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Encyclopedia > Canadian civil service

The Canadian civil service is the staff or bureaucracy of the federal government of Canada. Its function is to support the Head of State (Crown), represented by the Governor General and the elected parliamentary government. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is the Head of State; Canada is one of... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...


The civil service functions through departments, agencies, commissions, crown corporations and other federal organizations. Over 40% of the Canadian Civil service is located in the Ottawa-Hull area although there are staff in over 180 countries and 1,600 locations in Canada. The Byzantine civil service in action. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Hull, Québec, as seen from Ottawa Hull is part of the city of Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. ...

Contents

Purpose

The purpose of the Canadian public service is to enact the will of the elected government. It does this through providing advice, implementing the priorities of the government, supports elected Ministers, and delivers numerous services in support of Canadians.


Structure

In 2007 there were approximately 200 departments (e.g., Health Canada), agencies, commissions (e.g., Canadian Grain Commission), boards (e.g., Veterans Review and Appeal Board), councils (e.g., Canadian Judicial Council) and crown corporations (e.g., Enterprise Cape Breton Corporation). sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ... The Canadian Grain Commission is a Canadian government department responsible for the grain industry. ... The Canadian Judicial Council is the regulating body for Canadian judges composed mostly of chief justices and associate chief justices of Canadas superior courts. ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ...


The average department is headed by a Minister, which is a political position held usually by a member of parliament and is a member of the cabinet. The senior civil servent in a department is usually titled, Deputy Minister (given the statator title of Deputy Head) and is responsible for the entire workings of the department and reports directly the Minister as well as the Clerk of the Privy Council. Under the Deputy Minister, is usually three-to-five Assistant Deputy Ministers who oversee various broad aspects of the department (ex: policy, administration, program implementation etc). Within the jursidcition of each Assistant Deputy Minister is usually two-five Director-Generals who oversee more funcational areas of each broad element of the department. Under Director-Generals are Directors, who oversee various Directorates which are the core of any department. These Directorates contain the ground level in each department and are the members of the public service who implement government decisions. A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... In Canada, a Deputy Minister is the senior civil servant in a government department and assists the Minister of the department who is a member of the Canadian Cabinet. ... The Clerk of the Privy Council is the senior civil servant in the government and the Secretary to the Canadian Cabinet. ...


History

  • Before responsible government, Canada had no real civil service; government officials were appointed by either the Crown or its provincial representatives. These officials usually served for an unspecified period ("during the pleasure of the Crown") for as long as they were deemed fit for the position.[1]
  • 1849 - when responsible government began in 1849, there was a recognition that the roles of the political and non-political government officials needed to be defined and distinguished from one another.
  • 1868 - the "Canada Civil Service Act" was enacted [2]
  • The "Civil Service Act" of 1882 created a process for examining candidates for the civil service, with a Board of Civil Service Examiners
  • 1908 - the "Civil Service Amendment Act" created the Civil Service Commission, to oversee appointments to government positions (the "inside service").
  • The Civil Service Act 1918 brought the "outside service" under the domain of the Commission, along with greater oversight with regards to appointments and promotions for members of the "inside service".
  • 1920s - the Commission created of a competitive system of examinations for appointment and promotion (a merit system) as a viable alternative to the patronage system.
  • 1921 - formal restrictions were placed against the employment of married women. Women already holding permanent positions who married had to resign. These restrictions were not removed until 1955.
  • 1924 - The Civil Service Superannuation Act was intended to promote and protect a career civil service.
  • 1932 - staff control regulations are established and Treasury Board is given authority over the Civil Service Commission's staffing responsibilities.
  • 1949 - the number of World War II veterans assigned to positions in the civil service under the statutory veterans preference rises to 55,000.
  • 1951 - The Financial Administration Act of 1951 provided final authority to the Treasury Board for management (administration and organization) of the public service.
  • 1957 - The CSC establishes the Pay Research Bureau to provide objective information on rates of pay and conditions of employment in government and industry, and to recommend salary rates for civil servants.
  • 1961 - The new Civil Service Act of 1961 gave civil servants the right of appeal against not only promotions, but also transfers, demotions, suspensions and dismissals.
  • 1962 - The Government adopted recommendations by the Royal Commission on Government Organization (Glassco Commission) on the management of the Public Service, including delegating authority to departments to manage their own personnel and to be held accountable for efficient performance.
  • 1966 - Bilingualism becomes an element of merit in the national capital area.
  • 1967 - Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) and Public Service Staff Relations Act (PSSRA) come into effect. The PSEA gave the renamed Public Service Commission the responsibility for all the elements of the staffing process. The PSSRA created a collective bargaining regime in the civil service.
  • early 1970s - rapid expansion of the civil service.
  • Late 1970s - significant reduction of civil service.
  • 1979 - The Bilingualism Bonus was introduced for public servants who met the bilingual language requirements of their positions.
  • 1984 - the Commission on Equality in Employment issued its report, which recommended that targets and not quotas are the most effective means of achieving equity in the employment of members of under-represented groups.
  • 1986 - further employment layoff programs again reduce the civil service.
  • 1992 - Public Service Reform Act amends both the PSEA and the Public Service Staff Relations Act. This provides more flexibility for managers to respond quickly to changing operational needs or to allow employees to acquire new skills. The Act also enabled the PSC to prescribe standards of competence to measure merit.
  • 1995 - a restraint-focussed federal budget leads to further reductions in the size of the civil service.

Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... A promotion is the advancement of rank or position in an organizational hierarchy system. ... ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... -1... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ...

Personnel

Size

The civil service has expanded over the years as population has grown, the number of services provided to Canadians has increased and with the introduction of new offices throughout the country. The service has also been reduced several times, often due to restraint programs designed to reduce the cost of the civil service.

Year Size of civil service (CS)[3] [4] national pop. [5] CS as a % of national pop.
1918 ~ 5,000 ~ 8,500,000 0.05%
post-World War I 55,000 (1923) ~ 13,500,000 0.41%
1970 198,000 21,500,000 0.92%
1975 273,000 23,400,000 1.2%
1986 217,000 26,101,000 0.83%
2006 454,000 32,248,000 1.4%

As of September 2006, there were approximately 454,000 members of the Canadian civil service.[6] Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

There are approximately 100 distinctly different positions in the Canadian public service. Most work in policy, operations or administrative functions. About 15% are scientists and professionals, 10% work in technical operations and 2.5% are executives.[7] The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), also known as the Mounties or Gendarmerie Royale du Canada (GRC) in French, is both the federal and national police force of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


Distribution

About 42% of Canadian public servants work in the National Capital Region (NCR) (Ottawa-Hull), 24% work elsewhere in Ontario or Quebec, 21% in Western Canada, and 11% in Atlantic Canada. Since the headquarter offices of most agencies is located in NCR, about 72% of executives work in this area.[7] The National Capital Region is an official federal designation for the Canadian capital of Ottawa, Ontario, the neighbouring city of Gatineau, Quebec and the surrounding area. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ...


Canadian civil servants are located in more than 180 countries and provides service in 1,600 locations in Canada.


Gender and ethnicity

The Canadian civil service has made significant efforts to accurately reflect the gender balance, linguistic and great ethnic diversity in Canada.[8] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ...

Sub-group Canadian Civil Service Available Workforce
female 53% 52%
Francophone 32% 24%
self-identified visible minorities 8.1% 10.4%
self-identified people with disabilities 5.9% 3.6%
aboriginal 4.1% 2.5%

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ...

Hiring

Hiring (or "selection") of civil servants is typically done through a competitive process that is either external (open) process or an internal (closed) process. External competitions are typically done to recruit a greater number of applicants. Internal competitions may be held for positions where there is considered to be adequate internal candidates and/or to provide opportunities for advancement within the civil service.


The area of selection varies greatly for positions and may be as limited to a specific urban area (e.g., the Lower Mainland of British Columbia) or nation-wide (and in some cases global). The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...


Since the 2003 adoption by Parliament of the Public Service Modernization Act, competitions now focus less on a rules-based concept of "best-qualified" and more on a values-based approach that allows managers to hire qualified and competent individuals more quickly.[9]


References

  1. ^ Civil Service in Canada. Marionopolis College. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  2. ^ A Timeline of the Public Service Commission of Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  3. ^ The Civil Service of Canada p.46 (1923). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  4. ^ http://www.psc-cfp.gc.ca/research/timeline/psc_timeline_e.htm
  5. ^ http://www.sustreport.org/signals/canpop_ttl.html
  6. ^ Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper) pg. 6. Public Policy Forum (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  7. ^ a b Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper) pg. 7. Public Policy Forum (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  8. ^ Canada's Public Service in the 21st Century (discussion paper) pg. 8. Public Policy Forum (April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  9. ^ Overview of the Public Service Modernization Act. Canada Public Service Agency. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The civil service of Canada (1923) (pdf)
  • Government of Canada website
  • Canada‚Äôs Public Service in the 21st Century (by the Public Policy Forum)

 
 

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