The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR; AAR reporting marks CP, CPAA, CPI), known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a Canadian Class I railway that is operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited. Its rail network stretches from Vancouver to United States, such as Minneapolis, Chicago, and New York City. Its headquarters are in Calgary, Alberta.
The railway was originally built between eastern Canada and British Columbia between 1881 and 1885, fulfilling a promise extended to British Columbia when it entered Confederation in 1871. It was Canada's first transcontinental railway. Currently a freight only railway, it also operated passenger services until 1978, when VIA Rail assumed its passenger services. The railway's logo, a beaver, was chosen because it is one of Canada's national symbols and represents the hardworking character of the company.
Network Map of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Before the Canadian Pacific Railway, 1871_1881
Creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway was a task originally undertaken by the Conservative government of Sir John A. Macdonald for a combination of reasons. British Columbia had insisted upon a national railway to join the Confederation of Canada. Thus the government promised to build a railway linking the Pacific province to the eastern provinces within ten years of July 20, 1871. Macdonald also saw it as essential to creating a unified Canadian nation that would stretch across the continent. Quebec and Ontario manufacturing interests desired access to sources of raw materials and markets in Canada's west.
The first obstacle to its construction was economic. The logical route for a railway serving Western Canada would be to go through the American Mid-West and the city of Chicago. To build the railway through Canada, 1,600 kilometres (1,000 miles) of rugged and barren terrain in Northern Ontario had to be crossed. To do so the government offered huge benefits to the company including vast amounts of land in Western Canada.
In 1872, Sir John A. Macdonald and other high-ranking politicians, swayed by bribes in the so-called Pacific Scandal, granted federal contracts to Hugh Allan's Canadian Pacific Railway Company (unrelated to the current company) and the Inter-Ocean Railway Company. Because of this scandal, the Conservative party was removed from office in 1873. The new Liberal prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, began construction of segments of the railway as a public enterprise under the supervision of the Department of Public Works. The Thunder Bay branch linking Lake Superior to Winnipeg was commenced in 1875. Progress was discouragingly slow because of the lack of public money. With the return to power in October 16, 1878 of Sir John A. Macdonald, a more aggressive construction policy was adopted. Macdonald confirmed that Port Moody would be the terminus of the transcontinental railway, and announced that the railway would follow the Fraser and Thompson rivers between Port Moody and Kamloops. In 1879, the federal government called for tenders to construct the 206 kilometre (128 mile) section of the railway from Yale, British Columbia to Savona's Ferry on Kamloops Lake. The contract was awarded to Andrew Onderdonk, whose men started work on May 15, 1880. After the completion of that section, Onderdonk received contracts to build between Yale and Port Moody, and between Savona's Ferry and Eagle Pass.
On October 21, 1880, a new Canadian Pacific Railway Company, unrelated to Hugh Allan's, signed a contract with the Macdonald government, agreeing to build the railway in exchange for $25,000,000 (approximately $625,000,000 in modern Canadian money) in credit from the Canadian government and a grant of 25,000,000 acres (101,000 kmē, around 10,000,000 hectares) of land. The government transferred to the new company those sections of the railway it had constructed under government ownership. The government also defrayed surveying costs and exempted the railway from property taxes for 20 years. On February 15, 1881, legislation confirming the contract received royal assent, and the Canadian Pacific Railway was formally incorporated shortly afterward.
Building the railway, 1881-1885
It was assumed that the railway would travel though the rich "Fertile Belt" of the North Saskatchewan River valley and cross the Rocky Mountains via Yellowhead Pass, a route Sir Sandford Fleming recommended based on a decade of work. However, the CPR quickly discarded this route in favour of a more southern route through the arid Palliser's Triangle in Saskatchewan and through Kicking Horse Pass over the Field Hill. This route was more direct and closer to the American border, making it easier for the CPR to keep American railways from encroaching on the Canadian market. However, this route also had several disadvantages.
One consequence was that the CPR would need to find a route through the Selkirk Mountains, as at the time it was not known whether a route even existed. The job of finding a pass was assigned to a surveyor named Major Albert Bowman Rogers. The CPR promised him a cheque for $5,000 and that they would name the pass in his honour. Rogers became obsessed with finding the pass that would immortalize his name. He found the pass on May 29, 1881, and the CPR named the pass "Rogers Pass" and gave him the cheque, which he at first refused to cash, wanting to frame it instead, saying he did not do it for the money. He was finally coaxed to cash it with the promise of an engraved watch for doing so.
Another consequence of the choice of route was that, unlike the one proposed by Fleming, the land surrounding the railway was often too arid for successful farming. The CPR may have placed too much reliance on a report from naturalist John Macoun, who had crossed the prairies at a time of very high rainfall and had reported that the area was fertile.
The greatest disadvantage of the route was in Kicking Horse Pass. In the first six kilometres (four mile) west of the 1,625 metre (5,330 ft) high summit, the Kicking Horse River dropped 350 metres (1,150 ft). The steep drop would force the cash-strapped CPR to build a seven kilometre (4.5 mile) long stretch of track with a very steep 4.5% gradient once it reached the pass in 1884. This section of track was the CPR's legendary Big Hill. Safety switches were installed at several points, the speed limit for descending trains was set at 10 kilometres per hour (six mph), and special locomotives were ordered. Despite these measures, several serious runaways still occurred. CPR officials insisted that this was a temporary expediency, but this state of affairs would last for 25 years.
Sir William Cornelius Van Horne
In 1881 construction progressed at too slow a pace for the railway's officials, who in 1882 hired the renowned railway executive, William Cornelius Van Horne, who was recruited to oversee construction with the inducement of a generous salary and the intriguing challenge of handling such a difficult railway project. Van Horne stated that he would have 800 kilometres (500 mile) of main line built in 1882. Floods delayed the start of the construction season, but over 672 kilometres (417 mile) of main line, as well as various sidings and branch lines, were built that year. By the end of 1883, the railway had reached the Rocky Mountains, just eight kilometres (5 mile) east of Kicking Horse Pass. The construction seasons of 1884 and 1885 would be spent in the mountains of British Columbia.
Construction on the railway was progressing rapidly, but the railway was in danger of running out of money. In response, on January 31, 1884, the government passed the Railway Relief Bill, providing a further $22,500,000 in loans to the CPR. The bill received royal assent on March 6, 1884.
In March 1885, the North-West Rebellion broke out in Saskatchewan. Van Horne, in Ottawa at the time, suggested to the government that the CPR could transport troops to Fort Qu'Appelle in 11 days. Some sections of track were incomplete or had not been used before, but the trip to Winnipeg was made in four days and the rebellion was quickly put down. Perhaps because the government was grateful for this service, they subsequently re_organized the CPR's debt to the government and provided a further $5,000,000 loan, money desperately needed by the CPR. On November 7, 1885 the Last Spike was driven at Craigellachie, British Columbia, making good on the original promise. While the railway was completed four years after the original 1881 deadline, it was completed over five years ahead of the new date of 1891 that Macdonald gave in 1881.
The successful construction of such a massive project, although troubled by delays and scandal, was considered an impressive feat of engineering and political will for a country with a small population and difficult terrain. It was by far the longest railway ever constructed at the time.
Meanwhile, in Eastern Canada, the CPR had created a network of lines reaching from Quebec City to St. Thomas, Ontario by 1885. The CPR had effected purchases and long-term leases of several railways through an associated railway company, the Ontario and Quebec Railway (O&Q), who also built a line between Toronto and Perth, Ontario (completed on May 5, 1884) to connect these acquisitions. The CPR obtained a 999-year lease on the O&Q on January 4, 1884.
Navvies were workers who got their name from early builders of navigation canals. On the prairies, they sometimes worked in the blazing sun, occasionally laying up to eight kilometres (five mile) of track each day. Many navvies who worked in Ontario and on the prairies were immigrants from countries such as Ukraine, Poland, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Germany. In British Columbia, the railway also hired workers from China. In general, English-speaking Canadians and Americans built the bridges and worked the machinery.
A navvy received between $1 and $2.50 per day, but had to pay for his own food, clothing, transportation to the job site, mail, and medical care. After two and a half months of back-breaking labour, they could net as little as $16. Chinese navvies in British Columbia made only between $0.75 and $1.25 a day, not including expenses. There was barely anything left for them to send home or even go home with themselves when the work was done. They did the most dangerous construction jobs, such as working with explosives. The families of the Chinese who were killed received no compensation, or even notification of loss of life. Many of the men who lived did not have enough money to return to their families in China, and many spent years in lonely, sad and often poor condition. But those navvies were hard working and played a key role in building the western stretch of the railway; even some boys as young as 12 years old served as tea-boys.
The work would be done at the end of the track. It was a living community of workers. Carpenters, blacksmiths, executive officers and people of other professions could be found there, as well as trains full of supplies for the day's work.
So many cost-cutting shortcuts were taken in constructing the railway that regular transcontinental service could not start for another seven months while work was done to improve the railway's condition. However, had these shortcuts not been taken, it is conceivable that the CPR might have had to default financially, leaving the railway unfinished. The first transcontinental train arrived at Port Moody on July 4, 1886. By that time, however, the CPR had decided to move its western terminus from Port Moody to a hamlet that was renamed to Vancouver later that year. The first official train to Vancouver arrived on May 23, 1887, although the line to Vancouver had been in use for three months before that. The CPR quickly became profitable, and all loans from the Federal government were quickly repaid, years ahead of time.
In 1888, a branch line was opened between Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario where the CPR connected with the American railway system and its own steamships. That same year, work was started on a line from London, Ontario to Windsor, Ontario, at the American border. That line opened on June 12, 1890. The CPR also acquired several small lines east of Montreal, and assembled a line to Saint John, New Brunswick, on Canada's east coast, via the American state of Maine, in 1889.
By 1896, competition with the Great Northern Railway for traffic in southern British Columbia forced the CPR to construct a second line across the province, south of the original line. Van Horne, now president of the CPR, asked for government aid, and the government agreed to provide around $3.6 million to construct a railway from Lethbridge, Alberta through Crowsnest Pass to the south shore of Kootenay Lake, in exchange for the CPR agreeing to reduce freight rates for key commodities shipped in Western Canada, such as grain, in perpetuity. This controversial agreement was called the Crowsnest Agreement. The Crowsnest Pass line opened on June 18, 1899.
During the first decade of the twentieth century, the CPR continued to build some more lines. In 1908 the CPR opened a line connecting Toronto with Sudbury. Previously westbound traffic originating in Southern Ontario would have to take a circuitous route through Eastern Ontario.
From an operational perspective, several improvements were made to the railway in Western Canada. In 1909 the CPR completed two significant engineering accomplishments on its route. The most significant was the replacement of the Big Hill, which had become a major bottleneck in the CPR's main line, with the Spiral Tunnels, reducing the grade to 2.2% from 4.5%. The Spiral Tunnels opened in August. On November 3, 1909, a new viaduct over the Oldman River valley at Lethbridge was opened. It was 1,624 metres (5,327 ft) long with a maximum height of 96 metres (314 ft), making it the longest railway bridge in Canada. In 1916 the CPR replaced its line through Rogers Pass, which was prone to avalanches, with the Connaught Tunnel, a eight kilometre (five mile) long tunnel under Mount Macdonald that was, at the time of its opening, the longest railway tunnel in the world.
The CPR acquired several smaller railways via long-term leases in 1912. On January 3, 1912, the CPR acquired the Dominion Atlantic Railway, a railway that ran in western Nova Scotia. This acquisition gave the CPR a connection to Halifax, a significant port on the Atlantic Ocean. The Dominion Atlantic connected to the CPR at Saint John by car ferry across the Bay of Fundy. On July 1, 1912, the CPR acquired the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a railway on Vancouver Island that also connected to the CPR by car ferry. The CPR also acquired the Quebec Central Railway on December 14, 1912.
World War I broke out in 1914. The CPR devoted resources to the war effort, and managed to stay profitable while its competitors struggled to remain solvent. After the war, the Federal government created Canadian National Railways (CNR, later CN) out of several bankrupt railways that fell into government hands during and after the war. CNR would become the main competitor to the CPR in Canada.
The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945
The Great Depression, which lasted from 1929 until 1939, hit many companies heavily. While the CPR was affected, it was not affected to the same extent that its rival CNR because it, unlike the CNR, was debt-free. The CPR scaled back on some of its passenger and freight services, and stopped issuing dividends to its shareholders after 1932.
One highlight of the 1930s, both for the railway and for Canada, was the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Canada in 1939, the first time that the reigning monarch had visited the country. The CPR and the CNR shared the honours of pulling the royal train across the country, with the CPR undertaking the westbound journey from Quebec City to Vancouver.
Later that year, World War II would begin. As it had done in World War I, the CPR devoted much of its resources to the war effort. It retooled its Angus Shops in Montreal to produce Valentine tanks, and transported troops and resources across the country. As well, 22 of the CPR's ships went to war, 12 of which were sunk.
In 1968, as part of a corporate re-organization, each of the CPR's major operations, including its rail operations, were organized as separate subsidiaries. The name of the railway was changed to CP Rail, and the parent company changed its name to Canadian Pacific Limited in 1971. The company discarded its beaver logo, adopting the new Multimark logo that could be used for each of its operations.
After World War II, the transportation industry in Canada changed. Where railways had previously provided almost universal freight and passenger services, cars, trucks, and aeroplanes started to take traffic away from railways. This naturally helped the CPR's air and trucking operations, and the railway's freight operations continued to thrive hauling resource traffic and bulk commodities. However, passenger trains quickly became unprofitable.
During the 1950s, the railway introduced new innovations in passenger service, and introduced The Canadian, a new luxury transcontinental train. However, starting in the 1960s the company started to pull out of passenger services, ending services on many of its branch lines. It also discontinued its transcontinental train The Dominion in 1966 and later unsuccessfully applied to discontinue The Canadian. On October 29, 1978, CP Rail transferred its passenger services to VIA Rail, a new federal Crown corporation that would be responsible for managing all intercity passenger service formerly handled by both CP Rail and CN.
Starting in 1984, CP Rail built the Mount Macdonald Tunnel to replace the Connaught Tunnel under the Selkirk Mountains. The first revenue train passed through the tunnel in 1988. It is the longest tunnel in the western hemisphere, at 14.6 kilometres (nine miles) long.
During the 1980s, the Soo Line, which CP Rail still owned a controlling interest in, underwent several changes. It acquired the Minneapolis, Northfield and Southern Railway in 1982. On February 21, 1985, the Soo Line obtained a controlling interest in the Milwaukee Road, merging it into its system on January 1, 1986. It then spun off most of its lines in the Great Lakes region, including much of the original Soo Line, into a new railway, Wisconsin Central, in 1987. CP Rail gained full control of the Soo Line in 1990, and bought the Delaware and Hudson Railroad in 1991. These two acquisitions gave CP Rail routes to the major American cities of Chicago (via the Soo Line) and New York City (via the D&H). During the next few years CP Rail downsized its route. Several Canadian branch lines, including all of its lines east of Montreal, were either spun out into new short lines or abandoned.
In 1996, reflecting the increased importance of western traffic to the railway, CP Rail moved its head office to Calgary from Montreal and changed its name back to Canadian Pacific Railway. A new subsidiary company, the St. Lawrence and Hudson Railway, was created to operate its eastern lines in Quebec, Southern and Eastern Ontario, and the Delaware and Hudson. This arrangement was short-lived though, as the StL&H was merged back into the parent CPR only four years later, formally reamalgamating with its parent on January 1, 2001.
In 2001, the CPR's parent company, Canadian Pacific Limited, spun out its five subsidiaries, including the CPR, into independent companies.
Over half of the Canadian Pacific Railway's freight traffic is in coal, grain, and intermodal freight. It also ships automotive parts and automobiles, sulphur, fertilizers, other chemicals, forest products, and other types of commodities. The busiest part of its railway network is along its main line between Calgary and Vancouver.
Starting in 1970, coal started to become a major commodity hauled by CP Rail. Coal is shipped in unit trains from coal mines in the mountains, most notably Sparwood, British Columbia to terminals at Roberts Bank and North Vancouver, from where it is shipped to Japan. Over 34 million tons of coal is hauled to the west coast each year.
Grain is hauled by the CPR from the prairies, where it is grown, to ports at Thunder Bay, Ontario (formerly Fort William), and Vancouver, and shipped overseas. Grain has always been a signficant commodity hauled by the CPR. Between 1905 and 1909, the CPR double-tracked its section of track between Fort William and Winnipeg to facilitate grain shipments, the only long stretch of double track mainline outside of urban areas on the CPR for several decades.
In 1952, the CPR became the first North American railway to introduce intermodal or "piggyback" freight service, where truck trailers are carried on flat cars. In 1999, the CPR introduced a short-haul intermodal service between Montreal and Detroit, called Expressway.
Until the end of World War II, the train was the primary mode of long-distance transportation in Canada. Among the many types of people who rode CPR trains were new immigrants heading for the prairies, as well as upper class tourists. To encourage tourism, the CPR built several hotels. It also custom-built many of its passenger cars at its Angus Shops so as to be able to meet the demands of the upper class.
After World War II, passenger traffic declined as automobiles and aeroplanes became more common, but the CPR continued to innovate in an attempt to keep ridership up. On November 9, 1953, the CPR introduced Rail Diesel Cars, called "Dayliners" by the CPR, on some of its branch lines. On April 24, 1955, the CPR introduced a new luxury transcontinental passenger train, The Canadian. The train provided service between Vancouver and Toronto or Montreal (east of Sudbury, Ontario, the train was in two sections). The train was pulled by diesel locomotives, and used new, streamlined, stainless steel rolling stock.
Starting in the 1960s, however, the railway started to discontinue much of its passenger service, particularly on its branch lines. For example, passenger service ended on its line through southern British Columbia and Crowsnest Pass in January 1964, and on its Quebec Central in April 1967, and the transcontinental train The Dominion was dropped in January 1966. In 1970, CP Rail introduced Canada's first bi-level passenger cars, used in Montreal commuter service. On October 29, 1978, CP Rail transferred its passenger services to VIA Rail, a new federal Crown corporation that was now responsible for intercity passenger services in Canada.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries many people settled in remote areas in Western Canada and Northern Ontario, far from schools. Between 1926 and 1967 the CPR ran a school car to reach some of these people. A teacher would travel in a specially designed car to remote areas and would stay in one area and teach for two to three days, then leave for another area. Each car had a blackboard and a few sets of chairs and desks. They also contained miniature libraries. These school cars were very useful in spreading education and literacy.
During the depression there was drought and the low price for wheat in the world market caused unemployment. There were many food shortages, especially for the people who lived in the prairies. To feed them, relief trains carried cars full of food from the East to the prairies.
Troop trains would carry soldiers in Canada to be either deployed on ships, flown elsewhere, or, in the case of the North-West Rebellion, within Canada. At the ends of major wars they would bring war brides (women the soldiers had married or were going to marry from Europe) to their husbands in Canada.
Between the 1890s and the 1940s, the CPR transported raw silk cocoons from Vancouver, where they had been shipped to from the Orient, to silk mills in New York and New Jersey. A silk train could carry several million dollars worth of silk, so they had their own armed guards. To avoid train robberies and so minimise insurance costs, they travelled quickly and stopped only to change locomotives and crews, which was often done in under five minutes. The silk trains had superior rights over all other trains; even passenger trains would be put in sidings to make the silk trains' trip faster. At the end of World War II, the invention of nylon made silk less valuable so the silk trains died out.
Funeral train of Prime Minister Sir John A. MacDonald
The main functions for funeral trains were to carry dead prime ministers or famous people to different cities and towns. As the train would pass, mourners would be at certain spots to show respect for their dead leaders. Two of the CPR's funeral trains are particularly well_known. On June 10, 1891, the funeral train of Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald ran from Ottawa to Kingston, Ontario. The train consisted of five heavily draped passenger cars and was pulled by 4-4-0 No. 283. On September 14, 1915, the funeral train of former CPR president Sir William Cornelius Van Horne ran from Montreal to Joliet, Illinois, pulled by 4_6_2 No. 2213.
Canada is an extremely large country, and these trains brought the monarchy to small towns. Members of the royal family saw the beautiful scenery and countryside of Canada, and in return people got to see and greet them. Their trains where incredibly beautiful and nicely decorated; some could have everything from a post office to a barber shop.
In 1939 the CPR had the honour of giving King George VI and Queen Elizabeth a rail tour of Canada, from Quebec City to Vancouver. This was the first visit to Canada by a ruling Monarch. The steam locomotive used to pull the train was numbered 2850, a Hudson (4-6-4) built by Montreal Locomotive Works. Specially painted in silver and blue, the locomotive ran 3,224 miles across Canada, through 25 changes of crew without engine failure. The King, somewhat of a railbuff, rode in the cab when possible. After the tour, King George gave the CPR permission to use the term "Royal Hudson" for these locomotives and to display Royal Crowns on their running boards. This applied only to the semi_streamlined locomotives (2820_2864), not the "standard" Hudsons (2800_2819).
In the CPR's early years, it made extensive use of American 4-4-0 steam locomotives. Use was also made of 4_6_0 and 2-8-0 locomotives, particularly in the mountains.
Starting in the 20th century, the CPR used a large number of 4-6-2 Pacific locomotives and 4-6-4 Hudson locomotives, which were used both in both freight and passenger service. The CPR bought Pacifics between 1906 and 1948. The CPR's best-known Hudsons were the class H1 Royal Hudson, semi-streamlined locomotives that were given their name because one of their class hauled the Royal Train carrying King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1939 across Canada without change or failure. That locomotive, No. 2850, is preserved in the Exporail exhibit hall of the Canadian Railway Museum in St. Constant (Delson) Quebec. One of the class, No. 2860, was restored by the British Columbia government and used in excursion service on the British Columbia Railway between 1974 and 1999.
CPR Selkirk locomotive No. 5915
In 1929, the CPR received its first 2-10-4 Selkirk locomotives, the largest steam locomotives to run in Canada. Named after the Selkirk Mountains where they served, these locomotives were well suited for steep grades. They were regularly used in passenger and freight service. The CPR would own 37 of these locomotives, including number 8000, an experimental high pressure engine. The last steam locomotives that the CPR received, in 1949, were Selkirks, numbered 5930_5935.
In 1937, the CPR acquired its first diesel_electric locomotive, a custom built one_of_a_kind switcher numbered 7000. This locomotive was not successful and was not repeated. Production model diesels were imported from American Locomotive Company (Alco) starting with five model S-2 yard switchers in 1943 and followed by further orders. In 1949 Alco FA1 road locomotives (8 A and 4 B units)and 5 RS-2 road switchers were all delivered. In 1948 Montreal Locomotive Works began production of Alco designs. In 1949, the CPR acquired 13 Baldwin locomotives for its isolated Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, and Vancouver Island was quickly dieselised. Following that successful experiment, the CPR started to dieselise its main network in 1949. Dieselisation was completed eleven years later, with its last steam locomotive running on November 6, 1960. The CPR's first-generation locomotives were mostly made by General Motors Diesel and Montreal Locomotive Works, with some made by the Canadian Locomotive Company.
CP was the first railway in North America to pioneer AC traction locomotives, in 1984. In 1995 CP turned to General Electric GE Transportation Systems for the first production AC traction locomotives in Canada, and now has the highest percentage of AC locomotives in service of all North American Class I railways. As of 2004, 507 of the CPR's 1622 locomotives are AC.
The Canadian Pacific Railway in Canadian culture
The construction of this railway is celebrated in the popular song by Gordon Lightfoot, The Canadian Railroad Trilogy. The story of the railway's construction was most famously told in popular history books by Pierre Berton, The National Dream and The Last Spike, which were adapted into a popular CBC television series called The National Dream.
- Berton, Pierre (1971). The Last Spike. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto. ISBN 0771013272.
- Cruise, David and Alison Griffiths (1988). Lords of the Line. Viking, Markham, Ontario. ISBN 0670814377.
- Innis, Harold A. (1923, 1971). A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. ISBN 0-8020-1704-5.
- Leggett, Robert F. (1987). Railways of Canada. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver, British Columbia. ISBN 0888945817.
- Sandford, Barrie (1981). The Pictorial History of Railroading in British Columbia. Whitecap Books, Vancouver, British Columbia. ISBN 0920620272.
- The Premier's Funeral (June 11, 1891). The Woodstock Evening Sentinel Review, p. 1.
- http://www8.cpr.ca/cms/English/General+Public/Heritage/A+Brief+History.htm . Retrieved January 21, 2005.
- Canadian Pacific Railway 2004 Corporate Profile and Fact Book (http://www8.cpr.ca/cms/NR/rdonlyres/e7mxbkfsikoun6lsnedyiqvng4t4sz6zxzselashac2uq2gjhg3ntyiwhxk3neidco5yy6s2y4gs6kgosjnnwtj5vvd/2004%2bCorporate%2bProfile%2band%2bFact%2bBook.pdf). Retrieved February 2, 2005.