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Encyclopedia > Canadian House of Commons
Canadian House of Commons
Chambre des communes du Canada

The interior of the Canadian House of Commons, Parliament Hill, Ottawa. ...

Type Lower House
Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal
since January 29, 2001
Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative
since January 4, 2007
Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal
since January 23, 2006
Members 308
Political groups Conservative Party
Liberal Party
Bloc Québécois
New Democratic Party
Last elections January 23, 2006
Meeting place House of Commons chamber, Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Web site Parliament of Canada
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... Peter Andrew Stewart Milliken, MP, BA , MA , LL.B (born November 12, 1946) is a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Peter Van Loan, PC, MP (born April 18, 1963) (sometimes referred to as PVL) is a Canadian politician. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Ralph Edward Goodale, PC , MP, BA , LL.B (born October 5, 1949, in Regina, Saskatchewan) was Canadas Minister of Finance from 2003 to 2006 and continues to be a Liberal Member of Parliament. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Centre Block is the main building of the three on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ...


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


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The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.[1] The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members,[2] who are known as Members of Parliament (MPs).[3] Members are elected for limited terms, holding office until Parliament is dissolved (a maximum of five years). Each member is elected by, and represents, one of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament Stephen Harper is the Prime Minister of the 39th Parliament. ... An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ... An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ...


The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act 1867 created the Dominion of Canada, and was modeled on the British House of Commons. The "lower" of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate very rarely rejects bills passed by the Commons (though the Senate does occasionally amend bills). Moreover, the Government of Canada is responsible solely to the House of Commons. The Prime Minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of the Lower House. The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ...


It is widely thought that "Commons" is a shortening of the word "commoners".[1] However, the term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, la Chambre des communes. Canada remains the only nation besides the United Kingdom to use the name "House of Commons" for the Lower House of Parliament. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ...


The Canadian House of Commons chamber is located in the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario. The Centre Block is the main building of the three on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...

Contents

History

The House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada (which was separated into Quebec and Ontario), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Queen (represented by the Governor General), the Senate and the House of Commons. The Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model (that is, the model of the Parliament of the United Kingdom). Unlike the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned exclusively to the provincial legislatures. The Parliament of Canada also remained subordinate to the Governor-general (representing both the Crown and the Foreign Office) and the Westminster Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire. Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931,[5] under which the United Kingdom recognized Canada as sovereign. Full autonomy was only granted by the Canada Act 1982,[6] under which the Parliament of the United Kingdom relinquished all authority to legislate for Canada. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The British North America Act of 1867 was the act that established the Dominion of Canada, by the fusion of the North American British colonies of the Province of Canada, Province of New Brunswick, Province of Nova Scotia. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ...


Members and elections

The House of Commons is composed of 308 members,[1] each of whom represents a single electoral district (also called a riding). Law requires that there be a minimum of 282 electoral districts; there are currently 308. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution. Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many Members of Parliament as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1986. Finally, no province may lose more than fifteen per cent of its seats after a single decennial census. Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of November 10, 2005. ... An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


As a result of these three clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population are over-represented in the House. Only Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta — Canada's fastest-growing provinces — are represented roughly in proportion to their populations. Provincial boundary commissions are responsible for drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts. Territorial representation is independent of population; each territory is entitled to only one seat. The calculation is done by taking the minimum 282 seats and subtracting the three territories to equal 279 seats. The population of Canada is then divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient. The population of the province is then divided by the electoral quotient to equal the provincial seat allocation. (Source: Jackson & Jackson, Politics in Canada, Prentice Hall, Toronto, pg 438) Representation in the House of Commons is summarised in the table at the end of this section.[7] Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


General elections occur whenever Parliament is dissolved by the Governor General on The Queen's behalf. The timing of the dissolution is normally chosen by the Prime Minister. A parliamentary term may not last for more than five years. Canadian law states that all federal elections must be held on a Monday (except on statutory holidays), and the campaign must be at least 36 days long. Candidates are usually nominated by political parties. It is possible for a candidate to run independently, although it is rare for such a candidate to win. Most successful independent candidates have been incumbents who were expelled from their political party (for example, John Nunziata in 1997) or who failed to win their party's nomination (for example, Chuck Cadman in 2004). The most recent exception to this was the election of André Arthur in a Quebec City district in 2006. Most Canadian candidates are chosen in meetings called by their party's local association. In practice, the candidate who signs up the most local party members generally wins the nomination. A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries. ... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... John Nunziata (born January 4, 1955) is a Canadian politician. ... Chuck Cadman Charles Chuck Cadman, (February 21, 1948 – July 9, 2005) was a Canadian politician and Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2005, representing the riding of Surrey North in Surrey, British Columbia. ... André Arthur M.P., is a radio host and politician from Quebec City. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


To run for a seat in the House, candidates must file nomination papers bearing the signatures of at least 50 or 100 constituents (depending on the size of the electoral district). Each electoral district returns one member; the First Past the Post electoral system, under which the candidate with a plurality of votes wins, is used. To vote, one must be a citizen of Canada and at least eighteen years of age. The First Past the Post electoral system, is a voting system for single-member districts. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ...


Once elected, a Member of Parliament normally continues to serve until the next dissolution of Parliament. If a member dies, resigns, or ceases to be qualified, his or her seat falls vacant. It is also possible for the House of Commons to expel a member, but this power is only exercised when the member has engaged in serious misconduct or criminal activity. Formerly, MPs appointed to cabinet were expected to resign their seats, though this practice ceased in 1931.[citation needed] In each case, a vacancy may be filled by a by-election in the appropriate electoral district. The first past the post electoral system is used in by-elections, as in general elections. A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ...


The term "Member of Parliament" is usually used only to refer to members of the House of Commons, even though the Senate is also a part of Parliament. Members of the House of Commons may use the post-nominal letters "MP". The annual salary of each Member of Parliament, as of 2006, is $147,700;[citation needed] members may receive additional salaries in right of other offices they hold (for instance, the Speakership). MPs rank immediately below senators in the order of precedence. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Parliament of Canada (in French: le Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of November 10, 2005. ... C$ redirects here. ... Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... Denmark France Germany India Isle of Man Italy Jamaica New Zealand Norway Poland Romania Spain Sri Lanka Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ...

Province or Territory Minimum number of seats in accordance with the Constitution Act, 1867 Calculations Electoral Quotient (Average population per electoral district)
Population 2006 National Quotient Rounded result Special clauses Total
Newfoundland and Labrador 7 505 469 107 220 5 2 7 72 209
Prince Edward Island 4 135 851 107 220 1 3 4 33 962
Nova Scotia 11 913 462 107 220 8 3 11 83 042
New Brunswick 10 729 997 107 220 7 3 10 72 999
Quebec 75 7 546 131 107 220 70 5 75 100 615
Ontario 95 12 160 282 107 220 106 0 106 114 719
Manitoba 14 1 148 401 107 220 10 4 14 82 028
Saskatchewan 14 968 157 107 220 9 5 14 69 154
Alberta 21 3 290 350 107 220 28 0 28 117 512
British Columbia 28 4 113 487 107 220 36 0 36 114 263
Nunavut 1 29 474 1 29 474
Northwest Territories 1 41 464 1 41 464
Yukon Territory 1 30 372 1 30 372
TOTAL 282 31 612 897 308 102 639

This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ...

Qualifications

Under the Constitution Act, 1867, Parliament is empowered to determine the qualifications of members of the House of Commons. The present qualifications are outlined in the Canada Elections Act, which was passed in 2000. Under the act, an individual must be an eligible voter, as of the day on which he or she is nominated, in order to stand as a candidate. Thus, minors and individuals who are not citizens of Canada are not allowed to become candidates. The Canada Elections Act also bars prisoners from standing for election (although they may vote). Moreover, individuals found guilty of election-related crimes are prohibited from becoming members for five years (in some cases, seven years) after conviction. Canada Elections Act is an Act of the Parliament of Canada respecting the election of members of parliament to the Canadian House of Commons, repealing other Acts relating to elections and making consequential amendments to other Acts. ...


The act also prohibits certain officials from standing for the House of Commons. These officers include members of provincial and territorial legislatures (although this was not always the case), sheriffs, crown attorneys, most judges, and election officers. The Chief Electoral Officer and Assistant Chief Electoral Officer (the heads of Elections Canada, the federal agency responsible for conducting elections) are prohibited not only from standing as candidates, but also from voting. Finally, under the Constitution Act, 1867, a member of the Senate may not also become a member of the House of Commons and MPs must give up their seats when appointed to the Senate or the bench. Crown Attorney or Crown Counsel are the public prosecutor in the legal system of Canada. ... The Chief Electoral Officer was created in 1920 by the Dominion Elections Act (Canada). ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ...


Officers

Image:Canadian Pages.jpg
The presiding officer of the House of Commons (centre) is known as the Speaker. This photo is of the Speaker in 1998, the Hon. Gib Parent.

The House of Commons elects a presiding officer, known as the Speaker,[1] at the beginning of each new parliamentary term, and also whenever a vacancy arises. Formerly, the Prime Minister determined who would serve as Speaker. Although the House voted on the matter, the voting constituted a mere formality. Since 1986, however, the House has elected Speakers by secret ballot. The Speaker is assisted by a Deputy Speaker, who also holds the title of Chairman of Committees of the Whole. Two other deputies—the Deputy Chairman of Committees of the Whole and the Assistant Deputy Chairman of Committees of the Whole—also preside. The duties of presiding over the House are divided between the four officers aforementioned; however, the Speaker usually presides over Question Period and over the most important debates. Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... Question Period or Oral Questions is a Canadian parliamentary practice similar to the British Prime Ministers Questions in which Members of Parliament submit questions to the government ministers including the Prime Minister for answer. ...


The Speaker controls debates by calling on members to speak. If a member believes that a rule (or Standing Order) has been breached, he or she may raise a "point of order", on which the Speaker makes a ruling that is not subject to any debate or appeal. The Speaker may also discipline members who fail to observe the rules of the House. When presiding, the Speaker must remain impartial. The Speaker also oversees the administration of the House and is Chair of the Board of Internal Economy, the governing body for the House of Commons. The current Speaker of the House of Commons is the Honourable Peter Milliken, MP. A Point of Order is a matter raised during a debate concerning the rules of debating themselves. ... Peter Andrew Stewart Milliken, MP, BA , MA , LL.B (born November 12, 1946) is a Canadian lawyer and politician. ...


The member of the Government responsible for steering legislation through the House is Leader of the Government in the House of Commons. The Government House Leader (as he or she is more commonly known) is a Member of Parliament selected by the Prime Minister and holds cabinet rank. The Leader manages the schedule of the House of Commons, and attempts to secure the Opposition's support for the Government's legislative agenda. The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Officers of the House who are not members include the Clerk of the House of Commons, the Deputy Clerk, the Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel, and several other clerks. These officers advise the Speaker and members on the rules and procedure of the House in addition to exercising senior management functions within the House administration. Another important officer is the Sergeant-at-Arms, whose duties include the maintenance of order and security on the House's premises and inside the buildings of the Parliamentary precinct. (The RCMP patrol Parliament Hill but are not allowed into the buildings unless asked by the Speaker). The Sergeant-at-Arms also carries the ceremonial mace, a symbol of the authority of the Crown and of the House of Commons, into the House each sitting. The mace is subsequently laid upon the Table of the House of Commons for the duration of the sitting. The House is also staffed by parliamentary pages, who carry messages to the members in the Chamber and otherwise provide assistance to the House. A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Pages Kirk Nangreaves and Eric Chasse stand in front of Speaker Gilbert Parent during a sitting of the Canadian House of Commons in 1998 A Page is a non-partisan employee of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Related links

  • List of Clerks of the Canadian House of Commons
  • List of Deputy Clerks of the Canadian House of Commons
  • List of Law Clerks and Parliamentary Counsel of the Canadian House of Commons
  • List of Clerks Assistants of the Canadian House of Commons
  • List of Sergeants-at-Arms of the Canadian House of Commons

Procedure

Like the Senate, the House of Commons meets on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The Commons Chamber is modestly decorated in green, in contrast with the more lavishly furnished red Senate Chamber. The arrangement is similar to the design of the Chamber of the British House of Commons. The seats are evenly divided between both sides of the Chamber, three sword-lengths apart (about three metres).[8] The Speaker's chair (which can be adjusted for height) is at the north end of the Chamber. In front of it is the Table of the House, on which rests the ceremonial mace. Various "Table Officers"—clerks and other officials—sit at the Table, ready to advise the Speaker on procedure when necessary. Members of the Government sit on the benches on the Speaker's right, while members of the Opposition occupy the benches on the Speaker's left. Government ministers sit around the Prime Minister, who is traditionally assigned the 11th seat in the front row on the Speaker's right-hand side. The leader of the Official Opposition sits directly across from the prime minister and is surrounded by a shadow cabinet, or critics for the government portfolios. The remaining party leaders sit in the front rows. Other Members of Parliament who do not hold any kind of special responsibilities are known as "backbenchers". This article needs cleanup. ...


The House usually sits Monday to Friday from late January to mid-June and from mid-September to mid-December according to an established calendar, though it can modify the calendar if additional or fewer sittings are required.[1] During these periods, the House generally rises for one week per month to allow members to work in their constituencies. Sittings of the House are open to the public. Proceedings are broadcast over cable and satellite television and over live streaming video on the Internet by CPAC, the Cable Public Affairs Channel, owned by a consortium of Canadian cable companies. They are also recorded in text form in print and online in Hansard, the official report of parliamentary debates. Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... CPAC (English: Cable Public Affairs Channel and French: La Chaîne Daffaires Publiques Par Câble), is a Canadian cable television specialty service devoted to coverage of public and government affairs, including carrying a full, uninterrupted feed of proceedings of the Canadian House of Commons, with two separate audio... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ...


The Constitution Act, 1867 establishes a quorum of twenty members (including the member presiding) for the House of Commons. Any member may request a count of the members to ascertain the presence of a quorum; if, however, the Speaker feels that at least twenty members are clearly in the Chamber, he or she may deny the request. If a count does occur, and reveals that fewer than twenty members are present, the Speaker orders bells to be rung, so that other members on the parliamentary precincts may come to the Chamber. If, after a second count, a quorum is still not present, the Speaker must adjourn the House until the next sitting day. Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During debates, members may only speak if called upon by the Speaker (or, as is most often the case, the deputy presiding). The Speaker is responsible for ensuring that members of all parties have an opportunity to be heard. The Speaker also determines who is to speak if two or more members rise simultaneously, but his or her decision may be altered by the House. Motions must be moved by one member and seconded by another before debate may begin. Some motions, however, are non-debatable.


Speeches[1] may be made in either of Canada's official languages (English and French). Members must address their speeches to the presiding officer, not the House, using the words "Mr. Speaker" ("Monsieur le Président") or "Madam Speaker" ("Madame la Présidente"). Other members must be referred to in the third person. Traditionally, Members do not refer to each other by name, but by constituency or cabinet post, using forms such as "the honourable member for [electoral district]" or "the Minister of..."

House of Commons in session, March 10, 1938
House of Commons in session, March 10, 1938

No member may speak more than once on the same question (except that the mover of a motion is entitled to make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end). Moreover, tediously repetitive or irrelevant remarks are prohibited, as are written remarks read into the record (although this behaviour is creeping into modern debate). The presiding officer may order a member making such remarks to cease speaking. The Standing Orders of the House of Commons prescribe time limits for speeches. The limits depend on the nature of the motion, but are most commonly between ten and twenty minutes. However, under certain circumstances, the Prime Minister, the Leader of the Official Opposition, and others are entitled to make longer speeches. Debate may be further restricted by the passage of "time allocation" motions. Alternatively, the House may end debate more quickly by passing a motion for "closure". Image File history File links Canadian_House_of_Commons_-_March_10_1938. ... Image File history File links Canadian_House_of_Commons_-_March_10_1938. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


When the debate concludes, the motion in question is put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the presiding officer puts the question, and members respond either "yea" (in favour of the motion) or "nay" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but five or more members may challenge his or her assessment, thereby forcing a recorded vote (known as a division, although, in fact, the House does not divide for votes the way the British House of Commons does). First, members in favour of the motion rise, so that the clerks may record their names and votes. Then, the same procedure is repeated for members who oppose the motion. There is no formal means for recording an abstention, though a member may informally abstain by remaining seated during the division. If there is an equality of votes, the Speaker has a casting vote. It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ...


The outcome of most votes is largely known beforehand, since political parties normally instruct members on how to vote. A party normally entrusts some Members of Parliament, known as whips, with the task of ensuring that all party members vote as desired. Members of Parliament do not tend to vote against such instructions, since those who do so are unlikely to reach higher political ranks in their parties. Errant members may be deselected as official party candidates during future elections, and, in serious cases, may be expelled from their parties outright. Thus, the independence of Members of Parliament tends to be extremely low, and "backbench rebellions" by members discontent with their party's policies are rare. In some circumstances, however, parties announce "free votes", allowing Members to vote as they please. This may be done on moral issues. In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ...


Committees

The Parliament of Canada uses committees for a variety of purposes. Committees consider bills in detail, and may make amendments. Other committees scrutinize various Government agencies and ministries. In Canada, a standing committee is a permanent committee established by Standing Orders of the House of Commons. ...


Potentially, the largest of the Commons committees are the Committees of the Whole, which, as the name suggests, consist of all the members of the House. A Committee of the Whole meets in the Chamber of the House, but proceeds under slightly modified rules of debate. (For example, a member may make more than one speech on a motion in a Committee of the Whole, but not during a normal session of the House.) Instead of the Speaker, the Chairman, Deputy Chairman, or Assistant Deputy Chairman presides. The House resolves itself into a Committee of the Whole to discuss appropriation bills, and sometimes for other legislation.


The House of Commons also has several standing committees, each of which has responsibility for a particular area of government (for example, finance or transport). These committees oversee the relevant government departments, may hold hearings and collect evidence on governmental operations and review departmental spending plans. Standing committees may also consider and amend bills. Standing committees consist of between sixteen and eighteen members each, and elect their own chairmen.


Some bills are considered by legislative committees, each of which consists of up to fifteen members. The membership of each legislative committee roughly reflects the strength of the parties in the whole House. A legislative committee is appointed on an ad hoc basis to study and amend a specific bill. In addition, the Chairman of a legislative committee is not elected by the members of the committee, but is instead appointed by the Speaker, normally from among his deputies. Most bills, however, are referred to standing committees rather than legislative committees.


The House may also create ad hoc committees to study matters other than bills. Such committees are known as special committees. Each such body, like a legislative committee, may consist of no more than fifteen members. Other committees include joint committees, which include both members of the House of Commons and senators; such committees may hold hearings and oversee government, but do not revise legislation.


Legislative functions

Although legislation may be introduced in either House, most bills originate in the House of Commons.

Further information: Act of Parliament

In conformity with the British model, the Lower House alone is authorised to originate bills imposing taxes or appropriating public funds. This restriction on the power of the Senate is not merely a matter of convention, but is explicitly stated in the Constitution Act, 1867. Otherwise, the power of the two Houses of Parliament is theoretically equal; the approval of each is necessary for a bill's passage. In practice, however, the House of Commons is the dominant chamber of Parliament, with the Senate very rarely exercising its powers in a way that opposes the will of the democratically elected chamber. The last major bill defeated in the Senate came in 1991, when a bill passed by the Commons restricting abortion was rejected in the Upper House by a tied vote. An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...


A clause in the Constitution Act, 1867 permits the Governor General (with the approval of the Queen) to appoint up to eight extra senators to resolve a deadlock between the two houses. The clause was invoked only once, in 1990, when Prime Minister Brian Mulroney advised the appointment of an additional eight senators in order to secure the Upper House's approval for the Goods and Services Tax. Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ...


Relationship with the Government

Though it does not elect the Prime Minister, the House of Commons indirectly controls the premiership. By convention, the Prime Minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of Prime Minister falls vacant, the Governor General is supposed to appoint the person most likely to command the support of the House—normally, the leader of the largest party in the Lower House, although the system allows a coalition of two or more parties. This has not happened in the Canadian federal parliament, but has occurred in Canadian provinces. The leader of the second-largest party usually becomes the Leader of the Official Opposition. Moreover, the Prime Minister is, by unwritten convention, a member of the House of Commons, rather than of the Senate. The only two Prime Ministers who governed from the Senate were Sir John Abbott (1891–1892) and Sir Mackenzie Bowell (1894–1896). Both men got the job following the death of a Prime Minister, and did not contest elections. The Honourable Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, PC , QC , KCMG , BCL , DCL (March 12, 1821 – October 30, 1893) was the third Prime Minister of Canada from June 16, 1891 to November 24, 1892. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ...


The Prime Minister may only stay in office as long as he or she retains the confidence of the House of Commons. The Lower House may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence, or by passing a motion of no confidence. Important bills that form a part of the Government's agenda are generally considered matters of confidence, as is any taxation or spending bill and the annual budget. When a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged to either resign, or request the Governor General to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. The Governor General may theoretically refuse to dissolve Parliament, thereby forcing the Prime Minister to resign. The last instance of a Governor General refusing to grant a dissolution was in 1926. A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...

Further information: King-Byng Affair

Except when compelled to request a dissolution by an adverse vote on a confidence issue, the Prime Minister is allowed to choose the timing of dissolutions, and consequently the timing of general elections. The time chosen reflects political considerations, and is generally most opportune for the Prime Minister's party. However, no parliamentary term can last for more than five years from the first sitting of Parliament; a dissolution is automatic upon the expiry of this period. Normally, Parliaments do not last for full five-year terms; Prime Ministers typically ask for dissolutions after about three or four years. The 2006 Conservative government introduced a bill to set fixed election dates every four years. This bill was approved by Parliament and has now become law. Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ...


Whatever the reason—the expiry of Parliament's five year term, the choice of the Prime Minister, or a Government defeat in the House of Commons—a dissolution is followed by general elections. If the Prime Minister's party retains its majority in the House of Commons, then the Prime Minister may remain in power. On the other hand, if his or her party has lost its majority, the prime minister may resign, or may attempt to stay in power by winning support from members of other parties. A Prime Minister may resign even if he or she is not defeated at the polls (for example, for personal health reasons); in such a case, the premiership goes to the new leader of the outgoing Prime Minister's party.


The House of Commons scrutinizes the Government through "Question Period", a daily forty-five minute period during which members have the opportunity to ask questions of the Prime Minister and of other Cabinet ministers. Questions must relate to the responding minister's official Government activities, not to his or her activities as a party leader or as a private Member of Parliament. Members may also question Committee Chairmen on the work of their respective committees. Members of each party are entitled to a number of questions proportional to the party caucus' strength in the House. In addition to questions asked orally during Question Period, Members of Parliament may also make inquiries in writing.


In times where there is a majority government, the House of Commons' scrutiny of the government is weak. Since the first-past-the-post electoral system is employed in elections, the governing party tends to enjoy a large majority in the Commons; there is often limited need to compromise with other parties. (Minority governments, however, are not uncommon.) Modern Canadian political parties are so tightly organised that they leave relatively little room for free action by their MPs. In many cases, MPs may be expelled from their parties for voting against the instructions of party leaders. As well, the major parties require candidates' nominations to be signed by party leaders, thus giving the leaders the power to, effectively, end a politician's career. Thus, defeats of majority governments on issues of confidence are very rare. Paul Martin's Liberal minority government lost a vote of no confidence in 2005; the last time this had occurred was in 1979, when Joe Clark's Tory minority government was defeated after a term of just six months. For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Current composition

See also: Current members of the Canadian House of Commons, Party Standings in the Canadian House of Commons, and List of federal by-elections in Canada

The current composition of the House is: This is a list of members of the Canadian House of Commons in the 39th Parliament of Canada. ... Party Standings in the Canadian House of Commons. ... This is a list of by-elections in Canada since 1980. ...

Affiliation Members
     Conservative Party 126
     Liberal Party 94
     Bloc Québécois 49
     New Democratic Party 30
     Independent
4
     Vacant
5
 Total
308

The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ...

See also

A Conservative election poster from 1891. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ... Canadian Parliaments are the legislative bodies of the Government of Canada. ... Lists of past and present Members of the Canadian House of Commons with military service. ... Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of November 10, 2005. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament Stephen Harper is the Prime Minister of the 39th Parliament. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Party Standings in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Guide to the Canadian House of Commons. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication. canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  2. ^ Members of the House of Commons - Current List - By Name. Parliament of Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  3. ^ Members of Parliament. Parliament of Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  4. ^ Elections Canada On-Line. Electoral Insight (2006-11-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  5. ^ The Statute of Westminster, 1931 - History - Intergovernmental Affairs. Privy Council Office. Government of Canada (2007-09-13). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  6. ^ The Constitution Act, 1982. The Solon Law Archive. W.F.M.. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  7. ^ Elections Canada (2004). Federal Representation. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  8. ^ Tuesday, June 20, 1995 (222). ROUTINE PROCEEDINGS. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Department of Justice. (2004). Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982.
  • Dawson, W. F. (1962). Procedure in the Canadian House of Commons, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1962.
  • Forsley, Eugene (1904-1991). (1st edition published 1980, 6th edition, 2005). "How Canadians Govern Themselves."
  • House of Commons Table Research Branch. (2006). Compendium of Procedure.
  • The Parliament of Canada. Official Website.
  • Canada’s House of Commons from The Canadian Encyclopedia
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... // Confederation Main article: Canadian Confederation Fathers of Confederation meet in Quebec City In the 1860s, in the wake of the American Civil War, the British were concerned with possible American reprisals against Canada for Britains tacit support of the Confederacy. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster // World War I Main article: Military History of Canada during WWI On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as... // The Second World War brought many changes to Canada; the government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. ... // Main article: Great Flag Debate Diefenbaker was succeeded by Pearson in 1963, at a time of increasing political unrest in much of the Western world. ... // The New constitution Main article: Patriation In 1982 Britain passed the Canada Act, repatriating the Constitution of Canada. ... // Chretien years and the 1995 referendum Jean Chrétien became prime minister in the 1993 election, pledging to repeal the GST, which proved to be unfeasible due to the economic circumstances at the time. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ... The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system, inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Queen of Canada redirects here. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada since Confederation. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Canadian Forces Flag The Canadian Armed Forces (Fr. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... HI Eric u suck!!!!!!!!!!!!! from,Trevor and Dalton ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... Mount Logan in the Yukon is the highest peak of Canada. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ... The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake Black Tusk viewed from the southeast Mount Fee as seen from its north side Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway Mount Garibaldi in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt as seen... Banking in Canada is one of the most efficient and safest banking systems in the world. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... C$ redirects here. ... This is a list of companies from Canada. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside of what the market provides. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... There are a multitude of languages spoken in Canada, but only English, French and certain aboriginal languages have official status. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... A list of population of Canada by years. ... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... The urban areas identified below are defined by Statistics Canada with reference to continuous population density, ignoring municipal boundaries. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... Bonhomme Carnaval, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The Gothic Revival Parliament Buildings are some of Canadas best known structures The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. ... The following is a list of some important Canadian artists and groups of artists: Individuals Ran Andrews, 1956-, painter Robert Bateman, 1930-, painter Emily Carr, 1871-1945, painter Alex Colville, 1920-, painter Ken Danby, 1940-, painter Charles Daudelin, 1920-2001, sculptor and painter Paterson Ewen, 1925-2002, painter Marcelle Ferron... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... Canadian national holidays (with provincial exceptions): Each province of Canada has its own provincial holiday or holidays. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... The history of music of Canada has mirrored the history and evolution of the country. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Canadian hip hop developed much more slowly than Canadas rock music scene. ... Canada has been a source of rock and roll music for decades, beginning with Paul Anka who in 1957 went to New York City where he recorded his own composition, Diana. The song brought him instant stardom and went to No. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... The contemporary theatre scene in Canada revolves around companies and summer festivals based at facilities in Canadian cities. ... The Coat of Arms of Canada, formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada,[1] is the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known... This is a list of flags used in Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian House of Commons | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free ... (869 words)
The House of Commons (in French, la Chambre des communes) is the lower, directly elected house of the Parliament of Canada which sits in the nation's capital, Ottawa, Ontario.
However, the actual formal selection of prime minister is not made by the House of Commons in a vote; rather they are appointed by the governor general, who selects the person he or she deems most likely to command the support of the House of Commons.
The speaker of the House of Commons is elected from amongst the MPs by secret ballot after each general election.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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