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Encyclopedia > Canadian Expeditionary Force
26th Battalion of the Second Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1915

The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the group of Canadian military units formed for service overseas in the First World War. As the units arrived in France they were formed into the divisions of the Canadian Corps within the British Army. Four divisions ultimately served on the front line. Image File history File links Officers_and_members_of_the_26th_Battalion_of_the_Second_Canadian_Expeditionary_Force. ... Image File history File links Officers_and_members_of_the_26th_Battalion_of_the_Second_Canadian_Expeditionary_Force. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

The force consisted of 260 numbered infantry battalions, 2 named infantry battalions (The Royal Canadian Regiment and Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry), 13 mounted rifle regiments, 13 railway troop battalions, 5 pioneer battalions, as well as field and heavy artillery batteries, ambulance, medical, dental, forestry, labour, tunnelling, cyclist, and service units. During the First World War, the Canadian Army authorized the formation of 260 infantry battalions to serve in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. ... The Royal Canadian Regiment (The RCR) is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. ... Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) is an infantry regiment in the Canadian Forces (CF), belonging to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1 CMBG). ...

A distinct entity within the Canadian Expeditionary Force was the Canadian Machine Gun Corps. It consisted of several motor machine gun battalions, the Eatons, Yukon, and Borden Motor Machine Gun Batteries, and nineteen machine gun companies. During the summer of 1918, these units were consolidated into four machine gun battalions, one being attached to each of the four divisions in the Canadian Corps. The Canadian Machine Gun Corps (CMGC) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army. ...

The Canadian Expeditionary Force was comprised mostly of men who had volunteered, as conscription was not enforced until the end of the war when call-ups began in January 1918. (See Conscription Crisis of 1917.) Ultimately, only 24,132 conscripts arrived in France before the end of the war. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ...

Canada was the senior Dominion in the British Empire and automatically at war with Germany upon the British declaration. According to Canadian historian Dr. Serge Durflinger at the Canadian War Museum, popular support for the war was found mainly in English Canada. Of the First Division formed at Valcartier, Quebec, 'fully two-thirds were men born in the United Kingdom'. By the end of the war in 1918, at least 'fifty per cent of the CEF consisted of British-born men'. Recruiting was difficult among the French-Canadian population, although one battalion, the 22nd, who came to be known as the 'Van Doos', was French-speaking. In the Commonwealth of Nations, previously the British Empire, dominion is the term used to refer to a current or former territory of the shared Crown, other than the United Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Canadian Forces Base Valcartier is located 25 km west of Quebec City. ... Badge of Le Royal 22e Régiment The Royal 22e Régiment is an infantry regiment and the most famous francophone organization of the Canadian Forces. ...

To a lesser extent, other cultural groups were represented with Ukrainians, Russians, Scandinavians, Belgians, Dutch, French, Americans, Swiss, Chinese, and Japanese men who enlisted. Despite systemic racism directed towards non-whites, a significant contribution was made by individuals of certain ethnic groups, notably the First Nations[1], Afro-Canadians and Japanese-Canadians. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The term Institutional racism was coined by black activist Stokely Carmichael. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ...

After distinguishing themselves in battle from the Second Battle of Ypres, through the Somme and particularly in the Battle of Arras at Vimy Ridge in April 1917, the Canadian Corps came to be regarded as an exceptional force by both Allied and German military commanders. Since they were mostly unmolested by the German army’s offensive maneouvres in the spring of 1918, the Canadians were ordered to spearhead the last campaigns of the War from the Battle of Amiens on 8 August 1918, which ended in a tacit victory for the Allies when the armistice was signed on 11 November 1918. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Battle of Arras is the name of a number of battles near the town of Arras in Artois, France: Battle of Arras (1654) Battle of Arras (1917) - British offensive during the First World War. ... The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

The Canadian Expeditionary Force lost 60,661 dead during the war, representing 9.28% of the 619,636 who enlisted.

The CEF disbanded after the war and was replaced by the Canadian Militia. Canadian Militia was created in 1920 from the recommendations of the Otter Committee to re-organize and modernize Canadas army units. ...

External links


  1. ^ Morton, Desmond. When Your Number's Up

Further Reading on the Canadian Expeditionary Force

  • Berton, Pierre. Vimy
  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Amiens, August 1918. CEF Books, 1999
  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Arras, August–September 1918. CEF Books, 1997
  • Christie, Norm. For King & Empire, The Canadians at Cambrai, September–October 1918. CEF Books, 1997
  • Dancocks, Daniel G. Spearhead to Victory – Canada and the Great War, Hurtig Publishers, 1987
  • Morton, Desmond and Granatstein, J.L. Marching to Armageddon. Lester & Orpen Dennys Publishers, 1989
  • Morton, Desmond. When Your Numbers Up. Random House of Canada, 1993
  • Newman, Stephen K. With the Patricia's in Flanders: 1914–1918. Bellewaerde House Publishing, 2000
  • Nicholson, Col. G.W.L. Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914–1919, Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War, Queen’s Printer, 1964
  • Schreiber, Shane B. Shock Army of the British Empire – The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War. Vanwell Publishing Limited, 2004
British Army Canadian Militia



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