus Reid September 11 35 37 8 8 10
Comquest Research September 14 36 33 8 10 11
Angus Reid September 20 35 35 6 11 11
Gallup September 25 30 37 8 10 13
Environics September 26 31 36 7 11 13
Leger & Leger September 26 28 34 7 12 15
Ekos September 30 25 39 6 12 17
Compass Research October 2 26 38 8 12 14
Angus Reid October 8 22 37 8 12 18
Comquest Research October 16 22 40 7 13 16
Leger & Leger October 19 21 39 6 14 17
Angus Reid[5] October 22 18 43 7 14 18
Gallup[5] October 22 16 44 7 12 19
Results October 25 16 41 7 14 19

Pre-campaign

An election had to be called in the fall of 1993, since Parliament's term would expire some time in September. Campbell did extensive campaigning during the summer, touring the nation and attending barbecues and other events. By the end of the summer, her personal popularity had increased greatly, far surpassing that of Chrétien.[6] Support for the Progressive Conservative Party had also increased, and they were only a few points behind the Liberals, while Reform had been reduced to single digits.


Campbell asked Governor General Ray Hnatyshyn to dissolve parliament on September 8. In accordance with Canadian constitutional practice, Hnatshyn granted the request, beginning the seven-week campaign. Some damage was done when Mulroney staged a very lavish international farewell tour, without conducting official business. This seriously hampered the Tory campaign later on, as they were left with almost no time to make up ground on the Liberals once Campbell's personal popularity wore off. The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian monarch. ... Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002) was Canadas twenty-fourth governor general, serving from 1990 to 1995. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ...


At the ceremony at Rideau Hall, Campbell made the first of a series of remarks that would dog the Conservative campaign. When she was running for the party leadership, Campbell's frank honesty was seen as an important asset and a sharp contrast from Mulroney's highly polished style. However, during the campaign, Campbell repeatedly made statements that caused problems for the party. At the Rideau Hall event, she told reporters that it was unlikely that the deficit or unemployment would be much reduced before the "end of the century". Later in the campaign, she would famously state that 47 days were not enough to discuss the overhaul in social policy that she thought Canada needed. Unfortunately for Campbell, the quote that resulted was "an election is no time to discuss serious issues." Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ...


Progressive Conservatives

The PC campaign was headed by chair John Tory and chief strategist Allan Gregg, both experienced Mulroney loyalists. It was the best-funded campaign, but it quickly ran into organizational problems. The party failed to get literature distributed to the local campaigns, forcing all of the PC candidates to print their own material, and preventing the party from putting forth a unified message.[7] The Conservative campaign had been focused on three issues: job creation, deficit reduction, and improving quality of life. However, the party had little credibility on the first two, as over their time in office both unemployment and the deficit had increased dramatically. The party was also reluctant to propose new social programs, as in Quebec they had to appeal to nationalists who opposed federal government intervention, and in the West had to appeal to Reform supporters who opposed government intervention in general. John Tory John H. Tory, LL.B , BA (born May 28, 1954) is a Canadian businessman and leader of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. ... Allan Gregg (born 1952) is a Canadian pollster, political advisor, and pundit. ...


Liberals

The Liberals, besides having a substantial campaign warchest, had been long prepared for the campaign. On September 19, the Liberals made an unprecedented move by releasing their entire platform, quickly named the Red Book. This document gave a detailed account of exactly what the Liberals would do if they were in office. Several years of effort had gone into the creation of the document, which was unprecedented for a Canadian party.[8] Several days later, the Conservatives released the hastily assembled A Taxpayer's Agenda, but the Liberals had captured the reputation of being the party with ideas. The Liberals were also consistently well organized and on message, in contrast to the Conservative campaign, which the Globe and Mail on September 25 stated was "shaping up to be the most incompetent campaign in modern political history."[9] The Red Book, officially titled Creating Opportunity: The Liberal Plan for Canada was the platform of the Liberal Party of Canada in the 1993 Canadian election. ...


Reform

The Reform Party had little money and few resources, but had developed an extensive grassroots network in much of the West and Ontario. Reform's lack of funds led them to fly economy class, stay in cheap hotels, and rely on prepackaged lunches, but this helped endear them to money conscious fiscal conservatives.[10] The campaign was managed by seasoned professional Rick Anderson. Some Reformers had been annoyed that the moderate former Liberal and Ottawa insider had been made campaign manager, but he quickly proved highly able.[11]


Leaders Debates

Over the course of the campaign, Conservative support steadily bled away to the other parties. The leaders debates were held October 3rd and 4th, and were generally regarded as inconclusive, with no party gaining a boost from them. The most memorable moment involved Lucien Bouchard continuously questioning Campbell about the real deficit in the 1993 budget, and Campbell dodging the question. The French debates were held on the first night. Manning, who did not speak French, read prepared opening and closing remarks, but did not participate in the debate itself. In jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of government or a similar system, leaders debates are often held, usually during a general election campaign. ... The Honourable Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ...


Chrétien ad

By October, the Conservatives were considerably behind the Liberals in the polls. The consensus was that the Liberals were on their way to at least a minority government, and would probably win a majority without dramatic measures. Even at this point, Campbell was still far more personally popular than Chrétien. Polling found that a considerable number of potential Liberal voters held negative opinions about Chrétien. Believing they had no other way to keep the Liberals from winning a majority, Gregg and Tory decided to launch a series of commercials attacking Chrétien. The second ad, which premiered on October 14, showed unflattering close-ups of Chrétien with lines like "I'd be embarrassed if he were Prime Minister". Many felt that the commercials were targeting Chrétien's facial paralysis, and they generated an immediate and severe backlash from all sides of the spectrum, including some Tory candidates. Campbell ordered the ads pulled within 24 hours over Tory and Gregg's objections. However, she didn't apologize and lost a chance to contain the backlash. A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed by the leading political party when it has won a plurality but not a majority of seats in the parliament. ... One of the images from the commercial that many felt emphasized Chrétiens face The 1993 Chrétien ad was an attack ad broadcast on television during the 1993 federal election in Canada by the Progressive Conservative Party against Liberal leader Jean Chrétien. ...


The ad was largely regarded as the final nail in the Conservatives' coffin. Their support plummeted into the teens, all but assuring that the Liberals would get a majority short of a complete meltdown. Chrétien turned the situation to his advantage, comparing his opponents to the children who teased him when he was a boy. "When I was a kid people were laughing at me," he said at an appearance in Nova Scotia. "But I accepted that because God gave me other qualities and I'm grateful." Chrétien's approval ratings shot up, nullifying the only advantage the Conservatives still had over him. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages None Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 53,338...


Reform also found itself embroiled in controversy when Toronto-area candidate John Beck made a series of anti-immigrant remarks in an interview with Excalibur, the York University student paper. York students confronted Manning with the remarks. Within an hour, Beck was forced to withdraw his candidacy.[12] John Beck was a Reform Party candidate in the 1993 Canadian election who was forced to abandon his candidacy after making a series of racially insensitive remarks. ... York University (YorkU) is a large comprehensive university, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Issues

The most important issue of the 1993 election was the economy.[13] The nation was mired in the late 1980s recession, and unemployment was especially high. The federal deficit was also extremely high, and both the Reform and Progressive Conservatives focused on cutting it as the path to economic health. Reform proposed deep cuts to federal programs in order to do this, while the Progressive Conservatives were less specific. The Liberals also promised cuts, focusing on the unpopular and expensive plan to buy new military helicopters to replace the aging Sea Kings. They also promised new programs such as a limited public works programme and a national child care program. The Reform Party called for a "Zero in Three" plan that would reduce the deficit to zero in three years. The Liberals had a far more modest plan to reduce the deficit to 3% of GDP by the end of their first term. All opposition parties pledged to repeal the Goods and Services Tax. Once elected, however, the Liberals reneged on this pledge to much outcry, stating the Conservatives had understated the size of the deficit. Instead the tax was replaced with the Harmonized Sales Tax in some provinces. The recession of the late nineteen-eighties was an economic recession that hit much of the world beginning in 1987. ... In economics, a person who is able and willing to work at prevailing wage rate yet is unable to find a paying job is considered unemployed. ... UH-3H Sea King The Sikorsky UH-3 Sea King (also known as Sikorsky S-61) is a twin-engined multi-purpose helicopter. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... Childcare is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax or GST (Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level sales tax introduced in Canada in 1991 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. ... In Canada, the Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) combines the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Provincial Sales Tax (PST) into a single sales tax. ...


The 1988 election had been almost wholly focused on the issue of the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, and similarly, the 1993 election was preceded by the agreement on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The Liberals opposed NAFTA and promised to try and renegotiate the FTA, but this was not a central campaign theme. The NDP did focus on opposition to NAFTA, but the Canadian people mostly felt that the free trade debate was over. When in office, the Liberals signed on to NAFTA with little opposition. Similarly, while constitutional issues had dominated the national debate for several years, two failed reform proposals led most to support giving the issue a rest. Chrétien promised not to reopen the constitution, and that under the Liberals any change would be incremental in nature. In Quebec the election was seen as a prelude to the next Quebec election and the referendum on secession that was sure to follow. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Reform Party advanced proposals in a number of areas that challenged the status quo. It proposed extensive reform to Canada's parliamentary system, including more free votes, recall elections, and change to the Senate. The party also advocated a reduction in immigration levels and a retreat from official bilingualism.[14] A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are each expected to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The Senate (French: Sénat) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government — and some other levels of government — mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ...


Finances

The election was held under the Election Expenses Act of 1974. This forced parties to disclose most donations, but put few limits on who could donate and how much could be given. Individual donations up to $1,150 were given a tax credit, encouraging such pledges. The Conservatives had the largest budget, spending $10.4 million on their national campaign; the Liberals spent $9.9 million, while the NDP spent $7.4 million. The Bloc and Reform spent far less, both spending less than $2 million on their national campaigns.[15] Actual election spending is far larger than these numbers indicate: each candidate raised substantial amounts of money independently of the national campaign. In this era there were also large expenses, such as polling and fundraising costs, that did not need to be disclosed. Within the Australian, Canadian, United Kingdom, and United States tax systems, a tax credit is an item which is treated as a payment already made towards taxes owed. ...


The different parties drew their funding from different sources. In the year of the election, two traditional parties, the Liberals and Conservatives, each received about 60% of their funding from corporations and the rest from individuals. For the NDP half of the funding came from individuals, and a third came from trade unions. The Reform Party relied almost wholly on individual donations, with only some 12% coming from corporations. The Bloc relied almost solely on individual donations, as its party charter barred donations from corporations. The NDP had by far the most donors, with over 65,000, but the average donation was only $80. By contrast the 45,000 Conservative donors gave more than $200 on average.[16] This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


The Liberals quickly recouped their election expenses once they were in government. The Liberals held a substantial advantage in funding for the next two elections as they enjoyed the majority of corporate campaign contributions after the collapse of the Progressive Conservaties. Until 2003 when Jean Chrétien passed Bill C-24, which banned business donations and provided a subsidy to each party based on their popular vote, the Liberals did not see the need to develop a system of extensive grassroots fundraising like the other parties. Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ...


The Bloc and Reform had spent little during the campaign, and also received more support once their prominent position in parliament was made clear. One of the Reform Party's successful developments was its extensive grassroots fundraising network, which is still used by its latest incarnation (in a merger with the Progressive Conservatives), the Conservative Party of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


The NDP and Conservatives had more problems after the vote. The NDP found itself deeply in debt, but recouped some of it by selling their Ottawa headquarters to the Ukrainian Embassy. The Conservatives, despite cutting back on spending late in the campaign, were some $7.5 million in debt by the end of the election, and it took years to clear this burden. The heavy debt load would hamper the party's ability to campaign in subsequent elections, and this would lead to its eventual merger with Reform's successor, the Canadian Alliance. The current embassy at 310 Somerset St. ... The Canadian Alliance (in full, the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance) was a Canadian right-of-centre conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ...


Minor parties

Fourteen registered political parties contested the election, a Canadian record. Jackson and Jackson argue that the proliferation of minor parties was an outgrowth of the single-issue political movements that had come to prominence in Canada in the 1980s.[17] For instance, the environmentalist, anti-abortion, and anti-free trade movements all had closely associated parties. Each candidate required a $1000 deposit, an increase from $200 in the last election. If the candidate did not win 15% of the vote, which none of the minor parties did, these deposits would be forfeit. Parties that nominated 50 candidates qualified as official parties and, most importantly, received government subsidies for advertising.[18] The smaller parties were not invited to the main leaders debate, something Mel Hurtig of the National Party complained vehemently about. There was a debate between the leaders of seven of the minor parties on October 5, which was broadcast on CBC Newsworld. The National Party and the Natural Law Party did not attend. Mel Hurtig (born June 24, 1932) is a Canadian publisher, author and politician. ... The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... CBC Newsworld is a Canadian 24-hour cable news television channel operated by the CBC. It broadcasts into over 10 million homes nation-wide, as well as into some northern states in the U.S. It is the worlds third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in... The Natural Law Party of Canada was the Canadian branch of the international Natural Law Party, the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ...


Few of these parties had any hope of winning a seat. One exception was the National Party. Founded by Mel Hurtig, a prominent nationalist, it campaigned on a strongly nationalist platform focusing on opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The party ran 171 candidates, and for a time polling indicated it could potentially have an impact. However, the party failed to make a significant impression and disbanded after the election. Another prominent minor party was the Natural Law Party. Linked to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, it advocated yogic flying as the solution to most of Canada's ills. It ran 231 candidates, more than some of the major parties. Its campaign was also accompanied by several million dollars of advertising, and it was successful in attracting media attention. Some accused its efforts of actually being government-subsidized marketing for yogic flying centres.[19] Other minor parties included the Libertarian Party of Canada, the Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada and the Christian Heritage Party, which was mainly dedicated to opposing abortion. The election saw three minor parties focused on radical reform to the monetary system: the Canada Party, the Abolitionist Party, and the Party for the Commonwealth of Canada, which was formed by supporters of U.S. politican Lyndon LaRouche.[18] The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United Kingdom and the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Natural Law Party of Canada was the Canadian branch of the international Natural Law Party, the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ... Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Srivastava January 12, 1917) is the founder of the TM Movement. ... Yogic flying is the purported ability to levitate which is a capability one gains through advanced practice of transcendental meditation (TM). ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada. ... The Canada Party was a short-lived political party that ran 56 candidates in the 1993 Canadian election, and one candidate in a 1996 by_election, but was unable to win any seats. ... The Abolitionist Party was a Canadian political party founded by perennial candidate John C. Turmel on a platform of: monetary reform, including the abolition of interest rates, abolishing income tax, the use of Local employment trading system banking, and introducing a form of social credit with monthly dividends being paid... This is part of a series on Lyndon LaRouche and related people, organizations and issues. ... Defunct California Proposition 64 North American Labour Party Party for the Commonwealth of Canada Parti pour la république du Canada U.S. Labor Party Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche, Jr. ...


This election was also the last time that the Social Credit Party attempted to run candidates in an election. The party had been in headlong decline since losing its last Member of Parliament in 1980, and was now led by fundamentalist Christian preacher Ken Campbell. However, the party failed to nominate at least 50 candidates and was deregistered by Elections Canada. The Social Credit Party of Canada was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... Ken Campbell (born January 19, 1934) is a Canadian fundamentalist Christian evangelist and political figure who was the final leader of the Social Credit Party of Canada from 1990 to 1993. ...


Results

The distribution of seats in the House of Commons after the 1988 election. The blue is Progressive Conservative, the red Liberal, and the orange NDP
The distribution of seats in the House of Commons after the 1988 election. The blue is Progressive Conservative, the red Liberal, and the orange NDP
The shape of the House of Commons after the 1993 election. The two new parties are represented with Reform in Green and the Bloc in cyan.
The shape of the House of Commons after the 1993 election. The two new parties are represented with Reform in Green and the Bloc in cyan.

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Image File history File links Elec1993. ... Image File history File links Elec1993. ...

Progressive Conservatives

The Conservatives suffered the most lopsided defeat for a major party in Canadian history[20] . Their popular vote nearly disappeared, falling from 43% to 16%. Campbell was defeated in her Vancouver riding by rookie Liberal Hedy Fry—only the third time in Canadian history that a sitting prime minister lost an election and was unseated at the same time (it previously happened to Arthur Meighen twice, in 1921 and 1926). All the members of the Cabinet lost their seats except for Charest, who won re-election in Sherbrooke, Quebec; it is also noteworthy that many prominent ministers such as Michael Wilson, Don Mazankowski, Joe Clark, and John Crosbie did not seek re-election. The only other Conservative to win was Elsie Wayne, the popular mayor of Saint John, New Brunswick. Gilles Bernier, who had served two terms as a Conservative from Beauce, Quebec; was also reelected, but was forced to run as an independent after Campbell barred him from running under the PC banner due to fraud charges. Hon. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1926 election The Canadian federal election of 1926 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Downtown Sherbrooke with the Saint-François River in the foreground Sherbrooke (2001 population 75,916, post-merger population 141,200) is a city in south-eastern Quebec, Canada. ... Hon. ... Don Mazankowski The Right Honourable Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC , OC , AOE , LL.D (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... Joe Clark (born Charles Joseph Clark on June 5, 1939 in High River, Alberta) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Hon. ... Elsie Eleanore Wayne (née Fairweather) (born April 20, 1932 in Shediac, New Brunswick) is a Canadian politician. ... Saint John is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Gilles Bernier is the name of two Canadian politicians who served in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Beauce is a riding in the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


The Conservatives did receive over 2 million votes, almost as many as Reform and far ahead of the Bloc or NDP. However, this support was spread out across the country, and was not concentrated enough to translate into seats. For example, they were shut out of Ontario for the first time in party history. Their support in the West, with few exceptions, migrated to Reform; while their support in Quebec split between the Liberals and the Bloc. In addition, 147 PC candidates failed to win the 15% of the vote that qualified them for funding from Elections Canada, and the party as a whole was left deeply in debt. Without official party status, the PCs lost access to funding and had a considerably reduced role in the Commons. Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ...


Liberals

The Liberals swept Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island; only Wayne's win in New Brunswick denied them a clean sweep of the Maritimes. They nearly swept Ontario; only a win by Reform in Barrie denied them the first clean sweep of the country's biggest province by a single party. Ontario has remained the main bastion of Liberal support since then; even after the Liberals lost power in 2006, they still won the most seats in Ontario. Fireworks over Kempenfelt Bay during Barries Canada Day celebrations. ... The 2006 Canadian federal election (more formally, the 39th General Election) was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


In the West, the Liberals dominated Manitoba, winning all but two seats. They also won seats in Alberta for the first time in an election since 1968 (Anne McLellan in Edmonton Northwest, John Loney in Edmonton North and Judy Bethel in Edmonton East). The Liberals also held onto the seat in Alberta that they had when the writ was dropped, which they picked up in 1990 when David Kilgour crossed the floor from the Conservatives. A. Anne McLellan, P.C. , M.P. , LL.M. , LL.B. , B.A. (born August 31, 1950, in Hants County, Nova Scotia) was the Deputy Prime Minister of Canada under Paul Martin. ... Edmonton Northwest is a former federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... Edmonton North was a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... Edmonton East (formerly known as Edmonton Centre-East) is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1917. ... Hon. ...


However, the Liberals were unable to regain their traditional dominant position in Quebec even though they were led by a Quebecer. This was in part due to the staunchily federalist Chrétien's opposition to the Meech Lake Accord, which was revealed when leadership rival Paul Martin pressed him on the issue back in 1990. Except for the 1958 Tory landslide, the Liberals had won the most seats in Quebec in every election from 1896 until the 1984 Tory landslide. While the Liberals dominated Montreal, they lost to the Bloc in most of the rest of the province. Although Chrétien was elected in his old riding of Saint-Maurice, a strongly nationalist riding (he had previously represented this riding from 1963 to 1986; he had represented Beauséjour, New Brunswick since returning to the Commons in 1990), his reputation in his home province never recovered. They also did not do as well as hoped in British Columbia, although they dominated Vancouver. Even with these disappointments, the Liberals won 177 seats--the third-best performance in party history--and a strong majority in the Commons. The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed constitutional amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... The first three leaders of the Liberal Party of Canada were not chosen at a convention. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1896 election The Canadian federal election of 1896 was held on July 11, 1896 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Saint-Maurice was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Quebec. ... Beauséjour in relation to the other New Brunswick ridings Beauséjour (formerly known as Beauséjour—Petitcodiac and Westmorland—Kent) is a federal electoral district in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968. ...


Bloc Quebecois

The Bloc won 54 seats, winning half the vote in Quebec and nearly sweeping the francophone ridings there. This was the best showing by a third party since the 1921 election when the Progressive Party won 60 seats. Despite only running candidates in Quebec, the nationwide vote was so fragmented that Bouchard was able to become Leader of the Opposition. This was especially impressive since the Bloc had been formed only three years before. The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ...


Reform

Reform finished only two seats behind the Bloc, dominating Alberta and British Columbia and also winning four seats in Saskatchewan and one each in Manitoba and Ontario. Besides taking over many formerly Progressive Conservative ridings in Alberta, Reform also won seats from the New Democrats, particularly in British Columbia and Saskatchewan. In the previous election, no Reform candidate finished higher than fourth. In one stroke, Reform replaced the PCs as the major right-wing party in Canada and replaced the NDP as the voice of Western discontent.


New Democrats

The NDP won the fewest votes of any major party, and only nine seats -- three short of the requirement for official party status in the House of Commons. This was a substantial drop from 1988, when it won 43 seats, which was the best performance in party history. Those members who were elected were in heavily divided ridings mostly in the party's traditional Western heartland. On average, winning NDP MPs only got 35.1% of the vote.[21]


The NDP had lost support in several directions. One was because of unpopular NDP provincial governments led by Bob Rae in Ontario and Michael Harcourt in British Columbia, which reflected badly on their federal counterparts. In 1988, the peaking of federal NDP support was major asset to the success of their provincial affiliates; however they ending up became a huge liability because of recession and scandals. Robert Keith (Bob) Rae, PC , OC, O.Ont , QC , LL.B , LL.D (born August 2, 1948, in Ottawa, Ontario) was the 21st premier of Ontario, and the first leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP) to serve in that capacity. ... Michael Harcourt (born 1943) served as the 30th Premier of the province of British Columbia in Canada from 1991 to 1996, and before that as mayor of BCs major city, Vancouver from 1980 to 1986. ...


The NDP was also indirectly hampered by the nationwide collapse of the Conservative vote. It was obvious by the beginning of October that Chrétien would be the next prime minister. However, the memory of vote splitting in 1988 (a major factor in the Conservative win that year) and the widespread antipathy toward the Tory government caused many NDP supporters to vote Liberal to ensure the Conservatives would be defeated. Of those who voted NDP in 1988, 27% switched to the Liberals. This article or section should be merged with Spoiler effect A split vote, or vote splitting, occurs in an election when the existence of two or more candidates that represent relatively similar viewpoints among voters reduces the votes received by each of them, reducing the chances of any one of...


Almost as many New Democrat voters switched to Reform. Despite the differences in ideology, Reform's populism struck a chord with many NDP voters. Twenty-four percent of those who voted NDP in 1988 switched to Reform.


The NDP had never been a force in Quebec, but they had been supported by those who would not vote for either of the two major parties. These voters largely moved to the Bloc, with 14% of NDP voters supporting the Bloc in 1993. The NDP thus lost their only seat in the province.[22]


Legacy

The Globe and Mail headline after the election.

The 1993 election led to a major upheaval in Canadian politics. Since Confederation in 1867, Canada had been a two-party system, with the Liberals and Conservatives alternating as the government. Since the 1920s there had generally also been one or more third parties in the House of Commons, but never large enough to win control of the government, leading to what is sometimes called a two-and-a-half-party system. The 1993 election fundamentally changed this arrangement. The Progressive Conservatives all but disappeared, leaving the Liberals as the only party likely to form government. The opposition was divided between four parties, and for the first time ever, the party that was the Official Opposition did not have a majority of the opposition seats. A further irony can be seen in that "Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition" consisted of a separatist party. Some political scientists felt that the new five-party parliament was an example of a multi-party system. Others, noting that no party other than the Liberals had a realistic chance of forming government, felt that Canada had moved to a dominant-party system. It would not be until the 2004 election that the Liberals would again be seriously challenged by a united Conservative movement, as Paul Martin's Liberal government was reduced to a minority. Image File history File links Liberal_Landslide,_Globe_and_Mail_cover. ... Image File history File links Liberal_Landslide,_Globe_and_Mail_cover. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... A two-party system is a form of party system where only two major political parties exists with a realistic chance of winning an election. ... In a two-party system a third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


In December 1993, Kim Campbell resigned as Conservative leader and was replaced by Charest, the only surviving member of the previous Cabinet. Over the next elections, the Progressive Conservatives under Jean Charest and then Joe Clark recovered somewhat, but never regained their former status. The Reform Party gained seats and the role of Official Opposition in the 1997 election, but it could not win seats east of Manitoba and thus had little hope of governing. In 2000, the party renamed itself the Canadian Alliance but made only limited gains. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance under Stephen Harper and the Progressive Conservatives under Peter MacKay agreed to merge, creating the Conservative Party of Canada. The new party formed its first government, a minority, in early 2006 under Prime Minister Stephen Harper, just over two years after the merger. Joe Clark (born Charles Joseph Clark on June 5, 1939 in High River, Alberta) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian Alliance (in full, the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance) was a Canadian right-of-centre conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Hon. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The House of Commons after the 2006 election, resulting in a Conservative minority government (in blue) During the history of Canadian politics there have been eleven previous minority governments on the federal level, and a number provincially. ... The 2006 Canadian federal election (more formally, the 39th General Election) was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


The NDP also recovered somewhat, regaining official party status in 1997. It has taken until the 2006 election for the party to reach the same level of success as it obtained in the 1980s. The Bloc Quebecois failed to propel the sovereigntist side to victory in the 1995 Quebec referendum and also lost Official Opposition status in the 1997 election and dropped more seats in 2000. However, it remains a significant presence in the House of Commons, bolstered in recent years by the sponsorship scandal. The 2006 Canadian federal election (more formally, the 39th General Election) was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000. ... The sponsorship scandal, AdScam, or Sponsorgate, is an ongoing scandal that came as a result of a Canadian federal government sponsorship program (sometimes capitalized) in the province of Quebec, originally rationalized as an effort to raise Canadian patriotic sentiments to counter Quebec separatism. ...


National results

This election was conducted under a single-member plurality (or first past the post) system in which the country was carved into 295 electoral districts with each one electing one representative to the Parliament of Canada. Those eligible to vote cast their ballot for a candidate in their electoral district and the candidate with the most votes in that district became that riding's Member of Parliament. The party that elects the most candidates forms the government by appointing its party leader as Prime Minister and its Members of Parliament to the Cabinet of Canada. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Plurality. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada. ... The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Canadian government in accordance with the Westminster System. ...


For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1993 election, see 35th Canadian parliament. The 35th Canadian parliament was in session from 1993 until 1997. ...

Party Party leader # of
candidates
Seats Popular vote
1988 Dissolution Elected % Change # % Change
     Liberal Jean Chrétien 295 83 79 177 +113.3% 5,647,952 41.24% +9.32%
     Bloc Québécois Lucien Bouchard 75 * 8 54 * 1,846,024 13.52% *
     Reform Preston Manning 207 - 1 52   2,559,245 18.69% +16.59%
     New Democratic Audrey McLaughlin 294 43 43 9 -79.1% 939,575 6.88% -13.50%
     Progressive Conservative Kim Campbell 295 169 151 2 -98.8% 2,186,422 16.04% -26.97%
     Independent 129 - 3 1   60,434 0.73% +0.56%
     National Mel Hurtig 170 * - - * 187,251 1.38% *
     Natural Law Neil Paterson 231 * - - * 84,743 0.63% *
     Green Chris Lea 79 - - - - 32,690 0.24% -0.12%
     Christian Heritage Heather Stilwell 59 - - - - 30,455 0.22% -0.55%
     Libertarian Hilliard Cox 52 - - - - 14,630 0.11% -0.14%
     Abolitionist John C. Turmel 80 * - - * 9,141 0.07% *
     Canada Party Joseph Thauberger 56 * - - * 7,506 0.06% *
     Commonwealth Gilles Gervais 59 - - - - 7,316 0.06% -
     Marxist-Leninist Hardial Bains 51 - - - - 5,136 0.04% +0.04%
     No affiliation 23 - - - - 48,959 0.09% -0.10%
     Vacant 4  
Total 2,155 295 295 295 - 13,667,671 100%  
Notes: *Party did not nominate candidates in the previous; "% change" refers to change from previous election.
Sources: http://www.elections.ca History of Federal Ridings since 1867

Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Honourable Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy and moderate democratic socialist tendencies. ... The Honourable Audrey Marlene McLaughlin, OC, P.C. (born November 7, 1936) was leader of Canadas New Democratic Party, and the first woman leader of a major Canadian federal party. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... --142. ... The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... Mel Hurtig (born June 24, 1932) is a Canadian publisher, author and politician. ... The Natural Law Party of Canada was the Canadian branch of the international Natural Law Party, the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ... Dr. Neil Paterson was the leader of the Natural Law Party of Canada, a now-defunct political party that was the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ... The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada. ... Chris Lea is a politician and political activist in Canada. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada. ... Heather Stilwell is a school trustee in Surrey BC. She is a fundamentalist Christian and is well known for her conservative anti-gay opinions. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ... The Abolitionist Party was a Canadian political party founded by perennial candidate John C. Turmel on a platform of: monetary reform, including the abolition of interest rates, abolishing income tax, the use of Local employment trading system banking, and introducing a form of social credit with monthly dividends being paid... John C. Turmel is a perennial candidate for election in Canada, and according to the Guinness Book of Records holds the records for the most elections contested and for the most elections lost — 60 as of the January 23, 2006 Canadian federal election . ... The Canada Party was a short-lived political party that ran 56 candidates in the 1993 Canadian election, and one candidate in a 1996 by_election, but was unable to win any seats. ... Joseph Thauberger was a Canadian farmer and politician. ... This is part of a series on Lyndon LaRouche and related people, organizations and issues. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hardial Bains Hardial Bains (August 15, 1939 – August 24, 1997) was the founder and leader of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) until his death. ...

Results by province

Party name BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL NT YK Total
     Liberal Seats: 6 4 5 12 98 19 9 11 4 7 2 - 177
Popular vote: 28.1 25.1 32.1 45.0 52.9 33.0 56.0 52.0 60.1 67.3 73.0 23.2 41.3
     Bloc Québécois Seats:           54             54
Vote:           49.3             13.5
     Reform Seats: 24 22 4 1 1   - - - - - - 52
Vote: 36.4 52.3 27.2 22.4 20.1   8.5 13.3 1.0 1.0 6.1 13.1 18.7
     New Democratic Seats: 2 - 5 1 - - - - - - - 1 9
Vote: 15.5 4.1 26.6 16.7 6.0 1.5 4.9 6.8 5.2 3.5 6.0 43.4 6.9
     Progressive Conservative Seats: - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 2
Vote: 13.5 14.6 11.3 11.9 17.6 13.5 27.9 23.5 32.0 26.7 12.7 17.7 16.0
     Other Seats: - - - - - 1 - -         1
Vote: 0.3 0.4 1.0 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.3 2.1         0.8
Total seats 32 26 14 14 99 75 10 11 4 7 2 1 295
Parties that won no seats:
     National Vote: 4.1 2.4 1.0 3.1 1.2 0.1 0.3 1.1 0.5 0.5   2.1 1.4
     Natural Law Vote: 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.9   0.6
     Green Vote: 0.7 0.3     0.3 0.1   0.1 0.3   1.4   0.2
     Christian Heritage Vote: 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3   0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2   0.4 0.2
     Libertarian Vote: 0.3       0.2 0.1             0.1
     Abolitionist Vote:         0.1 0.2             0.1
     Canada Party Vote: 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3     0.3           0.1
     Commonwealth Vote:           0.2             0.1
     Marxist-Leninist Vote:         0.1               0.0

Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th (provinces and territories) 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English (but legally required to provide some services in French) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (some French services are provided, but French does not have official status at the provincial level) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 1st 1,542,056 km² 1,183,128 km² 176,928... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 71 450 km² 1 458 km... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages None Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 53,338... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The small under the protection of the great) Official languages None Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 4 4 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 13th 5,660 km... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Official languages None Capital St. ... Motto: None Official languages Dene Suline, Cree, Dogrib, English, French, Gwichin, Inuktitut, Slavey Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government - no party affiliations) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 3rd 1,346,106 km... Motto: none Official languages {{{OfficialLang}}} Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Geraldine Van Bibber Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 9th 482,443 km² 474,391 km² 8,052 km² (1. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy and moderate democratic socialist tendencies. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... The Natural Law Party of Canada was the Canadian branch of the international Natural Law Party, the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ... The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ... The Abolitionist Party was a Canadian political party founded by perennial candidate John C. Turmel on a platform of: monetary reform, including the abolition of interest rates, abolishing income tax, the use of Local employment trading system banking, and introducing a form of social credit with monthly dividends being paid... The Canada Party was a short-lived political party that ran 56 candidates in the 1993 Canadian election, and one candidate in a 1996 by_election, but was unable to win any seats. ... This is part of a series on Lyndon LaRouche and related people, organizations and issues. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Notes

  1. Bliss 312.
  2. 80% of Canadians disapproved of the GST in a June 1993 poll. Woolstencroft 32.
  3. Bliss 308.
  4. Brooks 194.
  5. a b Forsythe, Frank, Krishnamurthy, and Ross 337.
  6. Woolstencroft 15.
  7. Woolstencroft 17.
  8. Clarkson 36.
  9. "Fill in the Blanks." The Globe and Mail. September 25, 1993 pg. D6.
  10. Ellis and Archer 67.
  11. Ellis and Archer 69.
  12. "Reform Candidate Quits." The Globe and Mail. October 14, 1993 pg. A6.
  13. "without a doubt" the most important issue. Frizzell, Pammett, & Westell 2.
  14. Brooks 194.
  15. Ron Eade "Election Spending." The Ottawa Citizen. April 29, 1994. pg. A.1
  16. Brooks 207.
  17. Robert J. Jackson and Doreen Jackson. Politics in Canada 1998 ed. 400.
  18. a b Richard Mackie "Voters Find Uncommon Views on the Fringe." The Globe and Mail. Tuesday, October 5, 1993. pg. A6.
  19. Chris Cobb "Maharishi had Last Laugh over Canadian Taxpayer." Montreal Gazette October 29, 1993. pg. B.3
  20. Woolstencroft 6.
  21. Whitehorn 52.
  22. Support numbers come from Pammett.

The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... The Globe and Mail is a large Canadian English language national newspaper based in Toronto. ... The Ottawa Citizen (established 1845) is an English-language daily newspaper owned by CanWest Global in Ottawa, Canada. ... The Gazette is a major English-language daily newspaper produced out of Montreal, Quebec. ...

References

  • The Canadian General Election of 1993. ed. Alan Frizzell, Jon H. Pammett, and Anthony Westell. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1994.
    • Clarkson, Stephen "Yesterday's Man and His Blue Grists: Backward into the Future."
    • Ellis, Faron and Keith Archer. "Reform: Electoral Breakthrough."
    • Pammett, Jon H. "Tracking the Votes."
    • Whitehorn, Alan. "The NDP's Quest for Survival."
    • Woolstencroft, Peter. "'Doing Politics Differently': The Conservative Party and the Campaign of 1993."
  • Chief Electoral Officer of Canada. Canada's Electoral System Ottawa: Elections Canada, 2001. ISBN 0662653521
  • Forsythe, R., M. Frank, V. Krishnamurthy and T.W. Ross. Markets as Predictors of Election Outcomes: Campaign Events and Judgement Bias in the 1993 UBC Election Stock Market in Canadian Public Policy vol. XXIV, no. 3, 1998.
  • Bliss, Michael. Right Honourable Men: The Descent of Canadian Politics from Macdonald to Mulroney. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
  • Brooks, Stephen. Canadian Democracy: An Introduction. Second Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press Canada, 1996.
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Stephen Clarkson (born 1937) is a Canadian political scientist. ... Michael Bliss (born 1941) is a Canadian historian and outspoken public figure. ... Elections in Canada provides information on elections and election results in Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1867 election The 1867 federal election, which proved how much canada sucks ended on September 20th, was the first election for the new . ... Politics of Canada Categories: Stub | Canadian federal elections ... The Canadian federal election of 1874 was held on January 22, 1874. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1878 election The Canadian federal election of 1878 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1882 election The Canadian federal election of 1882 was held on June 20, 1882 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1887 election The Canadian federal election of 1887 was held on February 22, 1887 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The 1891 Canadian federal election was won by the Conservative Party of Sir John A. Macdonald. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1896 election The Canadian federal election of 1896 was held on July 11, 1896 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1900 election The Canadian federal election of 1900 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... In the Canadian federal election of 1904, SIr Wilfrid Laurier led the Liberal Party of Canada to a second term in government, with an increased majority in the canadian House of Commons, and over half of the popular vote. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1908 election The Canadian federal election of 1908 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1911 election The Canadian federal election of 1911 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1917 election The 1917 Canadian federal election (sometimes referred to as the khaki election) was held on December 17, 1917, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1925 election The Canadian federal election of 1925 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1926 election The Canadian federal election of 1926 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1930 election The Canadian federal election of 1930 was held on July 28, 1930 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons to the 17th Parliament. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election The Canadian federal election of 1935 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1940 election The Canadian federal election of 1940 was the 19th general election in Canadian history. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1945 election The Canadian federal election of 1945 was the 20th general election in Canadian history. ... The Canadian federal election of 1949 was the first election in Canada in almost thirty years in which the Liberals were not led by William Lyon Mackenzie King. ... National results Notes: (1) The Liberal-Labour MP sat with the Liberal caucus. ... The Canadian federal election of 1957 was held June 10, 1957. ... The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ... When the Canadian federal election of 1962 was called, the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada of John George Diefenbaker had governed for almost five years with the largest majority in the House of Commons in Canadian history. ... The Canadian federal election of 1963 resulted in the defeat of the minority Progressive Conservative government of John George Diefenbaker. ... In the Canadian federal election of 1965, the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson was re-elected with a larger number of seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... In the Canadian federal election of June 25, 1968, the Liberal Party won a majority government under its new leader, Pierre Trudeau. ... The House of Commons after the 1972 election The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons after the 1974 election The Canadian federal election of 1974 was held on July 8, 1974 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons after the 1979 election The Canadian federal election of 1979 was held on May 22, 1979 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The 2006 Canadian federal election (more formally, the 39th General Election) was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The initial seat distribution of the 1st Canadian parliament The 1st Canadian parliament was in session from November 6, 1867 until July 8, 1872. ... British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Two MPs recontested their seats in byelections, and were reelected. ... Contents // Categories: Canada government stubs | Canadian parliaments ... The initial seat distribution of the 4th Canadian parliament The 4th Canadian parliament was in session from 1878 until 1882. ... The initial seat distribution of the 5th Canadian parliament The 5th Canadian parliament was in session from 1882 until 1887. ... The initial seat distribution of the 6th Canadian parliament The 6th Canadian parliament was in session from 1887 until 1891. ... The 7th Canadian parliament was in session from 1891 until 1896. ... The initial seat distribution of the 8th Canadian parliament The 8th Canadian parliament was in session from 1896 until 1900. ... The initial seat distribution of the 9th Canadian parliament The 9th Canadian parliament was in session from 1900 until 1904. ... The initial seat distribution of the 10th Canadian parliament The 10th Canadian parliament was in session from 1904 until 1908. ... The initial seat distribution of the 11th Canadian parliament The 11th Canadian parliament was in session from 1908 until 1911. ... The initial seat distribution of the 12th Canadian parliament The 12th Canadian parliament was in session from 1911 until 1917. ... The initial seat distribution of the 13th Canadian parliament The 13th Canadian parliament was in session from 1917 until 1921. ... The initial seat distribution of the 14th Canadian parliament The 14th Canadian parliament was in session from 1921 until 1925. ... The initial seat distribution of the 15th Canadian parliament The 15th Canadian parliament was in session from 1925 until 1926. ... The initial seat distribution of the 16th Canadian parliament The 16th Canadian parliament was in session from 1926 until 1930. ... The initial seat distribution of the 17th Canadian parliament The 17th Canadian parliament was in session from 1930 until 1935. ... The initial seat distribution of the 18th Canadian parliament The 18th Canadian parliament was in session from 1935 until 1940. ... The initial seat distribution of the 19th Canadian parliament The 19th Canadian parliament was in session from 1940 until 1945. ... The 20th Canadian parliament was in session from 1945 until 1949. ... The 21st Canadian parliament was in session from 1949 until 1953. ... The 22nd Canadian parliament was in session from 1953 until 1957. ... The 23rd Canadian parliament was in session from 1957 until 1958. ... The 24th Canadian parliament was in session from 1958 until 1962. ... The 25th Canadian parliament was in session from 1962 until 1963. ... The 26th Canadian parliament was in session from 1963 until 1965. ... The 27th Canadian parliament was in session from 1965 until 1968. ... The initial seat distribution of the 28th Canadian parliament The 28th Canadian parliament was in session from 1968 until 1972. ... The initial seat distribution of the 29th Canadian parliament The 29th Canadian parliament was in session from 1972 until 1974. ... The initial seat distribution of the 30th Canadian parliament The 30th Canadian parliament was in session from 1974 until 1979. ... The 31st Canadian parliament was a briefly-lived parliament in session from the fall of 1979 until March 1980. ... The initial seat distribution of the 32nd Canadian parliament The 32nd Canadian parliament was in session from March 1980 until June 1984. ... The initial seat distribution of the 33rd Canadian parliament The 33rd Canadian parliament was in session from 1984 until 1988. ... The initial seat distribution of the 34th Canadian Parliament Brian Mulroney was Prime Minister during most of the 34th Canadian Parliament. ... The 35th Canadian parliament was in session from 1993 until 1997. ... The 36th Canadian parliament was in session from 1997 until 2000. ... 37th Parliament * - formerly a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ** - formerly a member of the Canadian Alliance Party Categories: Canadian parliaments ... The initial seat distribution of the 38th Canadian parliament The 38th Canadian parliament was in session from October 5, 2004 (elected June 28) until November 29, 2005. ... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament Stephen Harper is the Prime Minister of the 39th Parliament. ... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...

Preceded by:
1988 federal election
Canadian federal elections Followed by:
1997 federal election

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian federal election, 1993 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5253 words)
The election was called by new Progressive Conservative Party leader Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate.
The 1988 election had been almost wholly focused on the issue of the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, and similarly, the 1993 election was preceded by the agreement on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
This election was conducted under a single-member plurality (or first past the post) system in which the country was carved into 295 electoral districts with each one electing one representative to the Parliament of Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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