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Encyclopedia > Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Forces canadiennes

The tri-service badge
Military Manpower
Availability
(males age 16-49)
8,216,510 (2005 est.)[1]
Availability
(females age 16-49)
8,034,939 (2005 est.)[1]
Fit for military service
(males age 16-49)
6,740,490 (2005 est.)[1]
Fit for military service
(females age 16-49)
6,580,868 (2005 est.)[1]
Regular Force (2005) approx. 62,000[2]
Primary Reserve (including Rangers) (2005) approx. 25,000[2]
Military expenditures
Dollar figure
(FY07/08)
CAN$16.9 billion[3]
Percent of GDP
(FY03/04)
1.1% (128th in 2003)
Military strength

Maritime Command
Fleet Submarines 4
Destroyers 3
Frigates 12
Coastal Defence Vessels 12
Operational Support Ships 2

Land Force Command
Main Battle Tanks 66 Leopard C2, 100 Leopard 2 entering service
Infantry fighting vehicles 600+
Armoured Personnel Carriers 1,000+

Air Command
Fighters 98[4]
Patrol aircraft 21
Transport aircraft 83
Helicopters 142
Trainers 64
UAVs 19

The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."[5] Image File history File links Canadian_Forces_emblem. ... Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral). ... “C$” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Categories: Ship types ... A replenishment oiler at work A replenishment oiler is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry stores capability, which can replenish other ships underway. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank for Germany, several other European countries, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Chile. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... An M2 Bradley Infantry fighting vehicle. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... Image File history File links RCAF-Roundel. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... A patrol bomber, or patrol aircraft, is an airplane designed to operate for long times over water in an anti-shipping or anti-submarine role. ... There are two types of airlifts in the military, strategic and tactical. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A 1923 Canadian Act that merged the Ministry of Militia and Defence with the Ministry of the Naval Service and the newly created Ministry of Aviation Categories: Military history of Canada ...


The Canadian Forces was formed on February 1, 1968, when the Government of Canada merged the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Air Force into a unified structure. Canada remains one of the few developed countries in the world using this model for organizing its military forces. is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth the second was the first person who created the law and the taxes and judging to count the votes from the voters from all around Canada. ... For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ...

Contents

Command structure

By the Canadian Constitution, the Command-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces is vested in Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada.[6] Since 1904 the monarch has allowed the Canadian viceroy to exercise the duties ascribed to that post, and since 1905 to hold the title Commander-in-Chief.[7] The current Governor General and Commander-in-Chief is Michaëlle Jean. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... Although the HM Queen Elizabeth II is the Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, the Governor General of Canada in the name of the Queen is the official and cermonial head of the Canadian Forces. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ...

Further information: The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Forces

Declarations of War must be granted Royal Assent, thus they must be signed by either the Canadian monarch or Governor General. Under the Westminster system's parliamentary custom and practice, however, the Prime Minister of Canada, who advises the viceroy or monarch on the exercise of their executive powers, holds de facto decision-making ability over the deployment and disposition of the Canadian Forces. The Cabinet officer in charge of the Canadian Forces is the Minister of National Defence (MND), who answers to the Prime Minister. HM Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, presides over the rededication of the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in France, next to her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, wearing the uniform of the Royal Canadian Regiment, April, 2007. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Minister of National Defence (French: Ministre de la Défense nationale) is the Canadian politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the Department of National Defence which oversees the Canadian Forces. ...


Below the Crown, the military head of the Canadian Forces is the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), the highest ranking military officer in the nation, who commands the CF from National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) in Ottawa, Ontario. The Chief of the Defence Staff is the senior member of the Canadian Forces and reports directly to the Minister of National Defence. ... Department of National Defence Headquarters. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


The environmental commands of the Canadian Forces, in order of precedence, are:

  1. Maritime Command (MARCOM), or the Navy;
  2. Land Force Command (LFC) or the Army;
  3. Air Command (AIRCOM), or the Air Force.

The operational commands of the Canadian Forces are: HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ...

The sovereign and a number of other members of the Canadian Royal Family act as Colonels-in-Chief of Canadian Forces regiments, though these positions are ceremonial. Canada Command (Canada COM) is responsible for all domestic (Canadian) and North American continental joint military operations. ... Canadian Expeditionary Force Command is a new operational element of the Canadian Forces. ... Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) is responsible for all special forces operations that will be capable of responding to terrorism and threats to Canadians and Canadian interests around the world. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... In the British and other Commonwealth armies, the Colonel-in-Chief of a regiment is its (usually Royal) patron. ...


History

Main Articles: History of the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force

The Canadian Army as such only existed under that name from November 1940 to February 1968. ... For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ...

Early days

Prior to Confederation, local citizens served as regular members of French and British forces and in local militia groups. Local militias defended their homeland from Indian raids and British and French invasions, and from American forces during the Seven Years' War, American Revolution, the War of 1812 and in the Fenian Raids. Consequently, some army units in Canada can derive their lineage to before the War of 1812 when militia units were formed to assist in defending British North America from invasions by the United States. From the founding of new France until the establishment of a professional Canadian army the colonial militia played an extremely important role in the defence of Canada. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ...


Such land forces were organized under the Department of Militia and Defence as the Permanent Active Militia and Non-Permanent Active Militia, frequently shortened to simply "the Militia," from 1906-1940. In 1923 the department was merged into the Department of National Defence, however land forces in Canada were not termed "the Canadian Army" until November 1940. Department of Militia and Defence (Canada) was the department responsible for the army in Canada. ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ...


Following Confederation in 1867, the responsibility for military forces in Canada remained under British command (the Commander-in-Chief, North America was headquartered for much of the time at Halifax) until the final withdrawal of British Army and Royal Navy units at Halifax in 1906. The office of Commander-in-Chief, North America was the commander of British forces in North America before 1859. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Following the withdrawal of the Royal Navy in 1906, Canada eventually formed a naval service titled the Royal Canadian Navy. Similarly, the advent of military aviation saw the establishment of an air force, titled the Royal Canadian Air Force. For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ...


The first overseas deployment of Canadian military forces occurred during the Second Boer War when several Canadian units were raised to serve under British command. This led to subsequent Commonwealth service in the First and Second World Wars as well as the Korean War. Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


Canadian soldiers, sailors and aviators came to be considered world-class professionals through conspicuous service during these conflicts, as well as Canada's integral participation in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization during the Cold War, as well as United Nations Peacekeeping operations. NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Canada's military forces underwent extensive changes and modernization to command structures during the 1960s, cluminating in unification of the three services in 1968 to create the Canadian Forces.


Operations

The Canadian Forces or its component regiments have served operationally in the War of 1812, the Fenian Raids (1866-1871), North-West Rebellion (1885), the Second Boer War (1899-1902), the First World War, the Second World War, the Korean War, the First Gulf War, the Kosovo war (1999), and have contributed to UN and other peacekeeping missions and undeclared wars, notably the Suez Crisis, Golan Heights, Cyprus, Croatia, Bosnia, and Afghanistan. Canada is a charter member of NATO and a member of the North American Air Defence treaty (NORAD). This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... NORAD is short for: North American Aerospace Defense Command Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Battles which are particularly notable to the Canadian military include the Battle of Vimy Ridge in the First World War and, in the Second World War, the Dieppe Raid, the Battle of Ortona, the Normandy Landings, the Battle for Caen, the Battle of the Scheldt, the Battle of Britain, the Battle of the Atlantic, and the strategic bombing of German cities. The Canadian forces operated under overall British command in all these battles. Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured wounded or not; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or... Combatants 1st Canadian Infantry Division 5th Canadian Armoured Division 3rd battalion, 3rd Regt, German 1st Parachute Division Commanders Major General Chris Vokes Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich Strength  ? 1 Battalion Casualties Canadian 1375 dead 964 wounded[2] German ? The Battle of Ortona (December 20, 1943 to December 28, 1943)[1] was a... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ...


At the end of the Second World War, areas of the Netherlands north of the rivers Rhine and Lek were liberated from the Nazi-German occupying forces almost solely by Canadian formations. After restoring law and order they left the countries within several months.


Since 1947, Canadian military units have participated in more than 200 operations worldwide and has completed 72 international operations.[citation needed] Currently, more than 3,000 Canadian soldiers, sailors and airmen are deployed overseas on missions with 11 operations including the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan and the NATO stabilization force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On any given day, about 8,000 Canadian Forces members - one third of the deployable force - are preparing for, engaged in or returning from an overseas mission.[8] Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... Categories: Historical stubs | History of Bosnia and Herzegovina ...


Canadian regular and reserve troops are a visible and respected force at home as well. In 2001 alone, the Canadian Forces responded to more than 8,000 search-and-rescue incidents and helped to save more than 4,500 lives.[9]


Postwar developments

At the end of the Second World War, Canada possessed the third-largest navy and fourth-largest air force in the world, as well as the largest volunteer army ever fielded by Canada. (Conscription for overseas service was introduced only near the end of the war, and only 2400 conscripts actually made it into battle). Defence spending and troop strengths remained high during the early years of the Cold War, but began to decline in the late 1960s and 1970s as the perceived threat from the Warsaw Pact diminished. Throughout the 1990s, successive budget cuts forced further reductions in the personnel, number of bases, and fighting ability of the Canadian Forces. Sizable Canadian air and land forces were maintained in West Germany under NATO command from the end of World War II until the early 1990s. There has been criticism of these budget cuts, as military spending has been reduced to only 1.4% of GDP; many[attribution needed] argue that these cuts have hindered modernization of the Canadian Forces.[citation needed] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... A military budget of an entity, most often a nation or a state is the budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining armed forces for that entity. ...


There has been a move by the recent Conservative Government to purchase new equipment and to expand funding for recruitment and training as well as the re-establishment of an airborne land force, now called the Canadian Special Operations Regiment.


Modern reorganization - The "Unification"

Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan
Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan

The Canadian Forces is a single organization with a unified command structure, making Canada one of the few nations to have such an organization of its military forces. Image File history File links Canadian soldiers from 3PPCLI move into the hills to search for Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters after an air assault onto an objective north of Qualat, Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Canadian soldiers from 3PPCLI move into the hills to search for Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters after an air assault onto an objective north of Qualat, Afghanistan. ...


Unification controversy

"The March 1964 White Paper on Defence outlined a major restructuring of the separate services. The White Paper described a reorganization that would include the integration of operations, logistics support, personnel and administration of the separate services under a functional command system."[10] The White Paper on Defence is a white paper of the Canadian government which was tabled on March 26, 1964. ...


Unification was strongly opposed by personnel in all three services and resulted in the firing of the navy's senior operational commander, Rear Admiral W.M. Landymore, as well as forced retirements of other senior officers in the nation's military forces.[11]


The protests of service personnel and their superiors failed and on February 1, 1968, Bill C-243, The Canadian Forces Reorganization Act became law and the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) were combined into one service - the Canadian Armed Forces, shortened to Canadian Forces. is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ...


The public position was that unification was undertaken by the government to achieve cost savings and provide improved command and control and integration of military forces. Contemporary rhetoric and accusations were made that the Liberal administration of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and his Minister of National Defence Paul Hellyer did not care for the traditions behind each service, and that the name of the new military force (in Canada's post-war modernist fashion) was easily translated to French and eliminated inconvenient monarchist references during a contentious period in Canadian history.[citation needed] Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... The Honourable Paul Theodore Hellyer, PC (born August 6, 1923 in Waterford, Ontario) is a Canadian politician and commentator who has had a long and varied career. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ...


The reorganization has been criticized, for example by J. L. Granatstein in Who Killed the Canadian Military? In particular, the wholesale replacement of traditional naval/army/air force identities with army-style ranks and rifle-green uniforms had done considerable damage to the esprit de corps of the Canadian Forces. Paul Hellyer has since admitted that he made a mistake in taking away the distinctive uniforms.[citation needed] Jack Lawrence Granatstein (born 1939) is a prolific and renowned Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history. ...


The controversy over unification has lessened over the 40 year history of the Canadian Forces, however infrequent protests crop up, largely in English Canada which seeks to reestablish the historic names of the three military services.


On May 17, 2007, an online petition was issued seeking grassroots support for the Maritime Command and Air Command to be renamed as the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force, respectively, for the navy's 100th anniversary in 2010. The proposal does not include a "de-unification" of the forces, instead only seeking that the Air and Maritime Commands be renamed.[12] The petition is to be sponsored by Member of Parliament Laurie Hawn, himself a former Air Force Lieutenant Colonel.[13] Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM) is the naval service of the Canadian Forces, and as such, it is also the senior service of the Canadian Forces, following the tradition that comes from the Royal Navy. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Laurie D. Hawn, CD (born May 11, 1947) is a retired Lieutenant Colonel of the Canadian Air Force (1964-1994) , business person, and federal politician from Edmonton, Alberta. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...


Unification implementation

On February 1, 1968 the CF was composed of six commands, each envisioned to be vertically integrated with the complementary requirements of the other commands: is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Air Defence Command
    • Provided fighter interceptors and ground-based radar surveillance for defending Canadian and North American airspace under NORAD.
  • Air Transport Command
    • Responsible for strategic airlift of troops and equipment.
  • Mobile Command
    • Provided combat-ready land forces and tactical air forces for deployment in defence of Canada, or for NATO or UN missions. It consisted of former army units, as well as ground attack and tactical airlift aircraft as well as light and heavy transport and assault helicopters, through its Tactical Air Group.
  • Maritime Command
    • The only command which maintained its exclusive environmental control following unification (possibly due to protests from senior RCN officers). Maritime Command also had control of the Maritime Air Group, which provided coastal patrol aircraft, ship-borne anti-submarine helicopters, and fighter interceptors, helicopters and patrol aircraft for Canada's only aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure.
  • Materiel Command
    • Provided logistical supply and maintenance services for all units.
  • Training Command
    • Responsible for training personnel serving in all units.

In addition to these commands there were several independent organizations reporting to CF Headquarters: Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ...

  • Reserve and National Survival
  • Canadian Forces Communications System (CFCS)
  • Canadian Forces Europe (CFE)

On September 1, 1970, Communications System was elevated to command status and became Communication Command. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 2, 1975 the second environmental element was created when Air Defence Command and Air Transport Command and Training Command were disbanded and all air operations in the CF were grouped under a new command named Air Command (AIRCOM). Training was still centralized for all services, however specialized training began to be provided by each environmental element. Similarly, the third environmental command, Force Mobile Command (FMC) was created when Mobile Command was renamed (following the removal of its tactical air assets. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ...


Materiel Command was disbanded during the 1980s and Communications Command was disbanded during a mid-1990s reorganization, with its units reorganized into the Defence Information Services Organization (DISO), later renamed Information Management Group (IM Gp), reporting to NDHQ. Force Mobile Command was also renamed at this time, becoming Land Force Command (LFC).


On February 1, 2006, the CF added four operational commands to the existing structure: is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Canada Command (Canada COM) is responsible for all domestic (Canadian) and North American continental joint military operations. ... Canadian Expeditionary Force Command is a new operational element of the Canadian Forces. ... Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) is responsible for all special forces operations that will be capable of responding to terrorism and threats to Canadians and Canadian interests around the world. ...

Commands of the CF

Maritime Command (MARCOM)

HMCS Regina
HMCS Regina

Canada's naval forces include 33 warships and submarines and many more auxiliary vessels. The ships are deployed in two fleets, Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC) at CFB Esquimalt on the west coast, and Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT) at CFB Halifax on the east coast. There is no permanent naval presence on the Arctic coast at this time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x372, 122 KB) 041001-N-4723L-004 Bangor, Washington (1 October 2004) – The Canadian diesel-electric SSK submarine HMCS Victoria arrives at the Pacific Northwest Region Bangor Complex to conduct ranging operations with the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Keyport, Dabob Bay... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x372, 122 KB) 041001-N-4723L-004 Bangor, Washington (1 October 2004) – The Canadian diesel-electric SSK submarine HMCS Victoria arrives at the Pacific Northwest Region Bangor Complex to conduct ranging operations with the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Keyport, Dabob Bay... HMCS Victoria (SSK 876) at Bangor, Washington in 2004 HMCS Victoria (SSK 876) is a submarine in the Canadian Forces Maritime Command, the lead ship of her class. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1911x1239, 385 KB) Canadian destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283) The Canadian destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283) is shown underway in close formation with the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS (CVN 74) and the guided missile frigate USS Ford (FFG 54). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1911x1239, 385 KB) Canadian destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283) The Canadian destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283) is shown underway in close formation with the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS (CVN 74) and the guided missile frigate USS Ford (FFG 54). ... HMCS Algonquin at Pearl Harbor, 2004-07-06 HMCS Algonquin is a Canadian destroyer, the second to bear the name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 345 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) Canadian frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) heads out to sea to participate in exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 345 KB) Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) Canadian frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) heads out to sea to participate in exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... In the Canadian Armed Forces, Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC) is responsible for Maritime Command (MARCOM) fleet and operations in the Pacific Ocean. ... CFB Esquimalt is Canadas West Coast (Pacific) naval base. ... In the Canadian Armed Forces, Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT) is responsible for Maritime Command (MARCOM) fleet and operations in the Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean. ... Canadian Forces Base Halifax (CFB Halifax) is Canadas east coast navy base and home port to the Atlantic fleet. ...


MARCOM participates in NATO exercises, and ships are deployed all over the world in support of the Canadian military and in conjunction with multinational deployments. This article is about the military alliance. ...


The Canadian fleet comprises:

Class Type Number Commissioning Dates Details
Halifax frigate 12 1992-96 The backbone of MARCOM, the twelve Halifax-class frigates carry the Sea King helicopters of the Air Force as well as anti-submarine torpedoes and anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles.
Iroquois destroyer 3 1972-73 Area-air-defence and command-and-control destroyers with Sea King helicopters, refitted in the 1990s from anti-submarine role.
Kingston patrol 12 1996-99 Coastal surveillance, general naval operations and exercises, search and rescue, law enforcement, resource protection, fisheries patrols and mine countermeasure capabilities.
Protecteur auxiliary 2 1969-70 At-sea resupply of frigates and destroyers and medical support.
Victoria submarine 4 2000-04 Diesel-electric hunter-killer submarines with long-range patrol capability.
Orca patrol 2 in service, 2 being built, 4 more ordered 2006-08 Training and inshore patrol.

The Halifax-class Multi-Role Patrol Frigate (hull designation FFH) is a class of Canadian Navy frigates launched between 1992 and 1996 to replace the aging Restigouche-class fleet of Destroyer Escorts (DDEs). ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Iroquois-class destroyers are a class of three helicopter-carrying, guided missile destroyers of the Canadian Navy. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Kingston-class consists of 12 naval patrol vessels of Canadian Forces Maritime Command constructed under the Maritime Coastal Defense Vessel (MCDV) project. ... Categories: Ship types ... Protecteur-class Auxiliary Oiler Replenishment (AOR) ships are used by the Canadian Navy to resupply ships at sea with food, munitions, fuel and spare parts. ... A replenishment oiler at work A replenishment oiler is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry stores capability, which can replenish other ships underway. ... The Victoria class consists of four diesel-powered Canadian Navy submarines acquired from the Royal Navy (formerly known as the Upholder class) and replacing the old Oberon-class subs. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... The Orca-class are new training and patrol vessels being built for the Canadian Forces Maritime Command. ... Categories: Ship types ...

Land Force Command (LFC)

A Leopard C1 tank
A Leopard C1 tank

The Canadian Army is administered through five geographically determined formations called 'Areas': ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (935x424, 123 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Leopard tank ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (935x424, 123 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Leopard tank ... The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank for Germany, several other European countries, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Chile. ... Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ...

Today, the Regular Force component of the Land Force Command (army) consists of three field-ready brigades, with elements of a fourth located at CFB Gagetown: Land Force Atlantic Area is responsible for army operations of Canadian Forces Land Force Command in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... Land Force Quebec Area (LFQA) is responsible for all Canadian army operations and administration in the region within the province of Quebec. ... Land Force Central Area (LFCA) is responsible for all operations and administration of the Canadian Forces Land Force Command in the province of Ontario, from the Quebec border to the northern Lakehead region. ... Land Force Western Area is responsible for all Canadian army operations and administration in western Canada from the northern Lakehead region of Ontario to the Pacific Ocean. ... Land Force Northern Area is responsible for all Canadian army operations and administration in northerm Canada, namely the Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and the waters of the Arctic Ocean(within Canada) and Hudsons Bay. ... Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in Edmonton, Alberta,
  • 2 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in CFB Petawawa, Ontario, and
  • 5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in CFB Valcartier, Quebec (the Francophone brigade).

Each brigade contains one regiment each of artillery, armour, and combat engineers and three battalions of infantry (all scaled in the British fashion), as well as a service battalion (logistics), a headquarters/signals squadron, and several minor organizations. A tactical helicopter squadron and a field ambulance are co-located with each brigade but not part of the brigade's command structure. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Armoured warfare. ... ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Military communications, or Signals, is a field of military activities, tactics and equipment dealing with communications. ... A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ...


Each Area has, in addition to Regular Force troops, reserve forces organized in a total of ten Reserve Brigade Groups. Each Area has three, with the exception of LFNA which has none and LFAA and LFQA which each have only two. Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ...


Major training establishments and non-brigaded troops exist at CFB Wainwright, CFB Gagetown and ASU St-Jean (now attached to CFB Montreal.) Each area also has an Area Training Centre. CFB/ASU Wainwright is a Canadian Forces Base/Area Support Unit located adjacent to the Town of Wainwright in Alberta, Canada. ... Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, also referred to as CFB Gagetown, is a large Canadian Forces Base located in southwestern New Brunswick. ... ASU Saint-Jean is a sub-military station (Area Support Unit) in Saint-Jean, Quebec. ... Canadian Forces Base Montreal (also CFB Montreal) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Montreal, Quebec. ...


CFB Wainwright is home to the Canadian Manouevre Training Centre and provides state-of-the-art force on force training in preparation for overseas deployments.


Air Command (AIRCOM)

Canada's air force is deployed at 13 bases across Canada under the overall direction of 1 Canadian Air Division and constitutes the Canadian NORAD Region. Major air bases are located in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador while administrative and command-control facilities are located in Winnipeg and North Bay. A Canadian component of the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force is based in Geilenkirchen, Germany. Wings vary in size from several hundred personnel to several thousand. Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... NORAD Headquarters Building. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... North Bay ( , time zone EST) is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada (2006 population 53,966). ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Principal aircraft include (numbers are from CF official website except where noted):

Builder Model Type Number Dates Details
McDonnell-Douglas CF-18A/B Hornet tactical fighter bombers 98 1982-88 In Phase II of Incremental Modernization Project (IMP)
Lockheed Corporation CP-140 Aurora surveillance and long range patrol aircraft 18 1980 Also currently undergoing an Incremental Modernization Project (IMP)
Lockheed Corporation CP-140A Arcturus surveillance and long range patrol aircraft 3 1991
Sikorsky Aircraft CH-124 Sea King maritime helicopters 27 1963-69 to be replaced by 28 Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone
Agusta Westland Aircraft CH-149 Cormorant maritime/search and rescue helicopters 14 2001-2003 replaced CH-113 Labrador
Bell Helicopter Textron CH-146 Griffon tactical transport/search and rescue helicopters 85 1995-97
Lockheed Corporation CC-130 Hercules combat transport / search and rescue 30 1960-1997 5 of these (C-130H (T)) have air-air refuelling capability) / new order for replacements
Boeing CC-177 Globemaster Strategic transport 4 Delivery Date: 2007/08 New strategic transport aircraft to augment CC-130's
Airbus CC-150 Polaris long range transport 5 1992-93 2 of these have air-air refuelling capability
De Havilland Canada CC-115 Buffalo Short range transport/search and rescue aircraft 6 1967 soon to be retired and replaced by either EADS-CASA C-295 or Lockheed/Alenia C-27J Spartan
Canadair CC-144 Challenger jet transport 6 1982-85, 2002 4 for VIP and 2 for utility
De Havilland Canada CC-138 Twin Otter short transport 4 1970
Canadair CT-114 Tutor jet trainers 25 1962-66 trainers retired - used only by the Snowbirds and the Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment
Raytheon CT-156 Harvard II propeller trainers 26 [14] 2000 based on T-6 Texan II trainers (leased)
BAE Systems CT-155 Hawk jet trainers 20 [15] 2000 leased from BAE Systems replaced CT-114's
De Havilland Canada CT-142 Dash-8 electronic navigator training aircraft 4 1987, 1989-90
Sagem Sperwer Tactical UAV system unmanned aerial vehicle 19 [16] 2003-6 Four surviving UAV's from Operation Athena augmented with 10 ex-Danish Sperwers plus follow-on order with Sagem for 5 more

McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... The McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet (CF-188) is a Canadian Forces aircraft, based on the American F/A-18 Hornet. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Lockheed CP-140 Aurora is a Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) maritime patrol aircraft (MPA). ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The CP-140A Arcturus is a variant of Canadas CP-140 Aurura maritime patrol aircraft. ... Sikorsky is an American aircraft and helicopter manufacturer. ... The Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King (company designation S-61) is a twin-engined anti-submarine warfare (ASW)helicopter. ... Sikorsky H-92 in filght with camo pattern paint scheme. ... A South African Air Force A109LUH Agusta (now part of AgustaWestland) is an Italian helicopter manufacturer. ... Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil in Somerset, formed just before the start of World War II. During the war the company produced a number of generally unsuccessful designs, but their Lysander would serve as an important liaison aircraft with the RAF. After the war the... The AgustaWestland EH101 is a medium-lift helicopter for military applications but also marketed for civil use. ... A CH-113 Labrador practising an airlift from a Canadian Coast Guard cutter. ... Bell Helicopter Textron is an American helicopter and tiltrotor manufacturer headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. ... CH-146 Griffon Search and Rescue CH-146 Griffon Canadian Forces Utility Tactical Transport Helicopter (UTTH) CH146 (AKA The Griffon) is the Canadian designation of the Bell 412HP, a multi-use Light Utility helicopter used for aerial firepower, reconnaissance and mobility tasks. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) C-17 Globemaster III is an American strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and operated by the United States Air Force, the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, and the Canadian Forces. ... This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... CC-150 is the designation for the civilian Airbus A310-300s which have been converted for use as the primary long distance transport airplane for the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The de Havilland Canada company was an innovative aircraft manufacturer with facilities based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo is a short takeoff and landing (STOL) utility transport, a turboprop version developed from the earlier piston-powered DHC-4 Caribou. ... CASA Jungmann, built in 1957. ... CASA C-295 is a twin-engined transport aircraft made by CASA/EADS. The C-295 is used by several air forces. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Alenia Aeronautica Italian aeronautic company Alenia Difesa Italian defense products company Alenia Spazio Italian aerospace company [now called Alcatel Alenia Space] Alenia Marconi Systems or AMS Anglo-Italian electronic company Categories: Disambiguation ... The Alenia G.222 (Alenia originally Aeritalia) is a medium-sized STOL military transport aircraft. ... Canadair Sabre (Golden Hawks aerobatic team) display at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario Canadair was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. ... The Canadair Challenger business jet is a family of mid-sized jets produced by Bombardier Aerospace. ... The de Havilland Canada company was an innovative aircraft manufacturer with facilities based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The DHC-6 Twin Otter is a 20-passenger STOL feederliner and utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada. ... Canadair Sabre (Golden Hawks aerobatic team) display at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario Canadair was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. ... The Canadian Canadair CL-41, designated the CT-114 Tutor in RCAF and the later unified Canadian Forces use, is a jet trainer aircraft. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ... The CT-156 Harvard II is an agile flight trainer used for pilot instuction in the NFTC (NATO Flying Training in Canada) located at 15 Wing, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. ... A T-6 Texan II For the similarly-named World War II aircraft, see T-6 Texan. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds third largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... BAE Hawk T.1 trainer of No. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds third largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... The de Havilland Canada company was an innovative aircraft manufacturer with facilities based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The de Havilland Canada DHC-8, popularly known as the Dash 8, is a series of twin-engined, medium range, turboprop airliners introduced by de Havilland Canada (DHC) in 1984. ... SAGEM (Société d’Applications Générales de l’Electricité et de la Mécanique, translated to Company of General Applications of Electricity and Mechanics) was a major French company involved in defence electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems. ... The Sperwer is a 3-meter-long unmanned aerial vehicle manufactured by the French firm SAGEM. The aircraft is piloted remotely and can cruise at altitudes of over 16,000 feet for as long as five hours. ... Operation Athena is a Canadian Forces contribution to the United Nations International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Kabul, Afghanistan, which began in August 2003. ... SAGEM (Société d’Applications Générales de l’Electricité et de la Mécanique, translated to Company of General Applications of Electricity and Mechanics) was a major French company involved in defence electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems. ...

Canada Command (CANCOM)

A CF-18A fighter jet.
A CF-18A fighter jet.

Canada Command is an operational element created January 31, 2006, to improve response time to domestic terrorism and natural disasters. It is responsible for the management of the army, navy, and air force to ensure national security, both in emergency and routine situations. Canada Command is analogous to and works closely with the United States Northern Command as well as the United States Department of Homeland Security. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 964 KB) 060701-N-0641S-102 Pearl Harbor (July 1, 2006) - A Canadian Royal Navy CF-18 flies in formation with other aircraft off the coast Hawaii in celebration of Canada Day. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 964 KB) 060701-N-0641S-102 Pearl Harbor (July 1, 2006) - A Canadian Royal Navy CF-18 flies in formation with other aircraft off the coast Hawaii in celebration of Canada Day. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emblem of the United States Northern Command. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


The Commander of Canada Command is currently Lieutenant-General M.J. Dumais. He reports directly to the Chief of Defence Staff. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the senior member of the Canadian Forces and reports directly to the Minister of National Defence. ...


Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM)

Under a transformed CF structure, the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM) is responsible for the planning, and conduct of all Canadian Forces (CF) international operations, with the exception of operations conducted solely by the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM).


CEFCOM will bring together, under one operational command, maritime, land, air and special operations forces assets to conduct humanitarian, peace support or combat operations wherever they are required internationally.


The creation of CEFCOM is based on the new international security environment. Understanding that security in Canada ultimately begins with stability abroad, CEFCOM will allow the CF to specifically meet and manage threats to Canadian security as far away from our borders as possible.


Headquartered in Ottawa, CEFCOM will also be responsible for setting standards to ensure units and personnel selected for deployment are fully qualified and ready to conduct overseas duties.


The organizations under command of CEFCOM include:

  • a Standing Contingency Force (SCF) capable of rapidly responding to international crises. This high-readiness task force will be comprised of maritime, land, and air elements organized under a single integrated command structure. It will be ready to deploy within 10 days’ notice and will provide an immediate CF presence to work with security partners to stabilize a situation or facilitate the deployment of larger, follow-on forces should circumstances warrant;
  • Mission-Specific Task Forces (MSTFs) task-tailored to meet mission-specific requirements drawing upon any CF capability and could be deployed as a follow-on force to the SCF or as stand-alone contribution. The MSTF will also be capable of lead-nation status in multinational peace support operations for limited periods; and
  • the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART). An enhanced DART, or its component parts, will continue to provide humanitarian support and disaster relief to overseas missions, as directed.

CEFCOM will help ensure the Canadian Forces are more: DART sets up camp in Sri Lanka. ...

  • relevant in the new international security environment, by providing a force better suited to adapt its capabilities and force structure to deal with threats that arise from the kind of instability found in failed and failing states around the world;
  • responsive, by enhancing their ability to act quickly in the event of international crises. The CF will arrive on the scene faster, move more effectively within theatre, and increase it’s capability to sustain deployments; and
  • effective, by providing the ability to deploy the right mix of forces – maritime, land, air and special operations forces – to the right place at the right time, in order to produce the desired result.

The Commander of CEFCOM is Lieutenant-General Michel Gauthier. Reporting directly to the CDS, he is responsible for the conduct of all international operations – humanitarian, peace support and combat – and has the necessary authorities to perform these responsibilities.


Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM)

This command is responsible for special forces units. It includes Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2), the newly-formed Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR), the Joint Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defence (JNBCD) Company, and a special operations aviation unit based on 427 Special Operations Aviation Squadron (SOAS) at CFB Petawawa. The force is headed by Colonel D. Michael Day, CD Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) is responsible for all special forces operations that will be capable of responding to terrorism and threats to Canadians and Canadian interests around the world. ... Joint Task Force 2 Special Forces duties in Canada are performed by an elite counter-terrorism unit known as JTF2 (Joint Task Force 2. ... The main entrance to CFB Petawawa. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Canadian Forces reserve force

The CF reserve force has four components:

The reserve force is represented, though not commanded, at NDHQ by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets, usually a Major General or Rear Admiral. Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations circa 2004. ... The Canadian Rangers are a Reserve component of the Canadian Forces which provide a limited military presence in Canadas North. ... The Badge of the Cadet Instructor Cadre The Cadet Instructors Cadre (French: Cadre des instructeurs de cadets) is a sub-component of the Canadian Forces (CF) Reserve. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ...


Primary Reserve

Main article: Canadian Forces Primary Reserve
Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations circa 2004. Reserve training focuses on real world situations and the needs of the Regular Force who rely on the Reserves for augmentation on operational deployments.
Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations circa 2004. Reserve training focuses on real world situations and the needs of the Regular Force who rely on the Reserves for augmentation on operational deployments.

The primary reserve comprises citizen soldiers, sailors, and aircrew who train and are posted to CF operations or duties on a casual or on-going basis. Each reserve force is operationally and administratively responsible to its corresponding environmental command with a Naval Reserve (NAVRES), Land Force Reserve (LFR) and Air Reserve. In addition there are two primary reserve forces that do not fall under an environmental command, these being the Communication Reserve (COMMRES) and the Health Services Reserve. Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations circa 2004. ... Image File history File links Calgary_Highlanders_Exercise_Black_Bear_2004. ... Image File history File links Calgary_Highlanders_Exercise_Black_Bear_2004. ... Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Reservists number approximately 23,000 (all ranks, all services). The CF maintains a "total force" policy as outlined in both the 1987 and 1994 Defence White Papers, where reservists are (in theory) trained to the level of and interchangeable with their Regular Force counterparts. It would be difficult to overstate the importance of the reserves to sustaining CF operations, particularly following the defence budget cuts and increased operational tempo of the 1990s. A white paper is an authoritative report. ... Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Supplementary reserve

The supplementary reserve is part of the CF reserve and comprises a voluntary call-up list for former CF regular- and reserve-force personnel who can be considered for reactivation in the event of a national emergency.


Cadet Instructors Cadre

The Cadet Instructors Cadre (CIC) comprises those commissioned officers who are instructors with the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Royal Canadian Army Cadets, and the Royal Canadian Air Cadets. The Badge of the Cadet Instructor Cadre The Cadet Instructors Cadre (French: Cadre des instructeurs de cadets) is a sub-component of the Canadian Forces (CF) Reserve. ... Royal Canadian Sea Cadets badge. ... The Royal Canadian Army Cadet Badge Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) is a Canadian national youth program sponsored by the Canadian Forces and the civilian Army Cadet League of Canada. ... Royal Canadian Air Cadets (RCAirC) is a Canadian national youth program for persons aged 12 to 18. ...


The Canadian Rangers

The Canadian Rangers are part of the CF reserve, provide surveillance and patrol services in Canada's Arctic and other remote areas, and are an essential component to Canada's exercise of sovereignty over its territory. The Canadian Rangers are a Reserve component of the Canadian Forces which provide a limited military presence in Canadas North. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Current deployments

As of October 2007, Canadian Forces are in operations throughout the world, as part of Canada's obligations to NATO and the United Nations, as well as in support of its international allies, chiefly the United States. This article is about the military alliance. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Current notable deployments are:

In addition to this deployment, small detachments of Canadian military are based in different countries for assistance, espionage and logistical work. One example is at Camp Mirage. Operation Athena is a Canadian Forces contribution to the United Nations International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Kabul, Afghanistan, which began in August 2003. ... Camp Mirage is a Canadian Forces forward logistics base located near Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. ...

Further information: List of Canadian military operations

Since 1947, the Canadian Forces have completed 72 international missions. ...

Military expenditures

Defence is an exclusive federal jurisdiction in Canada: defence spending in fiscal year 2004-5 was approximately CAN$14 billion.[17] In the 2005 federal budget, the government allocated an additional CAN$12.8 billion over five years to the DND and committed to increasing troop levels by an additional 5,000 Regular Force and 3,000 Primary Reserve personnel in the CF over the same period.[18] The military budget of Canada is determined by the Government of Canada in the annual federal budgets. ... canada is the best but those fucking americans can die fuck sakes they should leave my country and stop bombing my people by a minority government in Canada since the budget presented by the minority government led by Joe Clark in 1979. ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ... Look up Regular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral). ...


The 2006 federal budget saw the government commit to maintaining the 2005 budget increase to DND and provided an additional CAN$5.3 billion over five years to add 13,000 Regular Force and 10,000 Primary Reserve personnel as well as unspecified capital expenses for equipment purchases. In late June 2006, the federal government made a series of announcements about the "Canada First" Defence Procurement program.[19] This plan allocated $17.1 billion from the budget for the purchase of new trucks for LF, transport aircraft and helicopters for AIRCOM, and joint support ships for MARCOM.[20] The Canadian federal budget for fiscal year 2006-2007 was presented to the Canadian House of Commons by Finance Minister Jim Flaherty on May 2, 2006. ... The Joint Support Ship Project is a project undertaken by the Canadian Forces to provide Canada with a sea-lift capability. ...


Canadian Forces bases

The Canadian Forces have a number of active installations across the country with some being branch-specific. There are also a number of facilities which have closed in various defence cutbacks since the 1970s.


Navy

CFB Esquimalt is Canadas West Coast (Pacific) naval base. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Canadian Forces Base Halifax (CFB Halifax) is Canadas east coast navy base and home port to the Atlantic fleet. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Canadian Forces Station St. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Canadian Forces Maritime Experimental Test Range A test facility located on the east side of Vancouver Island, off Nanoose Bay. ... NRS Aldergrove Crest Naval Radio Section Aldergrove is the Canadian Navys primary communications relay site for the Pacific fleet. ... Canadian Forces Station Mill Cove (CFS Mill Cove) is a former Canadian Forces Station and currently a naval radio station in Nova Scotia operated by the Canadian Forces. ... Naval Radio Station Newport Corner (NRS Newport Corner) is a naval radio station in Nova Scotia operated by the Canadian Forces. ...

Army

Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Edmonton is a Canadian Military base located in Edmonton, Alberta. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, also referred to as CFB Gagetown, is a large Canadian Forces Base located in southwestern New Brunswick. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Canadian Forces Base Kingston (also CFB Kingston or 1 Wing Kingston) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Kingston, Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Canadian Forces Base Montreal (also CFB Montreal) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Montreal, Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The main entrance to CFB Petawawa. ... Canadian Forces Base Shilo (or CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Armed Forces located 35 km East of Brandon, Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Canadian Forces Base Suffield (also CFB Suffield), is the largest Canadian Forces Base and the largest Commonwealth military training base. ... Canadian Forces Base Valcartier is located 25 km west of Quebec City. ... CFB/ASU Wainwright is a Canadian Forces Base/Area Support Unit located adjacent to the Town of Wainwright in Alberta, Canada. ... Land Force Central Area Training Centre Meaford (also LFCATC Meaford) is a Canadian Forces Training Centre located in Grey County, near the town of Meaford, Ontario. ...

Air Force

Air Command and CF Northern Area also maintain a chain of Forward Operating Locations at various points across northern Canada, capable of supporting fighter operations. Elements of CF-18 squadrons periodically deploy to these FOLs for short training exercises or Arctic sovereignty patrols. Canadian Forces Base Bagotville, also known as CFB Bagotville or 3 Wing Bagotville, is a Canadian Forces Base located approximately 4. ... Canadian Forces Base Comox, (IATA: YQQ, ICAO: CYQQ), commonly referred to as CFB Comox, 19 Wing Comox or Comox Airport, is a Canadian Forces Base located 2. ... CFB Cold Lake Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake, commonly referred to as CFB Cold Lake or 4 Wing Cold Lake, is a Canadian Forces Base located in Cold Lake, Alberta. ... Canadian Forces Base Gander (also CFB Gander or 9 Wing Gander) is a Canadian Forces Base located in the central part of the island of Newfoundland near the town of Gander. ... Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Goose Bay, also referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay or Goose Bay Airport, (IATA: YYR, ICAO: CYYR) is an air force base in eastern Canada, located in the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. ... Canadian Forces Base Greenwood (CFB Greenwood), also referred to as 14 Wing Greenwood is a Canadian Forces Base located in Greenwood, a village in Nova Scotias Annapolis Valley. ... Canadian Forces Base Moose Jaw (also CFB Moose Jaw or 15 Wing - Moose Jaw) is a Canadian Forces Base located 70km west of Regina, Saskatchewan, in the town of Moose Jaw. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Entrance To 22 Wing at CFB North Bay, located in North Bay, Ontario CFB North Bay (22 Wing) is a Canadian Forces Base located in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... Canadian Forces Base Shearwater (CFB Shearwater) is a Canadian Forces base located in Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia on the eastern shore of Halifax harbour. ... Canadian Forces Base Trenton, also referred to as CFB Shitstorm CFB Trenton, 8 Wing Trenton or Loser Airport is a Canadian Forces Base located in Trenton, Ontario. ... Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg (also CFB Winnipeg or 17 Wing - Winnipeg) is a Canadian Forces Base located near the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. ...


All services

Department of National Defence Headquarters. ... Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island at . ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... Canadian Forces Station Leitrim, also referred to as CFS Leitrim, is a small Canadian Forces Base located in Ottawa Ontario. ... Sherman tank displayed outside of Waterloo Officers Mess at CFB Borden Canadian Forces Base Borden (also CFB Borden) is a Canadian Forces Base located in Borden, Ontario. ... Canadian Forces Northern Area Headquarters (CFNA HQ) Whitehorse is a detachment of the Canadian Forces, based approximately 24km south of Whitehorse, Yukon territory. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Canadian Forces Northern Area Headquarters (CFNA HQ) Yellowknife is a Canadian Forces base located in the city of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Land Force Atlantic Area Training Centre Aldershot (also LFAA TC Aldershot) is a training facility for Land Force Atlantic Area of the Canadian Army. ...

Uniforms

Today the Canadian Forces remains a single service, but each member now belongs to one of three "elements": land, air or sea, each with its distinctive uniform. The element is usually determined by the individual member's trade: for example, a pilot is automatically in the air element. However, for non-specific or "purple" trades, such as medical technician or military police, the element is assigned more or less at random. The element remains unchanged throughout the member's career, regardless of the member's unit or base. Prior to unification in 1968, the uniforms of the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) were similar to their counterparts in the forces of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries, save for national identifiers and some regimental accoutrements. ... In the armed forces of Canada, the purple trades are occupations and careers – typically related to logistics or other support – that are not strongly linked to one of the Canadian Forces three major environments or elements: land, sea, or air. ...


Although each element (sea, land and air) wears distinctive uniforms, the CF as a whole has generally been reduced to four orders of dress: No. 1 Ceremonial Dress, No. 2 Mess Dress, No. 3 Service Dress, and No. 5 Operational Dress. No. 4 Base Dress (Garrison Dress in the Army) was eliminated to reduce the number of uniforms members had to ship or pack when going on postings or taskings; either Operational Dress or Service Dress is substituted as appropriate to the situation. No.2 Mess dress is generally not paid for through public funds. Generally speaking, Operational Dress is now the daily duty uniform across the CF unless Service Dress is prescribed (such as at National Defence Headquarters, on parades, at public events, etc); for occasions of greater formality or dignity, Service Dress can be modified to suit the occasion. Also, most army and some other units have a regimental dress for very specific occasions, such as the scarlet uniforms of the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston . The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ...


Service Dress

For all elements, Service Dress consists of a Distinct Environmental Uniform (DEU) Jacket with rank insignia, national identifier, ribbons of medals, decorations and orders, metallic buttons (silver-coloured, brass-coloured, or black for Land element Rifle regiments), regimental or branch collar insignia (land and sea elements only), and trade insignia. Uniform trousers with belt (or kilt/trews and associated accoutrements); collared shirt and tie; ankle boots or shoes; and appropriate headgear with branch or regimental cap badge. Environmental distinctions are as follows for the three elements: Prior to unification in 1968, the uniforms of the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) were similar to their counterparts in the forces of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries, save for national identifiers and some regimental accoutrements. ...

  • Sea. Black ("navy blue") tunic, trousers, tie, belt, and slip-ons. White-topped service cap (universal). White shirt. There is also a white naval uniform, generally referred to as "tropical", as follows:
  • Tropical white long - white short-seeve shirt, white trousers (white skirt optional for female personnel), white dress shoes, white belt, white socks. Designated N3B in the Canadian Forces dress manual.
  • Tropical semi-ceremonial - white tunic, white trousers, white dress shoes, white belt, white socks. Designated N1C when worn with medals or N1D when worn with ribbons. Officers' tunics have black shoulder boards with gold rank insignia; other ranks have standard rank insignia on white background. This order of dress is optional as the tunic is purchased at the service members' expense.
Note: This uniform is colloquially referred to as "whites" and the N1C/N1D order specifically as the "ice-cream suit".
  • Land. Rifle-green DEU Jacket, trousers (or kilt/trews per regimental custom), beret (except as noted below: see Beret), CF green tie (or regimental pattern), belt, and slip-ons. Linden green collared shirt with rank pins and slip-ons.
  • Air. Air Force blue tunic, trousers (or kilt of official air force plaid), wedge cap or beret (universal), and slip-ons. Black necktie and belt. Light blue shirt.
  • Rank Insignia is worn on the upper arms of the tunic for all ranks up to Sgt/PO2; on the forearms for all ranks from WO/PO1 to CWO/CPO1; and on the cuffs of all officers. Rank insignia is also worn on all slip-ons worn by Navy and Air Force personnel, but only by Army officers; Army NCMs wear miniature metal rank insignia on the shirt collar and plain epaulets.
  • Undress ribbons of orders, medals and decorations are worn over the left breast pocket of the tunic; qualification badges (such as a paratrooper's "wings" or submariner's "dolphins") are worn above the top row of ribbons. Command badges (worn by Army personnel, or by non-Army personnel in Army units or formations as ordered) are worn centred on the pleat of the right breast pocket.
  • Collar badges. Army personnel also wear collar badges (usually a miniature regimental or branch device but sometimes a separate pattern, depending on unit) on the lapels of the tunic. These badges are known colloquially as "collar dogs". Navy personnel from the rank of Ordinary Seaman (OS) to Chief Petty Officer First Class (CPO1) have their trade badge on the collar of their DEU's. Naval Officer do not have trade badges on their collars.
  • Shoulder badges. Brass regimental or branch shoulder titles are worn on the shoulder straps of the DEU/ceremonial dress. By regulation, only numerals and letters may be worn on these titles, the only exception being the Calgary Highlanders and Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's) who wear a special badge in the shape of an oak leaf, as a commemorative of the Battle of Kitcheners' Wood (22 April 1915).
  • The National Identifier is the word "CANADA" in an arc, in gold thread on the environmental background, worn on the upper sleeve near the shoulder seam. This is universal, except for Air Force NCMs, whose device also includes a gold eagle in flight. Slip-ons bear the title "CANADA", except for the Army, which may wear approved regimental or branch titles.

For less formal occasions, or when dictated by weather or other concerns, the uniform can be modified as follows: The Calgary Highlanders are a Land Force Reserve Infantry Regiment, headquartered at Mewata Armoury in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Marys) is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces based on Vancouver Island British Columbia. ...

  • removal of tunic, substitution of short-sleeve shirt (same colour), worn open-necked, with ribbons and qualification wings over the left breast pocket and name tag over right breast pocket
  • replacement of tunic with V-neck sweater (same colour as tunic) with shoulder straps; slip-ons as per shirt; short- or long- sleeved shirt (open-necked or with tie); shirt otherwise as normal

There also exists Ceremonial Dress (e.g., the scarlet tunics and bearskin caps of the Canadian Grenadier Guards), worn on formal and solemn parades and ceremonies, such as change of command parades, remembrance ceremonies, royal ceremonies, etc.; and Mess Dress, or Mess Kit (e.g. dinner jackets, waistcoats or cummerbunds, box spurs, etc), for formal or ceremonial dinners (such as mess dinners). These uniforms generally conform to the traditions of a particular regiment or branch; they are not universally worn, however, as they are generally not provided at public expense. For these occasions, some minor additions or modifications are made to the Service Dress uniform:

  • Ceremonial Dress. Replace undress ribbons with full medals. Add white web belts, gloves, bayonet frogs and rifle slings, pistol holsters, etc (for NCMs) or black Sam Browne belts with swords and scabbards (for officers).
  • Mess Dress. Replace undress ribbons with full medals. Replace shirt and tie with white dress shirt and black bow tie (males) or an approved Mess Dress blouse with gold buttons (females).

John J. Pershing wearing a Sam Browne belt. ...

Operational Dress

Navy. The Naval operational dress is the Naval Combat Dress (NCD). It consists of a black zip-up jacket, trousers, and beret; medium blue shirt (optionally, a white crew-neck T-shirt may be worn underneath); and boots. Dress slip-ons are worn on the jacket and shirt. Black ball caps with ship's name and designation have been approved for shipboard wear.


The Navy is also occasionally required to wear CADPAT. The order of dress is identical to that of the Army operational dress. Starting in Feb 2007, the Naval CADPAT dress has several differences. Nametapes and rank slip-ons are in black embroidery with an anchor in place of crossed swords on the nametape. A black t-shirt is replacing the green t-shirt worn by the Army.[21] A sample of the temperate woodland CADPAT design. ...


Army and Air Force. For daily wear in the Army and Air Force, this is the Temperate Woodland (TW) Canadian Disruptive Pattern (CADPAT) uniform. It consists of a shirt, trousers, combat boots, beret (see below), and olive-drab (army) or dark blue (air force) crew-neck T-shirt. The uniform is well-fitted but comfortably loose, with numerous and voluminous pockets, and drawstrings to adjust the fit. The shirt is worn outside the trousers, and the trouser cuffs are bloused over the boots. The shirt has an epaulet for a slip-on in the centre of the chest; this slip-on bears the rank of the bearer and an appropriate national, branch, or regimental title embroidered on it. The name tag is attached via Velcro fasteners, and bears the member's name, and environmental symbol (crossed swords for Army, eagle for Air Force). Embroidery thread for insignia etc is light green for Army and dark blue for the Air Force. The national identifier is the Flag of Canada, in full colour for garrison wear or in olive drab for operational wear. A sample of the temperate woodland CADPAT design. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ...


Depending on the identified airforce occupation, work dress may also be olive-drab flight suit.


During exercises and operations in the field, blue T-shirts are replaced with olive drab, and berets are replaced with more suitable (and camouflaged) headgear such as field hats, helmets, balaclavas, etc. CADPAT is also available in an Arid Region (AR) pattern, for use in environments such as Afghanistan. As well, for winter or Arctic operations, there are camouflaged (i.e. white) accoutrements and coverings for clothes and equipment.


All personnel including recruits are now receiving an initial issue of the CADPAT uniform, with the olive-drab uniform officially replaced Forces-wide.


Berets

The beret is still the most widely worn headgear, and is worn with almost all orders of dress with the exception of the more formal orders of Naval and Air Force dress ( Ceremonial, Mess, and Service Dress). The colour of the beret is determined by the wearer's environment, branch, or mission, as follows: Basque style Beret Black beret with military emblem A beret (pronounced in English, except in North America where it is pronounced ) is a soft round cap, usually of wool felt, with a flat crown, which is worn by both men and women. ...

  • Navy — Black
  • All army — Rifle Green (except as noted below)
  • Armoured — Black
  • Airborne — Maroon
  • Military police — Scarlet
  • Air force — Air Force Blue
  • Search-and-rescue technicians — Blaze Orange
  • Canadian Special Operations Regiment — Tan
  • United Nations missions — U.N. Blue
  • Multinational Force and Observers - Terracotta

Soldiers in Highland, Scottish and Irish regiments generally wear alternate headdress, including the glengarry, balmoral, tam o'shanter and caubeen instead of the beret. Approximately 1/3 of the Infantry Regiments in the Canadian Forces are designated Scottish, Highland or Irish, not because of the ethnic composition of Canada (though certainly reflecting the strong Scottish communities in Canada) as much as the belief, at the time the Regiments were raised, that units wearing the kilt and boasting pipe bands would be easier to recruit for. The black beret is the headgear worn by the British Armys Royal Tank Regiment (RTR), The Australian Armys Royal Australian Armoured Corps (RAAC) and by all the Russian Naval Infantry (and formerly Soviet) and some Russian Spetsnaz units, and the United States Air Force(USAF) Tactical Air Control... The maroon beret has been the international symbol of elite airborne forces since its selection for use by the Airborne Forces in World War II. This distinctive head dress was officially introduced in 1942, at the direction of General Frederick Browning, commander of the 1st Airborne Division. ... The Tan beret has been adopted as official headdress by several special operations forces as a symbol of their unique capabilities. ... The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) is an international peacekeeping force. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Clan MacDonell of Glengarry is a branch of Clan Macdonald, taking its name from Glen Garry where the river Garry runs eastwards through Loch Garry to join the Great Glen about 16 miles (25 km) north of Fort William. ... // Places There are several places named Balmoral. ... A tam oshanter is a Scottish bonnet worn by men which was named after the character Tam o Shanter in the poem of that name by Robert Burns. ... A Caubeen as worn by the Royal Irish Regiment and pipers of the Irish Guards A caubeen is an Irish soldiers headdress, a variation on the beret or Tam oShanter. ...


See also

Other countries with unified or partially unified armed forces: The 26th Field Artillery Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery is a Canadian Forces militia (Reservist) artillery regiment located in Brandon, Manitoba. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... A sample of the temperate woodland CADPAT design. ... The First Nations Indigenous peoples’ warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic in nature and entailed relatively few casualties. ... From the founding of new France until the establishment of a professional Canadian army the colonial militia played an extremely important role in the defence of Canada. ... This is a table of the ranks and insignia of the Canadian Armed Forces. ... Since 1947, the Canadian Forces have completed 72 international missions. ... List of conflicts in Canada is a chronological timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks and other related items that have occurred in the country of Canadas geographical area. ... This is a list of Infantry weapons used by the Canadian Military throughout its history and military arms used by militaries in pre-Confederation conflicts in Canada. ... Cadets Canada is a marketing name representing the Canadian cadet organizations:Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Army Cadets, Air Cadets and their sponsors; The Canadian Forces, the Department of National Defence, The Navy League, The Army Cadet League and the Air Cadet League, as well as local community sponsors and parents... The Royal Canadian Army Cadet Badge Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) is a Canadian national youth program sponsored by the Canadian Forces and the civilian Army Cadet League of Canada. ... Royal Canadian Sea Cadets badge. ... Royal Canadian Air Cadets (RCAirC) is a Canadian national youth program for persons aged 12 to 18. ... The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. ... The following is a list of the authorized marches for various organizations of the Canadian Forces. ... The Canadian Military fur wedge cap, or envelope busby is an uniform hat worn by the Canadian military and Mounted Police. ...

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ... The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three branches: the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Navy; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces...

References and notes

  1. ^ a b c d CIA Factbook - Canada factsheet
  2. ^ a b About DND/CF Who We Are - Canadian Forces
  3. ^ - Expeditures
  4. ^ Air Command - CF-18 Hornet Technical Specifications
  5. ^ National Defence Act; R.S.C. 1985, c. N-4, s.14
  6. ^ Constitution Act, 1867
  7. ^ Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces.
  8. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Operations/current_ops_e.asp
  9. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/operations/current_ops_e.asp
  10. ^ http://www.airforce.forces.ca/airfield_engineers/history/history_4_e.htm#integration
  11. ^ http://www.navalandmilitarymuseum.org/resource_pages/controversies/unification.html
  12. ^ Petition to restore the Royal designation to the Canadian navy and Canadian air force
  13. ^ Correspondence with Laurie Hawn, CD, MP
  14. ^ http://www.nftc.net/nftc/en/flash/nftc.jsp
  15. ^ http://www.nftc.net/nftc/en/flash/nftc.jsp
  16. ^ http://www.defense-update.com/products/s/sperwer.htm
  17. ^ http://www.vcds.forces.gc.ca/dgsp/pubs/rep-pub/ddm/rpp/rpp05-06/sec3c_e.asp
  18. ^ http://www.fin.gc.ca/budget05/speech/speeche.htm
  19. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Focus/first/index_e.asp
  20. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2006/02/23/defence060223.html
  21. ^ CANFORGEN 027-07

Further reading

External links


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... // Confederation Main article: Canadian Confederation Fathers of Confederation meet in Quebec City In the 1860s, in the wake of the American Civil War, the British were concerned with possible American reprisals against Canada for Britains tacit support of the Confederacy. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster // World War I Main article: Military History of Canada during WWI On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as... // The Second World War brought many changes to Canada; the government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. ... // Main article: Great Flag Debate Diefenbaker was succeeded by Pearson in 1963, at a time of increasing political unrest in much of the Western world. ... // The New constitution Main article: Patriation In 1982 Britain passed the Canada Act, repatriating the Constitution of Canada. ... // Chretien years and the 1995 referendum Jean Chrétien became prime minister in the 1993 election, pledging to repeal the GST, which proved to be unfeasible due to the economic circumstances at the time. ... Canadian soldiers advancing behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, one of Canadas greatest military victories. ... Canadian historians until the 1960s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. ... The constitutional history of Canada begins with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which France ceded most of New France to Great Britain. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system, inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada since Confederation. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... The Arctic Cordillera, also called the horny Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... Mount Logan in the Yukon is the highest peak of Canada. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ... The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake Black Tusk viewed from the southeast Mount Fee as seen from its north side Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway Mount Garibaldi in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt as seen... Banking in Canada is one of the most efficient and safest banking systems in the world. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... “C$” redirects here. ... This is a list of companies from Canada. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... A list of population of Canada by years 1867 - 3,463,000 1868 - 3,511,000 1869 - 3,565,000 1870 - 3,625,000 1871 - 3,689,000 1872 - 3,754,000 1873 - 3,826,000 1874 - 3,895,000 1875 - 3,954,000 1876 - 4,009,000 1877 - 4... The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2001 Census[1] and the Canada 2006 Census. ... The urban areas identified below are defined by Statistics Canada with reference to continuous population density, ignoring municipal boundaries. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... Bonhomme Carnaval, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The Gothic Revival Parliament Buildings are some of Canadas best known structures The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. ... The following is a list of some important Canadian artists and groups of artists: Individuals Ran Andrews, 1956-, painter Robert Bateman, 1930-, painter Emily Carr, 1871-1945, painter Alex Colville, 1920-, painter Ken Danby, 1940-, painter Charles Daudelin, 1920-2001, sculptor and painter Paterson Ewen, 1925-2002, painter Marcelle Ferron... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... Canadian national holidays (with provincial exceptions): Each province of Canada has its own provincial holiday or holidays. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Canadian hip hop developed much more slowly than the rock music scene. ... Canada has been a source of rock and roll music for decades, beginning with Paul Anka who in 1957 went to New York City where he recorded his own composition, Diana. The song brought him instant stardom and went to No. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... Social programs in Canada include all government programs designed to give assistance to citizens outside of what the market provides. ... The contemporary theatre scene in Canada revolves around companies and summer festivals based at facilities in Canadian cities. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (since 1994) The Coat of Arms of Canada, formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, is the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity... This is a list of flags used in Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian Forces - CAForces.com (3735 words)
Some units in the Canadian Forces derive their lineage to before the War of 1812 when militia units were formed to assist in defending British North America from invasions by the United States.
Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM) Under the a transformed CF structure, Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM) is responsible for the planning, and conduct of all Canadian Forces (CF) international operations, with the exception of operations conducted solely by the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM).
Canadian Forces reserve force The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral).
Canadian Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4853 words)
By the Canadian Constitution, the Command-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces is vested in Queen Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada.
Canadian Forces personnel train to defend Canadian sovereignty, and serve operationally in Canada, in support of NATO tasks, and around the world in international and United Nations peace missions.
The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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