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Encyclopedia > Canadian confederation
Robert Harris's painting of the Fathers of Confederation. The scene is an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec City conference sites and attendees.
Robert Harris's painting of the Fathers of Confederation. The scene is an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec City conference sites and attendees.

Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America. Copy of Harriss painting Meeting of the Delegates of British North America, also known as The Fathers of Confederation. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... Delegates of the convention The Quebec Conference was the second meeting held in 1864 to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ...

Contents

Usage

In terms of political structure, Canada is a federal state and not a confederate association of sovereign states. However, Canada is often considered—in addition to Switzerland, whose official name in English is the Swiss Confederation—to be among the world's most decentralized federations. [1] A map displaying todays federations. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ...


In a Canadian context, Confederation generally describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s and related events, and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories. The term Confederation is now often used to describe Canada in an abstract way, "the Fathers of Confederation" itself being one such usage. Provinces and territories that became part of Canada after 1867 are also said to have joined, or entered into, Confederation (but not the Confederation).


The term is also used to divide Canadian history into pre-Confederation (i.e. pre-1867) and post-Confederation (i.e. post-1867) periods, the latter of which includes current events. Canada is a nation of 31 million inhabitants occupying almost all of the northern half of the North American continent. ...


History and process

Colonial organization

All the colonies which would become involved in Canadian Confederation in 1867 were initially part of New France and were ruled by France. The British Empire’s first acquisition in what would become Canada was Acadia, acquired by the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht (though the Acadian population retained loyalty to New France, and was eventually expelled by the British in the 1755 Great Upheaval). The British renamed Acadia Nova Scotia. The rest of New France was acquired by the British Empire by the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the French and Indian War. Most of New France became the Province of Quebec, while present-day New Brunswick was annexed to Nova Scotia. In 1769, present-day Prince Edward Island, which had been a part of Acadia, was renamed “St John’s Island” and organized as a separate colony (it was renamed PEI in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn). Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Deportation of Acadians order, read by Winslow in Grand-Pré church The Great Upheaval, also known as the Great Expulsion, The Deportation, the Acadian Expulsion, or to the deportees, Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced population transfer or ethnic cleansing of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ...


In the wake of the American Revolution, approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America. The Loyalists were unwelcome in Nova Scotia, so the British created the separate colony of New Brunswick for them in 1784. Most of the Loyalists settled in the Province of Quebec, which in 1791 was separated into a predominantly-English Upper Canada and a predominantly-French Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. ...

Canadian Territory at Confederation.

Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his famous Report on the Affairs of British North America, recommended that Upper Canada and Lower Canada should be joined to form the Province of Canada and that the new province should have responsible government. As a result of Durham’s report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, and the Province of Canada was formed in 1841. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada East (the former Lower Canada). Ministerial responsibility was finally granted by Governor General Lord Elgin in 1848, first to Nova Scotia and then to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island (1851), New Brunswick (1854), and Newfoundland (1855). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 694 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 864 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the provinces of Canada as they were from 1867 to 1870. ... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (also known as Radical Jack) GCB PC (London 12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840 Cowes), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Canada and the British Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Act of Union (3 & 4 Vict. ... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Canada East (French: Canada-Est) was the eastern portion of the Province of Canada. ... The Earl of Elgin and Kincardine James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine (20 July 1811 – 20 November 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat, best known as Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ...


The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory (both of which were controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company and ceded to Canada in 1870) and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became part of Canada in 1880. This article is about the trading territory. ... The North-Western Territory at its greatest extent, 1859 The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870. ... Hbc redirects here. ... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ...


Early projects

Hon. George-Étienne Cartier
Hon. George-Étienne Cartier

The idea of a legislative union of all British colonies in America goes back to at least 1754, when the Albany Congress was held, preceding the Continental Congress of 1774. At least twelve other projects followed. These, however, did not include the colonies that were located in the territory of present-day Canada. Image File history File links George_etiene_cartier. ... Image File history File links George_etiene_cartier. ... The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, & Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ...


The idea was revived in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America. John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham (also known as Radical Jack) GCB PC (London 12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840 Cowes), was a British Whig statesman and colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Canada and the British Empire. ...


In 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in the Courrier du Canada. Joseph-Charles Taché, (b December 24, 1820 – d April 16, 1894) was a multi-faceted member of the Taché family, a nephew of Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché. He was a student at the Petit Séminaire de Québec and followed this by a study of medicine, receiving his medical...


In 1858, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies. The proposal was received by the London authorities with polite indifference. Hon. ... Hon. ... John Ross (March 10, 1818 – January 31, 1871) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and businessman. ...


By 1864, it was clear that continued governance of the Province of Canada under the terms of the 1840 Act of Union had become impracticable. Therefore, a Great Coalition of parties formed in order to reform the political system. The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ... The Great Coalition refers to the grand coalition of political parties that formed in the Province of Canada in 1864. ...


Internal and external influences leading to Confederation

There were several factors that influenced Confederation, both caused from internal sources and pressures from external sources.


Internal causes that influenced Confederation:

  • between 1854 and 1865 the United States followed a policy of free trade (the Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty) where products were allowed into their country without taxes or tariffs, in 1865 the United States cancels reciprocity
  • political deadlock resulting from the current political structure
  • demographic pressure
  • economic nationalism and the promise of economic development

External pressures that influenced Confederation: The Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty, also known as the Elgin-Marcy Treaty, was a trade treaty between the colonies of British North America and the United States. ...

  • the U.S. doctrine of Manifest destiny, the constant threat of intervention from the US
  • the U.S. Civil war, British actions and American reactions
  • the Fenian raids
  • the creation of a new British colonial policy, Britain no longer wanted to maintain troops in its colonies.

This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ...

The Charlottetown Conference, September 1–9, 1864

In the spring of 1864, New Brunswick premier Samuel Leonard Tilley, Nova Scotia premier Charles Tupper, and Prince Edward Island premier John Hamilton Gray were contemplating the idea of a Maritime Union which would join their three colonies together. Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... The Honourable Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley, PC (May 8, 1818 – June 25, 1896) was a Canadian politician. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... John Hamilton Gray John Hamilton Gray (14 June 1811 – 13 August 1887) was Premier of Prince Edward Island from 1863 – 1865 and one of the Fathers of Confederation. ... A Maritime Union refers to a potential political union of the three Maritime provinces of Canada to form a single new province which would be the fifth largest in Canada by population. ...

Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House, September 1864.
Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House, September 1864.

The Premier of the Province of Canada John A. Macdonald surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada could be included in the negotiations. After several years of legislative paralysis in the Province of Canada caused by the need to maintain a double legislative majority (a majority of both the Canada East and Canada West delegates in the Province of Canada’s legislature), Macdonald had led his Liberal-Conservative Party into the Great Coalition with George-Étienne Cartier’s Parti bleu and George Brown’s Clear Grits. Macdonald, Cartier, and Brown felt that union with the other British colonies might be a way to solve the political problems of the Province of Canada. Charlottetown Conference of Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island to take into consideration the Union of the British North American Colonies, September 1, 1864 Name Key: Col. ... Charlottetown Conference of Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island to take into consideration the Union of the British North American Colonies, September 1, 1864 Name Key: Col. ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... Government House in Charlottetown is the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island. ... Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Great Coalition refers to the grand coalition of political parties that formed in the Province of Canada in 1864. ... Hon. ... The parti bleu was a moderate political group in Quebec, Canada that emerged in 1854. ... George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... Clear Grits were Upper Canadian reformers with support concentrated among southwestern Ontario farmers, who were frustrated and disillusioned by the 1849 Reform government of Robert Baldwin and Louis_Hippolyte Lafontaines lack of radicalism. ...


The Charlottetown Conference began on September 1, 1864. Since the agenda for the meeting had already been set, the delegation from the Province of Canada was initially not an official part of the Conference. They were allowed to address the Conference, however, and were soon formally invited to join the Conference. Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ...


No minutes from the Charlottetown Conference survive, but we do know that George-Étienne Cartier and John A. Macdonald presented arguments in favour of a union of the four colonies; Alexander Tilloch Galt presented the Province of Canada’s proposals on the financial arrangements of such a union; and that George Brown presented a proposal for what form a united government might take. The Canadian delegation’s proposal for the governmental system involved: Hon. ...

  1. preservation of ties with Great Britain;
  2. residual jurisdiction left to a central authority;
  3. a bicameral system including a Lower House with representation by population (rep by pop) and an Upper House with representation based on regional, rather than provincial, equality;
  4. responsible government at the federal and provincial levels; and
  5. the appointment of a governor general by the British Crown.

After the Conference adjourned on September 9, there were further meetings between delegates held at Halifax, Saint John, and Fredericton. These meetings evinced enough interest that it was decided to hold a second Conference. A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Also consult Saint Johns. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district of the same name, see Fredericton (electoral district). ...


The Quebec Conference, October 10–27, 1864

Delegates at the Quebec Conference, October 1864.
Delegates at the Quebec Conference, October 1864.

After returning home from the Charlottetown Conference, John A. Macdonald asked Viscount Monck, the Governor General of the Province of Canada to invite delegates from the three Maritime provinces and Newfoundland to a conference with United Canada delegates. Monck obliged and the Conference went ahead at Quebec City in October. Delegates of the convention The Quebec Conference was the second meeting held in 1864 to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... Download high resolution version (760x607, 102 KB)Quebec Conference, 1864 International Convention at Quebec of Delegates of the Legislatures of Canada: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, October 27, 1864, Quebec, Quebec Copyright: Expired Library and Archives Canada C-006350 (copy negative number) Photo by Jules I... Download high resolution version (760x607, 102 KB)Quebec Conference, 1864 International Convention at Quebec of Delegates of the Legislatures of Canada: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, October 27, 1864, Quebec, Quebec Copyright: Expired Library and Archives Canada C-006350 (copy negative number) Photo by Jules I... Delegates of the convention The Quebec Conference was the second meeting held in 1864 to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... Viscount Monck, 1868 Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck (October 10, 1819 – November 29, 1894) was the last Governor General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. ... The following is a list of the Governors and Governor General of Canada and the previous territories and colonies that now make up the country. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


The Conference began on October 10, 1864 on the site of the present-day Château Frontenac. The Conference elected Étienne-Paschal Taché as its chairman, but it was dominated by Macdonald. East side of Château Frontenac Château Frontenac at sunset The Château Frontenac grand hotel is one of the most popular attraction in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... Étienne-Paschal Taché Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché (5 September 1795 – 30 July 1865) was a Canadian doctor and politician. ...


At the end of the Conference, it adopted the Seventy-two Resolutions which would form the basis of a scheduled future conference. The Conference adjourned on October 27. The seventy-two resolutions were a set of proposals drafted at the 1864 Quebec Conference, which laid out the framework for an independent Canada. ...


The London Conference, December 1866–March 1867

Following the Quebec Conference, the Province of Canada’s legislature passed a bill approving the union. The union proved more controversial in the Maritime provinces, however, and it was not until 1866 that New Brunswick and Nova Scotia passed union resolutions. (At this point, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland opted against union.) The London Conference was held in the United Kingdom in December 1866 and was the final in a series of conferences that led to Canadian confederation in 1867. ...

Queen Victoria granted royal assent to the British North America Act on March 29, 1867.
Queen Victoria granted royal assent to the British North America Act on March 29, 1867.

Sixteen delegates from the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia traveled to London in December 1866. At meetings held at the Westminster Palace Hotel, the delegates reviewed the Seventy-two Resolutions. Although Charles Tupper had promised anti-union forces in Nova Scotia that he would push for amendments, he was unsuccessful in getting amendments passed. The Conference approved the 72 Resolutions, which now became the “London Resolutions” and passed them on to the British Colonial Office. Image File history File links Queen_Victoria_bw. ... Image File history File links Queen_Victoria_bw. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


After breaking for Christmas, the delegates reconvened in January 1867 and began drafting the British North America Act. They easily agreed that the new country should be called “Canada”, that Canada East should be renamed “Quebec” and that Canada West should be renamed “Ontario.” There was, however, heated debate about how the new country should be designated. Ultimately, the delegates elected to call the new country the Dominion of Canada, after "kingdom" and "confederation", among other options, were rejected for various reasons. The term "dominion" originates from Psalm 72:8 (KJV) and was (allegedly) suggested by Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ...


The delegates had completed their draft of the British North America Act by February 1867. The Act was presented to Queen Victoria on February 11, 1867. The bill was introduced in the House of Lords the next day. The bill was quickly approved by the House of Lords, and then also quickly approved by the British House of Commons. (The Conservative Lord Derby was prime minister of the United Kingdom at the time.) The Act received royal assent on March 29, 1867 and set July 1, 1867 as the date for union. Queen Victoria redirects here. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


British North America Act, 1867

Proclamation of Canadian Confederation
Proclamation of Canadian Confederation

Confederation was accomplished when Queen Victoria gave royal assent to the British North America Act (BNA Act) on March 29, 1867. That act, which united the Province of Canada with the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, came into effect on July 1 that year. The act replaced the Act of Union (1840) which had previously unified Upper Canada and Lower Canada into the united Province of Canada. Separate provinces were re-established under their current names of Ontario and Quebec. July 1 is now celebrated as Canada Day. A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ...


The form of the country's government was influenced by the American republic to the south. Noting the flaws perceived in the American system, the Fathers of Confederation opted to retain a monarchical form of government. John A. Macdonald, speaking in 1865 about the proposals for the upcoming confederation of Canada, said: For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ...

By adhering to the monarchical principle we avoid one defect inherent in the Constitution of the United States. By the election of the president by a majority and for a short period, he never is the sovereign and chief of the nation. He is never looked up to by the whole people as the head and front of the nation. He is at best but the successful leader of a party. This defect is all the greater on account of the practice of reelection. During his first term of office he is employed in taking steps to secure his own reelection, and for his party a continuance of power. We avoid this by adhering to the monarchical principle—the sovereign whom you respect and love. I believe that it is of the utmost importance to have that principle recognized so that we shall have a sovereign who is placed above the region of party—to whom all parties look up; who is not elevated by the action of one party nor depressed by the action of another; who is the common head and sovereign of all.[2]

While the BNA Act gave Canada more autonomy than it had before, it was far from full independence from the United Kingdom. Foreign policy remained in British hands, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council remained Canada's highest court of appeal, and the constitution could be amended only in Britain. Gradually, Canada gained more autonomy, and in 1931, obtained almost full autonomy within the British Commonwealth with the Statute of Westminster. Because the provinces of Canada were unable to agree on a constitutional amending formula, this power remained with the British Parliament. In 1982, the constitution was patriated when Queen Elizabeth II gave her royal assent to the Canada Act 1982. The Constitution of Canada is made up of a number of codified acts and uncodified traditions; one of the principal documents is the Constitution Act, 1982, which renamed the BNA Act 1867 to Constitution Act, 1867. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Look up Patriation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ...

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ...

Aftermath of Confederation, July 1, 1867

Dominion elections were held in August and September to elect the first Parliament, and the four new provinces' governments recommended the 72 individuals (24 each for Quebec and Ontario, 12 each for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) who would sit in the Senate[citation needed]. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


Fathers of Confederation

The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage. They are known as the Fathers of Confederation.


There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Harry Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation." In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation. As well, Joey Smallwood is popularly referred to as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he led Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949. Amor De Cosmos (Windsor, Nova Scotia August 20, 1825 – July 4, 1897 Victoria, British Columbia) was a Canadian journalist and politician. ... Joseph Smallwood signs the document bringing Newfoundland into Confederation. ...


More controversially, there is also a movement to have Louis Riel accepted as a Father of Confederation for his role in bringing Manitoba into Confederation following the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870, even though Riel was later executed for treason following the North-West Rebellion of 1885. For the opera, see Louis Riel (opera). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a...


Table of participation

Participant Province(Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Sir George Brown Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Alexander Campbell Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Frederick Carter Newfoundland No Yes No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir Edward Barron Chandler New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Jean-Charles Chapais Quebec No Yes No
Sir James Cockburn Ontario No Yes No
George Coles Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Robert B. Dickey Nova Scotia Yes Yes No
Charles Fisher New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir John Hamilton Gray Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John Hamilton Gray New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Thomas Heath Haviland Prince Edward Island No Yes No
William Alexander Henry Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland Ontario No No Yes
John Mercer Johnson New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John A. Macdonald Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Jonathan McCully Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
William McDougall Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee Quebec Yes Yes No
Peter Mitchell New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat Ontario No Yes No
Edward Palmer Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
William Henry Pope Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John William Ritchie Nova Scotia No No Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea Newfoundland No Yes No
William H. Steeves New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché Quebec No Yes No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Charles Tupper Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Edward Whelan Prince Edward Island No Yes No
Robert Duncan Wilmot New Brunswick No No Yes

Adams George Archibald The Honourable Sir Adams George Archibald, KCB , PC (May 3, 1814 – December 14, 1892) was a Canadian lawyer and politician, and a father of Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Sir Alexander Campbell The Honourable Sir Alexander Campbell, PC (March 9, 1822 – 24 May 1892) was an English-born, in Hedon, Canadian statesman and politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Sir Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter (born February 12, 1819 in St. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Hon. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Edward Barron Chandler Edward Barron Chandler (August 22, 1800 – February 6, 1880) was a New Brunswick politician and lawyer from a United Empire Loyalist family. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Jean-Charles Chapais as Receiver-General, in 1870 Jean-Charles Chapais, PC (2 December 1811 – 17 July 1885) was a Canadian Conservative politician, and considered a Father of Canadian Confederation for his participation in the Quebec Conference to determine the form of Canadas government. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... James Cockburn James Cockburn, QC (February 13, 1819 – August 14, 1883) was a Canadian Conservative politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... George Coles (September 20, 1810 – August 21, 1875) was a Canadian politician, being the first Premier of Prince Edward Island, and a Father of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Robert B. Dickey Robert Barry Dickey (November 10, 1811 – July 14, 1903) was a participant in conferences leading to the Canadian Confederation of 1867 and is therefore considered to be one of the Fathers of Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Hon. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Colonel John Hamilton Gray was Premier of Prince Edward Island from 1863 to 1865 and one of the fathers of the Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... John Hamilton Gray, born May 3, 1814 - died June 5, 1889, was a Canadian politiican and jurist. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Thomas Heath Haviland (born November 13, 1822 in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island-September 11, 1895 in Charlottetown) was a Canadian politician and Father of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... William Alexander Henry William Alexander Henry (December 30, 1816 – May 3, 1888) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and judge. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image:WilliamPearceHowland starred in a porn film with Sir George Etienne Cartier23. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... John Mercer Johnson (October 1, 1818 – November 8, 1868) was a New Brunswick politician and a Father of Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Sir Hector-Louis Langevin The Honourable Sir Hector-Louis Langevin, PC , QC , KCB (August 25, 1826 – June 11, 1906) was a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Andrew Archibald Macdonald The Honourable Senator Andrew Archibald Macdonald, PC (14 February 1829 – 21 March 1912), Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island from 1 August 1884 to 2 September 1889, was one of the fathers of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Jonathan McCully The Honourable Jonathan McCully was born July 25, 1809 at his familys farm in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... William McDougall William McDougall, C.B. (January 25, 1822 – May 29, 1905) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and one of the Fathers of Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... McGee in 1868 Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 – April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Peter Mitchell (January 4, 1824 – October 25, 1899) was a Canadian politician. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... The Honourable Sir Oliver Mowat, QC (July 22, 1820 – 19 April 1903) was a Canadian politician, and premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Edward Palmer (September 1, 1809 – November 3, 1889) was born at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island and resided in Prince Edward Island until his death. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... John William Ritchie (1808-1890) was a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Sir Ambrose Shea, one of the fathers of the Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... William Henry Steeves (May 20, 1814 - December 9, 1873) was a merchant, lumberman, politician and Father of Canadian Confederation. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Étienne-Paschal Taché Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché (5 September 1795 – 30 July 1865) was a Canadian doctor and politician. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... The Honourable Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley, PC (May 8, 1818 – June 25, 1896) was a Canadian politician. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Edward Whelan (1824-December 10, 1867). ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Robert Duncan Wilmot (16 October 1809 – 13 February 1891) was a Father of Confederation and from 1880 – 1885 the Lieutenant-Governor of the Canadian province of New Brunswick External links Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Categories: Canadian people stubs | Lieutenant Governors of New Brunswick ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ...

Joining Confederation

See also: History of Canada

After the initial Act of Union in 1867, Manitoba was established by an Act of Parliament on July 15, 1870, originally as an area much smaller than the current province. British Columbia joined Canada July 20, 1871, by Act of Parliament (and encouraged to join by Sir John A. Macdonald's promise of a railway within 10 years). Prince Edward Island joined July 1, 1873 (and, as part of the terms of union, was guaranteed a ferry link, a term which was deleted upon completion of the Confederation Bridge in 1997). Alberta and Saskatchewan were established September 1, 1905, by Acts of Parliament. Newfoundland joined on March 31, 1949, also with a ferry link guaranteed. Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... The Confederation Bridge (French: ) is a bridge spanning the Abegweit Passage of Northumberland Strait, linking Prince Edward Island with mainland New Brunswick, Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Dominion acquired Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and the North-Western Territory from the Crown in 1869, and took ownership on December 1 of that year, merging them and naming them North-West Territories (though final payment to the Hudson's Bay Company did not occur until 1870). In 1880, the British assigned all North American Arctic islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island. From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon and North-West Territories), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba. Later the Territory of Nunavut was also created. This article is about the trading territory. ... Hbc redirects here. ... The North-Western Territory at its greatest extent, 1859 The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870. ... ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... ...


List of provinces and territories in order of entering Confederation

Below is a list of Canadian provinces and territories in the order in which they entered Confederation; territories are italicized. At formal events, representatives of the provinces and territories take precedence according to this ordering, except that provinces always supersede territories. For provinces that entered on the same date, the order of precedence is based on the provinces' populations at the time they entered Confederation. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Denmark France Germany India Isle of Man Italy Jamaica New Zealand Norway Poland Romania Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ...

Order Date Name
1 1 July 1867 Ontario
Quebec
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
5 15 July 1870 Manitoba*
Northwest Territories
7 20 July 1871 British Columbia
8 1 July 1873 Prince Edward Island
9 13 June 1898 Yukon*
10 1 September 1905 Saskatchewan*
Alberta*
12 31 March 1949 Newfoundland (later renamed Newfoundland and Labrador)
13 1 April 1999 Nunavut*

*In 1870 the Hudson's Bay Company-controlled Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory were transferred to the Dominion of Canada. Most of these lands were formed into a new territory named Northwest Territories, but the region around Fort Garry was simultaneously established as the province of Manitoba by the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba later received additional land from the Northwest Territories, and Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Nunavut were later created out of the Northwest Territories. The remaining provinces joined Canada as separate and previously independent colonies. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ontario. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nova_Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Brunswick. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Northwest_Territories. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_British_Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Prince_Edward_Island. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yukon. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saskatchewan. ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Alberta. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Hbc redirects here. ... Upper Fort Garry in the early 1870s Fort Garry also known as Upper Fort Garry was a Hudsons Bay Company trading post at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg. ... The Manitoba Act was an Act of the Parliament of Canada, and was given Royal Assent on May 12, 1870. ...


References

  1. ^ Collaborative Federalism in an era of globalization"
  2. ^ Macdonald, John A.; On Canadian Confederation; 1865

External links

  • Library and Archives Canada
  • Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
  • Library Search, Library and Archives Canada—"Confederation"
  • Online Archives Search, Library and Archives Canada—"Confederation"
  • Website Search, Library and Archives Canada—"Confederation"
  • Résultat de documents de bibliothèques, Bibliothèque et Archives Canada—"Pères de la Confédération"
  • Résultats du site Web, Bibliothèque et Archives Canada—"Pères de la Confédération"
  • Conference at Québec in 1864, to settle the basics of a union of the British North American Provinces. Copy of a painting by Robert Harris, 1885—Archives, Library and Archives Canada
  • Conférence à Québec, en 1864, pour établir les bases d'une union des provinces de l'Amérique du Nord britannique. Copie d'une peinture de Robert Harris, 1885.—Pièce (reliée)—d’archives, Bibliothèque et Archives Canada

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