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Encyclopedia > Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield Landform.
Canadian Shield Landform.

The Canadian Shield — also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien (French) — is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. It has a deep, common, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada and stretches North from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering half the country. It also includes most of Greenland and extends into the United States as the Adirondack Mountains and the Northern Highland. The Canadian Shield is U-shaped, but almost circular, which gives it an appearance of a warrior's shield or a giant horseshoe, and is a subsection of the Laurentia craton signifying the area of greatest glacial impact (scraping down to bare rock) creating the thin soils. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,264 × 2,448 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,264 × 2,448 pixels, file size: 2. ... Shields are shown in orange. ... The North American craton, like all craton land, was created as continents move about the surface of the Earth, bumping into other continents and drifting away. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ... In the U.S. state of Wisconsin, the Northern Highland is a geographical region covering the much of the state’s northern territory. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World geologic provinces. ...


The Canadian Shield is a collage of Archean plates and accreted juvenile arc terranes and sedimentary basins of Proterozoic age that were progressively amalgamated during the interval 2.45 to 1.24 Ga, with the most substantial growth period occurring during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, between ca. 1.90 to 1.80 Ga.[1] The Canadian Shield was the first part of North America to be permanently elevated above sea level and has remained almost wholly untouched by successive encroachments of the sea upon the continent. It is the earth's greatest area of exposed Archaean rock. The metamorphic base rocks are mostly from the Precambrian Era (between 4.5 billion and 540 million years ago), and have been repeatedly uplifted and eroded. Today it consists largely of an area of low relief (1,000–2,000 ft/300–600 m above sea level) with a few monadnocks and low mountain ranges (including the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains) probably eroded from the plateau during the Cenozoic era. During the Pleistocene epoch, continental ice sheets depressed the land surface (see Hudson Bay), scooped out thousands of lake basins, and carried away much of the region's soil. The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... A monadnock or inselberg is an isolated hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain. ... For the Montreal indie band see Torngat Torngat Mountains are a mountain range located on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Labrador and eastern Quebec and are part of the Arctic Cordillera. ... The Laurentians mountains in the Hautes-Gorges Quebec national parc, Charlevoix, Quebec, Canada The Laurentian mountains (French: Laurentides) are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. ... Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


Hydrographical drainage is generally poor, the effects of glaciation being one of the reasons. The Canadian shield is covered by boreal forests in the south, while tundra prevails in the northern regions. Population is scarce, and industrial development is minimal[2], however the region has a large water-power potential and is a source of ore and timber. Many mammals such as caribou, wolverines, weasels, mink, otters, grizzlies and black bears are also present in this area[3]. Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Taiga (SAMPA /[email protected]/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ...

Contents

Regional extent

When the Greenland section is included, the Shield is approximately circular bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland, with Hudson Bay in the middle. It covers much of Greenland, Labrador, most of Quebec north of the St. Lawrence River, much of Ontario including northern sections of the southern peninsula between the Great Lakes, the Adirondack Mountains[4] of northern New York, the northernmost part of Lower Michigan and all of Upper Michigan, northern Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota, the central/northern portions of Manitoba away from Hudson Bay and the Great Plains, northern Saskatchewan, a small portion of northeastern Alberta,[5] and the mainland northern Canadian territories to the east of a line extended north from the Saskatchewan/Alberta border (Northwest Territories and Nunavut)[6]. In total it covers approximately 8 million square kilometers. It covers even more area and stretches to the Western Cordillera in the west and Appalachians in the east but the formations are still underground. New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...


The underlying rock structure does include Hudson Bay and the submerged area between North America and Greenland.


The Canadian shield is so large the climate varies across it. In the southern parts the climate is seasonal; the average temperature in the winter is -18 degrees Celsius, and in the summer it is 25 degrees Celsius. The growing season of about 120 days coincides with summer daylight averaging about 15 hours, while winter daylight averages about 8.5 hours. In the northern parts it is very cold. The average temperatures range from 15 degrees Celsius in the summer to -35 degrees Celsius in winter. The growing season is only 60 days. Winter daylight hours are about 5.5 hours, and in the summer the daylight hours are about 18.5 hours. The lowlands of the Canadian shield have soggy soil suitable for planting trees, but it contains many marshes and bogs. The rest of the region has coarse soil that doesn't hold moisture very well and is frozen all year round. Forests are less dense in the north.


Physiography

The Canadian shield is a physiographic division, consisting of 5 smaller physiographic provinces, the Laurentian Upland, Kazan, Davis, Hudson, and James.[7]


Geology

Canadian Shield is exposed part of North American craton or Laurentia.

Such a large area of exposed old rock is unusual. The current surface expression of the Shield is one of very thin soil lying on top of the bedrock, with many bare outcrops. This arrangement was caused by severe glaciation during the last ice age, which covered the Shield and scraped the rock clean. The multitude of rivers and lakes in the entire region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young and in a state of sorting themselves out with the added effect of post-glacial rebound. The Shield was originally an area of very large mountains that were about 12,000 m[citation needed] in height and much volcanic activity, but over the millennia the area was eroded to its current topographic appearance of relatively low relief. It contains some of the most ancient volcanoes on earth. It has over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 to 1200 million years old. Each belt probably grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes in the hundreds. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. The Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario is one of the world's best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, which is some 2.7 billion years old.[8] The Canadian Shield also contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, which is the largest dike swarm known on Earth.[9] Image File history File links North_america_craton_nps. ... Image File history File links North_america_craton_nps. ... The North American craton, like all craton land, was created as continents move about the surface of the Earth, bumping into other continents and drifting away. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Changes in the elevation of Lake Superior due to glaciation and post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... The Sturgeon Lake Caldera is one of the worlds best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, located in Kenora District of Northwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Categories: Stub | Ontario districts ... In geology, mineralization is used to describe the hydrothermal deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or lodes. The first scientific studies of this process took place in Cornwall, United Kingdom by J.W.Henwood FRS and later by R.W. Fox, FRS [1]. Ore genesis... The Neoarchean is a geologic era within the Archaean. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...

Typical Canadian Shield: pines, lakes, bogs, and rock.
Typical Canadian Shield: pines, lakes, bogs, and rock.

Mountains have deep roots and float on the denser mantle much like an iceberg at sea. As mountains erode, their roots rise and are eroded in turn. The rocks that now form the surface of the Shield were once far below the earth's surface. The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Although these mountains are now heavily eroded, many large mountains still exist in Canada's far north called the Arctic Cordillera. This a vast deeply dissected mountain range, streching from northernmost Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador. The range's highest peak is Nunavut's Barbeau Peak at 2,616 meters (8,583 feet) above sea level.[10] Precambrian rock is the major component of the bedrock. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian Shield Canadas landforms ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 2142 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canadian Shield Canadas landforms ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... In geology, mineralization is used to describe the hydrothermal deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or lodes. The first scientific studies of this process took place in Cornwall, United Kingdom by J.W.Henwood FRS and later by R.W. Fox, FRS [1]. Ore genesis... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Barbeau Peak, on Ellesmere Island, is the highest mountain in Nunavut. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...


The North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. The North American craton, like all craton land, was created as continents move about the surface of the Earth, bumping into other continents and drifting away. ...


The Canadian Shield is part of an ancient continent called Arctica, which was formed about 2.5 billion years ago, during the Neoarchean era. It was split into Greenland, Laurentia, Scotland, Siberia, East Antarctica and is now roughly situated in the Arctic around the current North Pole. Arctica was an ancient continent approximately 2. ... The Neoarchean is a geologic era within the Archaean. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, (80° S 80° E) is one of the two major regions of Antarctica, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprising Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...


Mining and economics

The Shield is one of the world's richest area in terms of mineral ores. It is filled with substantial deposits of nickel, gold, silver, and copper. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and one of the best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The nearby, but less known Temagami magnetic anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[11] For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Aedificemus (Latin for Come, let us build together) Coordinates: , Country Province Established 1893 (as Sudbury)   2001 (as Greater Sudbury) Government  - Mayor John Rodriguez  - Governing Body Greater Sudbury City Council  - MPs Raymond Bonin (LPC), Diane Marleau (LPC)  - MPPs Rick Bartolucci (OLP), Shelley Martel (NDP) Area  - City 3,200 km... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ...


The Shield, particularly the portion in the Northwest Territories, has recently been the site of several major diamond discoveries. The kimberlite pipes in which the diamonds are found are closely associated with cratons, which provide the deep lithospheric mantle required to stabilize diamond as a mineral. The kimberlite eruptions then bring the diamonds from over 150 km depth to the surface. Currently the Ekati and Diavik mines are actively mining kimberlite diamonds. For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Hewn kimberlite core sample from the James Bay Lowlands region of Northern Ontario, Canada. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... The Ekati Diamond Mine is Canadas first operational diamond mining operation. ... The Diavik Diamond Mine is a very large diamond mine located in the Northwest Territories, about 300 km north of Yellowknife. ...


The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. Taiga (SAMPA /[email protected]/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ...


References

  1. ^ Corrigan, D. (2008). "Metallogeny and Tectonic Evolution of the Trans-Hudson Orogen". 
  2. ^ Canadian Shield - Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2005
  3. ^ National Geographic - Northern Canadian Shield taiga
  4. ^ Peterson Field Guide to Geology of Eastern North America by Roberts, David & Roger Tory Peterson.
  5. ^ Alberta Heritage - Alberta Online Encyclopedia - The Canadian Shield Region of Alberta
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica - Canadian Shield
  7. ^ The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2007-12-27.
  8. ^ Caldera Volcanoes Retrieved on 2007-07-20
  9. ^ Supressing Varying Directional Trends Retrieved on 2007-07-28
  10. ^ Barbeau Peak in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-11-10
  11. ^ 3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly Retrieved on 2008-03-12

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8192x4096, 10000 KB) Land surface, ocean color, sea ice and clouds. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian Shield - MSN Encarta (598 words)
In the late 19th century, the rockiness of the shield represented a major obstacle to the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canada’s first transcontinental railway.
The Canadian Shield is the ancient geological core of Canada.
Caribou migrate to the arctic in the summer to feed on the lush tundra plants and migrate southward in the winter to the boreal forest.
Physiographic Regions (573 words)
The Shield is composed of crystalline Precambrian rocks formed during several phases of mountain building between 4 and 1 billion years ago.
The eastern Shield is dominated by plateaus between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence.
The 2 extensive shield zones, east and west of Hudson Bay, were the centres of ice sheet outflow during the last glaciation (from 75 000 to 6000 years ago).
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