FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Canadian Northern Railway
Canadian Northern Railway
logo
Locale Canada
Dates of operation 1899 – Present
Track gauge ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)
Headquarters Toronto, Ontario

The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) is a historic Canadian railway. Image File history File links Converted and released into the public domain from Image:Canadian Northern Railway herald. ... Rail gauge is the distance between two rails of a railroad. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ...

Contents

Manitoba beginnings

CNR had its start in the independent branchlines that were being constructed in Manitoba in the 1880s and 1890s as a response to the monopoly exercised by Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Many of these branchlines were built with the sponsorship of the provincial government, which sought to subsidize local competition to the federally subsidized CPR; however, significant competition was also provided by the encroaching Northern Pacific Railway (NPR) from the south. Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... The 0 kilometre peg marks the start of a branch line in Western Australia. ... The Northern Pacific Railway (AAR reporting marks NP) was a railway that operated in the north-central region of the United States. ...


Two of these branchline contractors, William Mackenzie and Donald Mann, took control of the bankrupt Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company in January, 1896. Mackenzie and Mann expanded their enterprise, in 1897, by building further north into Manitoba's Interlake district as well as east and west of Winnipeg. They also began building and buying lines south to connect the U.S. border at Pembina, North Dakota, and east to Ontario. Sir William Mackenzie Sir William Mackenzie (October 17, 1849 – December 5, 1923) was a Canadian railway contractor and entrepreneur. ... Sir Donald Mann (March 23, 1853 - November 10, 1934) was a Canadian railway contractor and entrepreneur. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... Pembina (pronounced PEM in uh, with the stress on the first syllable) is a city located in Pembina County, North Dakota. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked...


Connecting the Prairies to the Lakehead

The Canadian Northern Railway was established, in 1899, and all railway companies owned by Mackenzie and Mann (primarily in Manitoba) were consolidated into the new entity. CNoR's first step toward competing directly with CPR came at the turn of the century with the decision to build a line linking the Prairie Provinces with Lake Superior at the harbour in Port Arthur-Fort William (modern Thunder Bay, Ontario) which would permit the shipping of western grain to European markets as well as the transport of eastern Canadian goods to the West. This line incorporated an existing CNoR line to Lake of the Woods and two local Ontario railways, the Port Arthur, Duluth and Western Railway and the Ontario and Rainy River Railway whose charters Mackenzie and Mann had acquired in 1897. To reach Port Arthur which became the lake terminus of the CNoR, the line extended south of Lake of the Woods into northern Minnesota before heading northeast through Rainy River District to the head of navigation on the Great Lakes. The Winnipeg-Port Arthur line was completed on December 30, 1901 with the last spike being driven just east of Atikokan station by Ontario's Commissioner of Crown Lands, Elihu J. Davis. Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Established 1970 (amalgamation between Fort William and Port Arthur) Incorporated as Towns Port Arthur in 1884 Fort William in 1892 Incorporated as Cities Both Port... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Established 1970 (amalgamation between Fort William and Port Arthur) Incorporated as Towns Port Arthur in 1884 Fort William in 1892 Incorporated as Cities Both Port... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... The Port Arthur, Duluth and Western Railway (PADW) was built in 1889[1] by investors interested in extracting the mineral and timber wealth of the Whitefish River Valley, Silver Mountain Range and beyond into the Boundary Waters[2]. It was abandoned in 1936. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Rainy River District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Throughout this time, Mackenzie and Mann had been busy expanding their prairie branch line network to feed the connection to Port Arthur. This network expanded in subsequent years to cover most parts of the prairies. Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ...


In 1914, the Canadian Northern Railway bought a 150 acre homestead north of Winnipeg on the shores of Lake Winnipeg. They purchased the land in order to develop a resort on Grand Beach. Grand Beach is a freshwater beach on the eastern shore of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada. ...


Going it alone

In 1903, the federal government and Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) were seeking a 2nd transcontinental railway for Canada and approached Mackenzie and Mann to seek their co-operation. This effort was spurned and GTR and the federal government would go on to form a system composed of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR) and the National Transcontinental Railway (NTR). 1885 map The Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) was a historic railway system which operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, as well as the American states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. ... A transcontinental railroad is a railway across a significant portion of a continent. ... Grand Trunk Pacific Railway logo or herald The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR) was a historical Canadian railway. ... -1...


Nationwide expansion

Mackenzie and Mann began their first significant expansion outside of the prairies with the purchase of Great Lakes steamships, railways into northern Quebec's Saguenay region and the acquisition of branchlines in southwestern Nova Scotia (the H&SW) and western Cape Breton Island. Other acquisitions were in southern Ontario and a connecting line was built from Toronto to Parry Sound. The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Map of Quebec showing Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region in Quebec, Canada is distinguished by its physical beauty, especially the Fjord du Saguenay, the estuary of the Saguenay River, stretching through much of the region. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Halifax and Southwestern Railway (H&SW) was a historic Canadian railway operating in the province of Nova Scotia. ... Nova Scotia peninsula (white), and Cape Breton Island (red) Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North... Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Parry Sound (population 6,500) is a town in southern Ontario, Canada, located on the eastern shore of Georgian Bay). ...


In 1905, CNoR reached the newly formed provincial capital at Edmonton, Alberta. In 1908, a line was built east from a connection at Capreol, Ontario on the Toronto-Parry Sound line to Ottawa and on to Montreal. In 1910 a direct Toronto-Montreal line was built, as well as the start of construction on the line west of Edmonton through Yellowhead Pass to Vancouver, thanks to subsidies provided by the government of British Columbia. In 1911, federal funding was made available for construction of the line from Montreal-Ottawa-Capreol-Port Arthur. Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... Capreol is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Canadian National Railways GP9 climbing in the Yellowhead Pass The Yellowhead Pass (elevation 1110 m, lat. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...


In 1912, with GTR and CPR holding the ideal southern routes around Mount Royal to downtown Montreal, CNoR started building a double-tracked mainline north by building the Mount Royal Tunnel under the mountain. For other uses, see Mount Royal (disambiguation). ... The Mount Royal Tunnel is a Canadian railway tunnel located in Montreal, Quebec. ...


Obstacles in the Rockies

CNoR's initial expansion in the 1890s and 1900s had been relatively frugal, largely by acquiring bankrupt companies or finishing failed construction projects. By the 1910s, significant expenses were adding up from the construction north or Lake Superior and the Mount Royal Tunnel, but the largest costs were from building on "the wrong side" of the Thompson and Fraser rivers in the mountains of British Columbia. CPR already had trackage on the desirable eastern side, leading to the port of Vancouver, forcing CNoR to blast tunnels and ledges out of these canyons. The Mount Royal Tunnel is a Canadian railway tunnel located in Montreal, Quebec. ... The Thompson River is a major tributary of the Fraser River in the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada. ... Fraser River watershed The Fraser River is the longest river in British Columbia, Canada, rising near Mount Robson in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for 1400 km (870 mi), into the Pacific Ocean at the city of Vancouver. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ...


The most infamous construction folly on the CNoR in British Columbia happened in 1913, when blasting for a passage for the railway at Hells Gate triggered an enormous landslide which partially blocked the narrow swift-flowing Fraser River. The resulting damage to Pacific salmon runs took decades to reverse by the governmental construction of fishways. Hells Gate, British Columbia Hells Gate is a 35 metre (110 foot) narrowing of British Columbias Fraser River Canyon, located immediately downstream of Boston Bar. ... Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Pool-and-weir fish ladder at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River Fishways, most commonly referred to as fish ladders but also known as fish passes, are structures placed on or around man-made barriers (such as dams and weirs) to assist the natural migration of diadromous fishes. ...


In addition to difficult construction between Jasper and Vancouver, CNoR started construction west of Edmonton in 1910, fully two years later than GTPR, which had started construction east from Prince Rupert in the Skeena River, leading to Yellowhead Pass. Orthographic projection centred over Prince Rupert BC Coast, showing Prince Rupert and Vancouver Prince Rupert is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. ... The Skeena River is on the north coast of British Columbia, passing through Terrace. ...


Financial trouble and nationalization

The last spike of the CNoR transcontinental railway was driven January 23, 1915, at Basque, British Columbia. Freight and passenger service north of Lake Superior also started in 1915, resulting in a system between Montreal and Vancouver, with lines in Nova Scotia, Southern Ontario, Minnesota, and on Vancouver Island. Between 1915 and 1918, CNoR tried desperately to increase profits during the height of conflict in the First World War when the majority of wartime traffic was moving on CPR. The company was also saddled with ongoing construction costs associated with the Mount Royal Tunnel project. is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Last spike of the Canadian Northern Railway being driven at Basque, British Columbia, 23 January 1915. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Mount Royal Tunnel is a Canadian railway tunnel located in Montreal, Quebec. ...


CNoR was heavily indebted to banks and governments, and its profitable branchlines in the prairie provinces — "Canada's breadbasket" — would not generate enough revenue to cover construction costs in other areas. Unable to repay construction costs, the company requested financial aid. In exchange for funds, the federal government gained majority control of shares and CNoR was nationalized on September 6, 1918, when the directors of CNoR, including Mackenzie and Mann, resigned. The replacement board of directors appointed by the federal government forced CNoR to assume the management of federally owned Canadian Government Railways (CGR). On December 20, 1918, a Privy Council order directed CNoR and CGR to be managed under the moniker Canadian National Railway (CNR) as a means to simplify funding and operations, although CNoR and CGR would not be formally merged and cease corporate existence until January 20, 1923, the date that CNR was formally consolidated. Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Canadian Government Railways (CGR) was the descriptive name used between 1915_1918 for all federal government-owned railways in Canada. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... An Order-in-Council is an executive order issued in Commonwealth Realms operating under the Westminster system. ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


CNoR Revival

In 2003, The Corporation was revived by Canadian Businessman Baron de Rothschild in an attempt to continue and preserve the historic importance of the Canadian Northern Railway. Today, The CNoR operates as a Shortline Railway and Railway services company, providing a variety of sevices from rail car dismantling & parts reclaim to Shortline Services and Car Storage. A subsidiary of The Canadian Northern Railway Co., CANORA Railway Services, provides bridge erection, fabrication and repair. Significant portions of the old CNoR system survives under CN (as the CNR has been known since 1960); for example, the Mount Royal Tunnel and lines north to Saguenay, as well as most of the CN main line west from Toronto to Winnipeg, and from Yellowhead Pass southwest to Vancouver. The majority of CN's former CNoR branchline network across Canada has either been abandoned or sold to shortline operators. An important U.S. subsidiary of CNoR, the Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway forms part of a key CN connection between Chicago and Winnipeg. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: CN, cn CN or cn may stand for: Calcineurin (CN) Canadian National Railway (AAR reporting mark CN) and the CN Tower Canadian Northern Railway Carson-Newman College in Jefferson City, Tennessee Cartoon Network Chief of Navy China (Peoples Republic), ISO 3166-1... The Mount Royal Tunnel is a Canadian railway tunnel located in Montreal, Quebec. ... Nickname: Motto: Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Loaction of Winnipeg in Manitoba Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Manitoba Region Winnipeg Capital Region Established, 1738 (Fort Rouge) Renamed 1822 (Fort Garry) Incorporated 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Government  - City Mayor Sam Katz  - Governing Body Winnipeg City Council  - MPs... Categories: Rail stubs | Minnesota railroads ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Nickname: Motto: Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Loaction of Winnipeg in Manitoba Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Manitoba Region Winnipeg Capital Region Established, 1738 (Fort Rouge) Renamed 1822 (Fort Garry) Incorporated 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Government  - City Mayor Sam Katz  - Governing Body Winnipeg City Council  - MPs...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian Northern Railway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1151 words)
The Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR) is a historic Canadian railway.
The Canadian Northern Railway was established in 1899 and all railway companies owned by Mackenzie and Mann (primarily in Manitoba) were consolidated into the new entity.
In 1914 the Canadian Northern Railway bought a 150 acre homestead north of Winnipeg on the shores of Lake Winnipeg.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m