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Encyclopedia > Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. More than 25 million Canadians (85 percent of the population) have some knowledge of English (2006 census[1]). Approximately 17 million have English as their native language. Excluding Quebec, 76% speak English natively. The phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon for most of Canada are very similar to that of the Western and Midlands regions of the United States.[2] Canadian English also contains elements of British English in its vocabulary, as well as several distinctive Canadianisms. The spelling is a blend of American and British spelling. Many areas have also been influenced by French, and there are notable local variations. However, Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States and other English speaking countries.[2] The phonological system of western Canadian English is identical to that of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and the phonetics very similar.[3] A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ...



The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect," in comparison to what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain.[4] This article is about the country. ... An Anglophile is a non-English person who is fond of English culture and England in general, its antonym is Anglophobe. ...

Canadian English is the product of four waves of immigration and settlement over a period of almost two centuries. The first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, and linguistically the most important, was the influx of British Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about anti-English sentiment among its citizens. Waves of immigration from around the globe peaking in 1910 and 1960 had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization.[5] Loyalists (often capitalized L) were British North American colonists who remained loyal subjects of the British crown during the American Revolution. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... The following is a list of the Governors and Governors General of Canada and the previous territories and colonies that now make up the country. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...

The languages of Canadian Aboriginal peoples started to influence European languages used in Canada even before widespread settlement took place,[6] and the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary to the English of Upper Canada.[7] Aboriginal peoples in Canada are indigenous peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council...

Spelling and dictionaries

Canadian spelling of the English language combines British and American rules. Most notably, French-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center, usually retain British spellings (colour, honour and centre), although American spellings are not uncommon. Also, while the U.S. uses the Anglo-French spelling defense (noun), Canada uses the British spelling defence. (Note that defensive is universal.) In other cases, Canadians and Americans stand at odds with British spelling, such as in the case of nouns like tire and curb, which in British English are spelled tyre and kerb. Words such as realize and recognize are usually spelled with -ize rather than -ise. (The etymological convention that verbs derived from Greek roots are spelled with -ize and those from Latin with -ise is preserved in that practice.[8]) Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Canadian spelling rules can be partly explained by Canada's trade history. For instance, the British spelling of the word cheque probably relates to Canada's once-important ties to British financial institutions. Canada's automobile industry, on the other hand, has been dominated by American firms from its inception, explaining why Canadians use the American spelling of tire and American terminology for the parts of automobiles.[citation needed] Car redirects here. ...

A contemporary reference for formal Canadian spelling is the spelling used for Hansard transcripts of the Parliament of Canada. Many Canadian editors, though, use the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2004), often along with the chapter on spelling in Editing Canadian English, and, where necessary (depending on context) one or more other references. (See Further reading below.) Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, published by the Oxford University Press Canada, was first released in 1998 and quickly became the standard dictionary reference for Canadian English. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The first Canadian dictionaries of Canadian English were edited by Walter Spencer Avis and published by Gage Ltd. Toronto. The Beginner's Dictionary (1962), the Intermediate Dictionary (1964) and, finally, the Senior Dictionary (1967) were milestones in CanE lexicography. Many secondary schools in Canada use these dictionaries. The dictionaries have regularly been updated since, the Senior Dictionary was renamed Gage Canadian Dictionary and exists in what may be called its 5th edition from 1997. Gage was acquired by Thomson Nelson around 2003. Concise versions and paperback version are available.

In 1997, the ITP Nelson Dictionary of the Canadian English Language was another product, but has not been updated since.

In 1998, Oxford University Press produced a Canadian English dictionary, after five years of lexicographical research, entitled The Oxford Canadian Dictionary. A second edition, retitled The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, was published in 2004. Just as the older dictionaries it includes uniquely Canadian words and words borrowed from other languages, and surveyed spellings, such as whether colour or color was the most popular choice in common use. Paperback and concise versions (2005, 2006), with minor updates, are available.

The scholarly Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (DCHP) was first published in 1967 by Gage Ltd. It was a partner project of the Senior Dictionary (and appeared only a few weeks apart from each other). The DCHP can be considered the "Canadian OED", as it documents the historical development of CanE words that can be classified as "Canadianisms". It therefore includes words such as mukluk, Canuck, bluff and grow op, but does not list common core words such as desk, table or car. It is a specialist, scholarly dictionary, but is not without interest to the general public. After more than 40 years, a second edition has been commenced at UBC in Vancouver in 2006 (see www.dchp.ca for details).

Phonemic incidence

The pronunciation of certain words has both American and British influence.

  • The name of the letter Z is normally the Anglo-European (and French) zed; the American zee is not unknown in Canada, but it is often stigmatized.[9]
  • Canadians side with the British on the pronunciation of lieutenant /lɛf'tɛnənt/, shone /ʃɒn/, lever /'livəɹ/, and several other words; been is pronounced by many speakers as /bin/ rather than /bɪn/; as in Southern England, either and neither are more commonly /ˈaɪðəɹ/ and /ˈnaɪðəɹ/, respectively.
  • Again and against are often pronounced /əˈgen(st)/ rather than /əˈgɛn(st)/.
  • The stressed vowel of words such as borrow, sorry or tomorrow is /ɔr/ rather than /ɑr/.
  • Words such as fragile, fertile, and mobile are pronounced as /frædʒaɪl/, /fɜrtaɪl/, and /mobaɪl/. The pronunciation of fertile as /fɜrtl/ is also becoming somewhat common[citation needed] in Canada, even though /fɜrtaɪl/ remains dominant.
  • Words like semi, anti, and multi tend to be pronounced as /sɛmi/, /ænti/, and /mʌlti/ rather than /sɛmaɪ/, /æntaɪ/, and /mʌltaɪ/.
  • Schedule can sometimes be /'ʃɛdʒul/; process and progress are sometimes pronounced /'prosɛs/ and /'proɡrɛs/, respectively.
  • Foreign loan words like drama, pyjamas, pasta tend to have /æ/ rather than /ɑ/ = /ɒ/.
  • The word premier "leader of a provincial or territorial government" is commonly pronounced /ˈprimjir/, with /ˈprɛmjɛr/ and /ˈprimjɛr/ being rare variants.
  • The herb and given masculine name basil is usually pronounced /ˈbæzəl/ rather than /ˈbezəl/.
  • Many Canadians pronounce asphalt as "ash-falt" /ˈæʃfɒlt/.[10] This pronunciation is also common in Australian English, but not in General American English or British English.
  • Khaki is sometimes pronounced /kɑrkiː/.

Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...

Regional variation

There is no single linguistic definition that includes Canada as a whole. The provinces east of Ontario show the largest dialect diversity. However, Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States and other English speaking countries. Northern Canada is, according to Labov, a dialect region in formation, and a homogenous dialect has not yet formed.[11] A very homogeneous dialect exists in Western and Central Canada, a situation that is similar to that of the Western United States. William Labov identifies an inland region that concentrates all of the defining features of the dialect centred on the Prairies, with periphery areas with more variable patterns including the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Toronto. [2] This dialect forms a dialect continuum with the far Western United States, however it is sharply differentiated from the Inland Northern United States. This is a result of the relatively recent phenomenon known as the Northern cities vowel shift, which shifts many vowels in the opposite direction from the Canadian vowel shift. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ...

Western and Central Dialect

As a variety of North American English, this variety is similar to most other forms of North American speech in being a rhotic accent, which is historically a significant marker in differentiating different English varieties. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Like General American, this variety possesses the merry-Mary-marry merger (except in Montreal, which tends towards a distinction between marry and merry[2]), as well as the father-bother merger. The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels and that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English (exceptions are accents in Eastern New England (such as the Boston accent), New York-New Jersey English and some varieties of Southern American English) [1], (Wells...

Canadian raising

Perhaps the most recognizable feature of CanE is Canadian raising. Diphthongs are "raised" before voiceless consonants. For example, IPA /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ become [ʌɪ] and [ʌʊ], respectively, before [p], [t], [k], [s], [f]. It is found throughout Canada, including much of the Atlantic Provinces.[2] It is the strongest in the Inland region, and is receding in younger speakers in Lower Mainland British Columbia, as well as certain parts of Ontario. The nucleus of the diphthong is generally fronted in Ontario, and pronounced further back in the Prairies.[12] Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which diphthongs are raised before voiceless consonants (e. ... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...

Because the nucleus of the diphthong is raised to a mid position, speakers of dialects that do not possess Canadian raising will hear that the diphthong sounds different, and will approximate it with the closest sound in their dialect, which is usually /o/. As a result, the Canadian pronunciation of about to American ears, may sound like "a boat", or sometimes even exaggerated to "a boot". This is more noticeable in Eastern Canada (with the exception of Newfoundland) and least so in Vancouver. However there is no region in Canada that pronounces it like [əbut] "aboot". It is actually [əbʌʊt], a sound that is absent in most dialects in the U.S. Many Canadians do not possess this feature, and defining the dialect by this would exclude parts of Atlantic Canada and include some adjacent portions of the U.S., as this feature also exists in the U.S. as well (particularly in areas near the border such as the Upper Midwest), although it is much less common. Some dialects raise only /aɪ/. Raising of /aɪ/ (as in spike) is increasing in the U.S., and unlike raising of /aʊ/, is generally not noticed by people who do not have the raising.

Because of Canadian raising, many speakers are able to distinguish between words such as writer and rider--a feat otherwise impossible, because North American dialects turn intervocalic /t/ into an alveolar flap. Thus writer and rider are distinguished solely by their vowels, even though the distinction between their consonants has since been lost. Speakers who do not have raising cannot distinguish between these two pairs.

The low-back merger and the Canadian Shift

CanE also contains the cot-caught merger, which also occurs in the Western U.S. Almost all Canadians have this merger. Speakers do not distinguish between the open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ and open back unrounded vowel /ɑ/. The merger causes speakers not only to produce the vowels in words like cot and caught identically, but also fail to hear the difference when speakers who preserve the distinction (e.g. speakers of Conservative General American and Inland Northern American English) say these words. This merger has existed in Canada for several generations.[13] The areas enclosed by the green line are those where most speakers have completely merged the vowels of cot and caught. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ...

This creates a hole in the short vowel sub-system[14] and triggers a sound change known as the Canadian Shift, mainly found in Ontario, English-speaking Montreal and further west, and led by Ontarians and women; it involves the front lax vowels /æ, ɛ, ɪ/. The Canadian Shift is a linguistic vowel shift found among many anglophone Canadians. ...

The vowels in the words cot and caught merge in low back position. The /æ/ of bat is retracted to [a] (except before nasals: e.g. man is realized as [mæn] or [meɘn], but never as *[man]). Indeed, /æ/ is lower in this variety than almost all other North American dialects;[15] the retraction of /æ/ was independently observed in Vancouver[16] and is more advanced for Ontarians and women than for people from the Prairies or Atlantic Canada and men.[17] Then, /ɛ/ and /ɪ/ are lowered in the direction of [æ] and [ɛ] and/or retracted; studies actually disagree on the trajectory of the shift.[18] For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... HI Eric u suck!!!!!!!!!!!!! from,Trevor and Dalton ...

Many of the features contained in the shift move the vowels in opposite directions to that of the Northern Cities vowel shift (NCVS), found across the border in the Inland Northern U.S., which is causing these two dialects to diverge. For example, the Canadian shift causes the a in map to be shifted towards [a] which is the vowel that someone with the NCVS would use in mop. Thus a Canadian would most likely perceive [map] as map, whereas someone speaking an Inland Northern U.S. dialect would most likely perceive it as mop. Because of this, a very noticeable difference in accent can be detected just by crossing the border between two adjacent cities in this area, and means that a person from Windsor, Ontario, would have an accent more similar to someone from Denver, thousands of miles away, than they would have with someone from Detroit, just across the border. Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ... The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ...

Other features

Traditionally diphthongal vowels such as /oʊ/ (as in boat) and /eɪ/ (as in bait) have qualities much closer to monophthongs in some speakers especially in the Inland region. However, the continuing presence of slight offglides (if less salient than those of, say, British Received Pronunciation) and convention in IPA transcription for English account for continuing use of /oʊ/ and /eɪ/. Like the Northern U.S., /o/ and /aʊ/ are conservative--they are pronounced back and rounded. However, /u/ is fronted after coronals. /u/ is becoming more fronted in recent generations.[clarify] This fronting is led by women, and is strongest in Ontario and British Columbia.[19]

Unlike most varieties of North American English, in this dialect /æ/ (as in bat) is raised more before velar stops rather than /d/[20]. For example, bag has a vowel that is similar to the vowel in beg. Before nasals, /æ/ is often diphthongized to [eə] or a similar sound.

Some older speakers still maintain a distinction between whale and wail, and do and dew.[13]

The first element of /ɑr/ (as in car) tends to be raised to at least lower-mid position.[21]

British Columbia

British Columbia English has several words still in current use borrowed from the Chinook Jargon. Most famous and widely used of these terms are skookum and saltchuck. In the Yukon, cheechahko is used for newcomers or greenhorns. A study shows that people from Vancouver exhibit more vowel retraction of /æ/ before nasals than people from Toronto, and this retraction may become a regional marker of West Coast English[22] Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ... Skookum is a Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia and Yukon Territory in Canada, and in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ...

Prairies (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta)

A strong Canadian raising exists in the prairie regions together with certain older usages such as chesterfield and front room also associated with the Maritimes. Aboriginal Canadians are a larger and more conspicuous population in prairie cities than elsewhere in the country and certain elements of aboriginal speech in English are sometimes to be heard. Similarly, the linguistic legacy, mostly intonation but also speech patterns and syntax, of the Scandinavian, Slavic and German settlers — who are far more numerous and historically important in the Prairies than in Ontario or the Maritimes — can be heard in the general milieu. Again, the large Métis population in Saskatchewan and Manitoba also carries with it certain linguistic traits inherited from French, Aboriginal and Celtic forebears. Some terms are derived from immigrant groups or are just local inventions: shinny (elsewhere ball hockey or street hockey), slough, ginch/gonch/gitch/gotch (underpants), bluff (small group of trees isolated by prairie), bunny hug (elsewhere hoodie). In farming communities with substantial Ukrainian, German, or Mennonite populations, accents and sentence structure influenced by these languages is common. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... This article is about the European people. ... Shinny is an informal type of hockey, either on ice or as street hockey. ... The term slough (in the UK, pronounced to rhyme with cow; In the US, pronounced slew) has several meanings related to wetland or aquatic features that seem to derive from local experience. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... Look up Bunny hug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Bunny hug was a dancing style performed by young people, especially flappers, in the early 20th century. ... Man wearing a hoodie A hoodie (also hoody, bunnyhug), at one time hooded sweatshirt, is a heavy upper-body garment with a hood. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


Ottawa Valley
Main article: Ottawa Valley Twang

The area to the north and west of Ottawa is heavily influenced by original Scottish, Irish, and German settlers, with many French loanwords. This is frequently referred to as the Valley Accent. This dialect is heavy with slang phrases and terminology. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also: West/Central Canadian English#Toronto

Although only 1% of Torontonians speak French, only about 60% are native speakers of English. As a result Toronto shows a more variable speech pattern.[23] Although slang terms used in Toronto are synonymous with those used in other major North American cities, there is also a heavy influx of slang terminology originating from Toronto's many immigrant communities. These terms originate mainly from various European, Asian, and African words. Among youths in ethnically diverse areas, a large number of words borrowed from Jamaican patois can be heard, owing to the large number of Jamaican immigrants in Toronto's urban neighbourhoods. The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and most homogeneous dialect areas in North America. ...


Main article: Quebec English
  • Many people in Montreal distinguish between the words marry and merry[13].
  • A person with English mother tongue and still speaking English as the first language is called an Anglophone. The corresponding term for a French speaker is Francophone and the corresponding term for a person who is neither Anglophone nor Francophone is Allophone. Anglophone and Francophone are used in New Brunswick, an officially bilingual province.
  • Quebec Anglophones generally pronounce French street names in Montreal as French words. Pie IX Boulevard is pronounced as in French («pi-neuf»), not as "pie nine." On the other hand, most Anglophones do pronounce final Ds, as in Bernard and Bouchard.
  • In the city of Montreal, especially in some of the western suburbs like Cote-St-Luc, Hampstead or Westmount, there is a strong Jewish influence in the English spoken in these areas. A large wave of Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union before and after World War II is also evident today. Their English has a strong Yiddish influence; there are some similarities to English spoken in New York. Italians and Greeks living in Montreal have also adopted English and therefore have their own dialect.
  • Words used mainly in Quebec and especially in Montreal are:[24] stage for "apprenticeship or internship", copybook for a notebook, dépanneur or dep for a convenience store, and guichet for an ABM/ATM.
  • It is also common for Anglophones to use translated French words instead of common English equivalents, such as "Open" and "Close" for "On" and "Off", e.g. "Open the lights, please" for "Turn on the lights, please"

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Many in the Maritime provinces – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island – have an accent that sounds more like Scottish English and, in some places, Irish English than General American. The phonology of Maritimer English has some unique features: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Pre-consonantal [ɹ] sounds are sometimes removed.
  • The flapping of intervocalic /t/ and /d/ to alveolar tap [ɾ] between vowels, as well as pronouncing it as a glottal stop [ʔ], is less common in the Maritimes. Therefore, battery is pronounced as [ˈbætɹi] instead of [ˈbæɾ(ə)ɹi].
  • Especially among the older generation, /w/ and /ʍ/ are not merged; that is, the beginning sound of why, white, and which is different from that of witch, with, wear.
  • Like most varieties of CanE, Maritimer English contains Canadian raising.


Main article: Newfoundland English

The dialect spoken in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, an autonomous dominion until March 31, 1949, is often considered the most distinctive Canadian dialect. Some Newfoundland English differs in vowel pronunciation, morphology, syntax, and preservation of archaic adverbal-intensifiers. The dialect can vary markedly from community to community, as well as from region to region, reflecting ethnic origin as well as a past in which there were few roads and many communities, and fishing villages in particular remained very isolated. A few speakers have a transitional pin-pen merger.[13] Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ...


  • When writing, Canadians will start a sentence with As well, in the sense of "in addition"; this construction is a Canadianism.[25]
  • Canadian and British English share idioms like in hospital and to university,[26][27] while in American English the definite article is mandatory; to/in the hospital is also common in Canadian speech.[citation needed]


Where CanE shares vocabulary with other English dialects, it tends to share most with American English; many terms in standard CanE are, however, shared with Britain, but not with the majority of American speakers. In some cases the British and the American term coexist, to various extents; a classic example is holiday, often used interchangeably with vacation. In addition, the vocabulary of CanE also features words that are seldom (if ever) found elsewhere.

As a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Canada shares many items of institutional terminology with the countries of the former British Empire – e.g., constable, for a police officer of the lowest rank, and chartered accountant. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


The term college, which refers to post-secondary education in general in the U.S., refers in Canada to either a post-secondary technical or vocational institution, or to one of the colleges that exist as federated schools within some Canadian universities. Most often, a college is a community college, not a university. It may also refer to a CEGEP in Quebec. In Canada, college student might denote someone obtaining a diploma in business management while university student is the term for someone earning a bachelor's degree. For that reason, going to college does not have the same meaning as going to university, unless the speaker clarifies the specific level of post-secondary education that is meant. A federated school, federated college or affiliated school is an educational institution which is independent in some respects, but is ultimately governed by a larger institution. ... A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in Canada. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...

Canadian universities publish calendars or schedules, not catalogs as in the U.S.. Students write or sometimes take exams, they do not sit them[citation needed]. Those who supervise students during an exam are generally called invigilators as in Britain, or sometimes proctors as in the U.S.; usage may depend on the region or even the individual institution[citation needed].

Successive years of school are often, if not usually, referred to as grade one, grade two, and so on. In Quebec English, however, the speaker will often say primary one, primary two, (a direct translation from the French), and so on. (Compare American first grade, second grade, sporadically found in Canada, and British Year 1, Year 2.)[28] In the U.S., the four years of high school are termed the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years (terms also used for college years); in Canada, these are simply grade 9 through 12.[29] As for higher education, only the term freshman (usually reduced to frosh) has some currency in Canada.[29] The specific high-school grades and university years are therefore stated and individualized; for example, the grade 12s failed to graduate; John is in his second year at McMaster. The "first year", "third year" designation also applies to Canadian law school students, as opposed to the common American usage of "1L", "2L" and "3L." This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Canadian students use the term marks (more common in England) or grades to refer to their results; usage is very mixed.[29]

Units of measurement

Use of metric units is more widespread in Canada than in the U.S. as a result of the national adoption of the Metric System during the late 1970s by the government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Official measurements are given in metric, including highway speeds and distances, fuel volume and consumption, and weather measurements (with temperatures in degrees Celsius). However, it is not uncommon for Canadians to use British imperial units such as pounds, feet, and inches to measure their bodies. Older generations are more likely to use miles for distances. The term klicks is sometimes used interchangeably with kilometres because both the demotic and metric (with the first syllable stressed) pronunciations are widespread. Both metric and Imperial measures for cups, teaspoons, and tablespoons are used in cooking, as well as degrees Fahrenheit in baking. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ...


  • Although Canadian lexicon features both railway and railroad, railway is the usual term, at least in naming (witness Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway); most rail terminology in Canada, however, follows American usage (e.g., ties and cars rather than sleepers and wagons, although[citation needed] railway employees themselves say sleeper).
  • A two-way ticket can be either a round-trip (American term) or a return (British term), but the British term "single", referring to a one-way trip, is never used.
  • The terms highway (e.g. Trans-Canada Highway), expressway (Central Canada, as in the Gardiner Expressway) and freeway (Sherwood Park Freeway, Edmonton) are often used to describe various high speed roads with varying levels of access control. Generally, but not exclusively, highway refers to a provincially funded road. Often such roads will be numbered. Similar to the US, the terms expressway and freeway are often used interchangeably to refer to divided highways with access only at grade-separated interchanges (e.g. a 400-Series Highway in Ontario). However, expressway may also refer to a road that has control of access but has at-grade junctions, railway crossings (e.g. the Harbour Expressway in Thunder Bay.) Sometimes the term Parkway is also used (e.g. the Hanlon Parkway in Guelph, Ontario.) Quebec speakers may call freeways and expressways autoroutes. In Alberta, the generic Trail is often used to describe a freeway, expressway or major urban street (e.g. Deerfoot Trail, Macleod Trail or Crowchild Trail in Calgary, Yellowhead Trail in Edmonton). The British term motorway is not used. The American terms turnpike and tollway for a toll road are not common. The term throughway or thruway was used for first tolled limited-access highways (e.g. the Deas Island Throughway, now Highway 99, from Vancouver, BC, to Blaine, Washington, USA or the Saint John Throughway (Highway 1) in Saint John, NB), but this term is not common anymore.
  • A railway at-grade junction is a level crossing; the U.S. term grade crossing is rarely, if ever, used.[citation needed]
  • A railway or highway crossing overhead is an overpass' or underpass, depending on which part of the crossing is referred to (the two are used more or less interchangably); the British term flyover is never used.[citation needed]

The terms railroad and railway generally describe the same thing, a guided means of land transport, designed to be used by trains, for transporting both passengers and freight. ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... For the Boards of Canada record, see Trans Canada Highway (EP). ... View of the Gardiner Expressway, west of downtown Toronto, from the pedestrian overpass at the foot of Roncesvalles Avenue. ... 100 Alberta Highway 100 refers to the Sherwood Park Freeway, in Edmonton, Alberta. ... This article is about the city in Alberta, Canada. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Ontario expressways. ... An unusual at-grade intersection with mixed modalities at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Harbour Expressway is a super-2 expressway with signalized intersections in Thunder Bay, Ontario. ... Nickname: Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Settled 1679 as Fort Caministigoyan See histories of Port Arthur and Fort William Amalgamation 1 January 1970 Government [1][2]  - Type Municipal Government  - Mayor Lynn... Deerfoot Trail is a freeway section of Alberta provincial highway 2 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Macleod Trail is a major road in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Crowchild Trail is a major thoroughfare located on the west side of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... New York Thruway Trailblazer New York State Thruway (Interstate 87) looking east from Nordkop Mountain, Suffern, New York The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... Saint John is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick. ...


  • To table a document in Canada is to present it (as in Britain), whereas in the U.S. it means to withdraw it from consideration.
  • Several political terms are more in use in Canada than elsewhere, including riding (as a general term for a parliamentary constituency or electoral district).
  • The term Tory, used in Britain with a similar meaning, denotes a supporter of the federal Conservative Party of Canada, the historic federal or provincial Progressive Conservative party. The term Red Tory is also occasionally used. The U.S. use of Tory to mean the Loyalists in the time of the American Revolution is unknown in Canada,[citation needed] where they are called United Empire Loyalists, or simply Loyalists.
  • Members of the Liberal Party of Canada or a provincial Liberal party are sometimes referred to as Grits.
  • Members of the New Democratic Party are sometimes referred to as (Knee) Dippers (from the party's initials NDP).[citation needed]
  • Members of the Bloc Québécois are sometimes referred to as Bloquistes. At the purely provincial level, members of Quebec's Parti Québécois are often referred to as Péquistes, and members of the Quebec provincial Action démocratique du Québec as Adéquistes.

Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a conservative, nationalist and populist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. ...


Lawyers in all parts of Canada, except Quebec, which has its own civil law system, are called "barristers and solicitors" because any lawyer licensed in any of the common law provinces and territories is permitted to engage in both types of legal practice in contrast to other common-law jurisdictions such as England, Wales, and Ireland where the two are traditionally separated (i.e., Canada has a fused legal profession). Yet the words lawyer or counsel (not counsellor) predominates in everyday contexts; the word attorney is not used to refer to a Canadian lawyer. This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... British barristers wearing traditional dress. ... In the United Kingdom and countries having a similar legal system the legal profession is divided into two kinds of lawyers: the solicitors who contact and advise clients, and barristers who argue cases in court. ... Fused profession is a term relating to jurisdictions where the legal profession is not divided between barristers and solicitors. ...

The equivalent of an American district attorney is called a crown attorney (in Ontario), crown counsel (in British Columbia), crown prosecutor or the crown, on account of Canada's status as a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch (or rather, The Crown) is the locus of state power, as opposed to the American republican system. A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... Crown Attorney or Crown Counsel are the public prosecutor in the legal system of Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The words advocate and notary – two distinct professions in civil law Quebec – are used to refer to that province's equivalent of barrister and solicitor, respectively. In Canada's common law provinces and territories, the word notary means strictly a notary public. 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys Civil law notaries are trained jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists — those with a legal education who become litigators such as barristers in England and Wales and Northern Ireland or avocats in France... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... A US Embossed Notary Seal. ...

Within the Canadian legal community itself, the word solicitor is often used to refer to any Canadian lawyer in general (much like the way the word attorney is used in the United States to refer to any American lawyer in general). Despite the conceptual distinction between barrister and solicitor, Canadian court documents would contain a phrase such as "John Smith, solicitor for the Plaintiff" even though "John Smith" may well himself be the barrister who argues the case in court. In a letter introducing him/herself to an opposing lawyer, a Canadian lawyer normally writes something like "I am the solicitor for Mr. Tom Jones."

The word litigator is also used by lawyers to refer to a fellow lawyer who specializes in lawsuits even though the more traditional word barrister is still employed to denote the same specialization.

As in England, a serious crime is called an indictable offence, while a less-serious crime is called a summary offence. The older words felony and misdemeanour, which are still used in the United States, are not used in Canada's current Criminal Code (R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46) or by today's Canadian legal system. As noted throughout the Criminal Code, a person accused of a crime is called the accused and not the defendant, a term used instead in civil lawsuits. In many common law jurisdictions (e. ... In the law of many common law jurisdictions, a summary offence (or summary offense) is an offence which can be tried without an indictment. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... Misdemeanors are lesser criminal acts which are generally punished less severely than felonies; but more so than infractions. ... The Canadian Criminal Code (formal title An Act respecting the Criminal Law) is the codification of most of the criminal offenses and procedure in Canada. ...


Distinctive Canadianisms are:

  • bachelor: bachelor apartment, an apartment all in a single room, with a small bathroom attached ("They have a bachelor for rent").[30]
  • beer parlour: used as a synonym for pub; being replaced by "bar."
  • camp: in Northern Ontario, it refers to what is called a cottage in the rest of Ontario and a cabin in the West.[31] It is also used, to a lesser extent, in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, as well as in parts of New England.
  • fire hall: fire station, firehouse.[32]
  • height of land: a drainage divide. Originally American.[33]
  • parkade: a parking garage, especially in the West.[34]
  • washroom:[35] the general term for what is normally named public toilet or lavatory in Britain. In the U.S. (where it originated) mostly replaced by restroom in the 20th century. Generally used only as a technical or commercial term outside of Canada. The word bathroom is also used.
  • rancherie: the residential area of an Indian Reserve, used in BC only
  • quiggly hole and/or quiggly: the depression in the ground left by a kekuli or pithouse. Groups of them are called "quiggly hole towns". Used in the BC Interior only.
  • gasbar: a filling station (gas station) with a central island, having pumps under a fixed concrete awning.

Fire station in Kostroma, Russia (1823-26). ... Main European drainage divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... A multi-storey car park is a building or part thereof which is designed specifically to be for vehicle parking and where there are a number of floors on which parking takes place. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... “Public toilet” redirects here. ... Six7ten in Lillooet, 1996 A quiggly hole, also known simply as a quiggly or kekuli, is the remains of an underground house built by the First Nations people of the Interior of British Columbia and the Columbia Plateau in the U.S.. The word quiggly comes from kickwillie or keekwulee... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Daily life

Terms common in Canada, Britain, and Ireland but less frequent or nonexistent in the U.S. are:

  • Tin (as in tin of tuna), for can, especially among older speakers. Among younger speakers, can is more common, with tin[citation needed] referring to a can which is wider than it is tall.
  • Cutlery, for silverware or flatware.
  • Serviette, especially in Newfoundland and Labrador, for a table napkin, though this is quickly being changed to the latter.[citation needed]
  • Tap, conspicuously more common than faucet in everyday usage.
  • Elastic for rubber band.

The following are more or less distinctively Canadian: Spigot redirects here. ...

  • ABM, bank machine: synonymous with ATM (which is also used).[36]
  • chesterfield: originally British and internationally used (as in classic furnishing terminology) to refer to a sofa whose arms are the same height as the back, it is a term for any couch or sofa in Canada (and, to some extent, Northern California).[37][38] Once a hallmark of CanE, chesterfield is now largely in decline among younger generations in the western and central regions.[39] Couch is now the most common term; sofa is also used.
  • eavestroughs: rain gutters. Also used, especially in the past, in the Northern and Western U.S.; the first recorded usage is in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick: "The tails tapering down that way, serve to carry off the water, d'ye see. Same with cocked hats; the cocks form gable-end eave-troughs [sic], Flask."[40]
  • garburator: (rhymes with carburetor) a garbage disposal.[41]
  • hydro: a common synonym for electrical service (used primarily in Eastern Canada and British Columbia). Many Canadian provincial electric companies generate power from hydroelectricity, and incorporate the term "Hydro" in their names: Toronto Hydro, Hydro Ottawa, BC Hydro, etc. Usage: "Manitoba Hydro... It's not just a Power Company anymore."; "How long did you work for Hydro?" "When's Hydro gonna get the lines back up."; "The hydro bill is due on the fifteenth."; "I didn't pay my hydro bill so they shut off my lights." Hence hydrofield, a line of electricity transmission towers, usually in groups cutting across a city, and hydro lines/poles, electrical transmission lines/poles.[42] These usages of hydro are also standard in the Australian state of Tasmania.
  • loonie: the Canadian one-dollar coin; derived from the use of the common loon on the reverse. The toonie (less commonly spelled tooney, twooney, twoonie) is the two-dollar coin. Loonie is also used to refer to the Canadian currency, particularly when discussing the exchange rate with the U.S. dollar; neither loonie nor toonie can describe amounts of money (e.g. thirty dollars).
  • packsack: a backpack; more commonly heard in Northern Ontario.
  • pencil crayon:[43] coloured pencil.
  • pogie: term referring to unemployment insurance, which is now officially called Employment Insurance in Canada. Derived from the use of pogey as a term for a poorhouse.[44]

Cash machine redirects here. ... Rain gutter A rain gutter (also known as eavestrough, guttering or just gutter) is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... This article is about the kitchen appliance. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... See also loony (nicknamed for loon), which is sometimes spelled loonie. Loonie is the name Canadians gave the gold-coloured, bronze-plated, one-dollar coin shortly after its introduction. ... Binomial name Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family. ... Toonie (sometimes spelled twoonie or twonie) is the nickname Canadians collectively gave their two-dollar coin; it is a portmanteau word combining the number two with the name of the loonie, Canadas one-dollar coin. ... C$ redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ...


The following are common in Canada, but not in the U.S. or the UK.

  • runners:[45] running shoes, sneakers, especially in Western Canada.[46] Also used in Australian English[47] and Irish English.[citation needed]
  • tuque: a knitted winter hat, often with a pompom on the crown. Sometimes spelled toque.
  • bunny hug: a hooded sweater (hoodie). This term is uncommon outside of Saskatchewan.

‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... A bright green tuque A tuque (Canadian French: tuque, also spelled toque in English) is a knitted hat, originally usually of wool though now often of synthetic fibers, that is designed to provide warmth in winter. ...

Food and beverage

  • Most Canadians as well as Americans in the Northwest, North Central, Prairie and Inland North prefer pop over soda to refer to a carbonated beverage (but neither term is dominant in British English; see further at Soft drink naming conventions).
  • What Americans call Canadian bacon is named back bacon or, if it is coated in cornmeal or ground peas, peameal bacon in Canada.
  • What most Americans call a candy bar is usually known as a chocolate bar (as in the UK).
  • Even though the word French Fries is used by Canadians, some older speakers use the word chips[citation needed] (which is always used in fish and chips, as elsewhere).

The following are Canadianisms: Soft drinks are called by many names in different places of the world. ... For the film see Canadian Bacon (movie). ... Bacon is any of certain cuts of meat taken from the sides, back or belly of a pig, cured and possibly smoked. ... A Twix bar, broken in half Candy bar is the most popular term in the U.S. for confectionery usually packaged in a bar or log form, often coated with chocolate, and sized as a snack for one person. ... A serving of fish and chips Fish and chips (sometimes written fish n chips), a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chipped (slab-cut) potatoes. ...

  • double-double: a cup of coffee with two creams and two sugars, most commonly associated with the Tim Hortons chain of coffee shops. By the same token, triple-triple.[48]
  • Mickey: 375 mL (13 fl oz) bottle of hard liquor (called a Pint in the Maritimes).
  • two-six: 750 mL (26 fl oz) bottle of hard liquor (called a Quart in the Maritimes).
  • Texas Mickey: 3 L (101 fl oz) bottle of hard liquor. (Despite the name, Texas Mickeys are generally unavailable outside of Canada.)
  • two-four: A case of 24 beer (it is common in Canada for "beer" to represent both individual and multiple servings).
  • Poutine: A snack of french fries topped with cheese curds and hot gravy.

This article is about the restaurant. ... Original flavour poutine from La Banquise with thin gravy and cheese curds Poutine (Quebec French pronunciation ) is a dish consisting of French fries topped with fresh cheese curds and covered with hot gravy (usually brown gravy) and sometimes other additional ingredients. ...

Informal speech

A rubber in the U.S. and Canada is slang for a condom. However, in Canada it is sometimes another term for eraser (as it is in the United Kingdom) and, in the plural, for overshoes or galoshes (as it is in the U.S.). It is also used to refer to the tie-breaking match in a card game, especially in the Maritimes. The terms booter and soaker refer to getting water in one's shoe. The former is generally more common in the prairies, the latter in the rest of Canada.[citation needed]

The word bum can refer either to the buttocks (as in Britain), or, derogatorily, to a homeless person (as in the U.S.). However, the "buttocks" sense does not have the indecent character it retains in British[citation needed] and Australian use, as it is commonly used as a polite or childish euphemism for ruder words such as arse (commonly used in Atlantic Canada and among older people in Ontario and to the west) or ass, or mitiss (used in the Prairie Provinces, especially in northern and central Saskatchewan; probably originally a Cree loanword). A homeless man pushes a cart down the street. ... Arse is an English term referring to the buttocks, first recorded circa 1400 (in arce-hoole) and is commonly used in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, parts of Canada and former parts of the British Empire. ... Ass may refer to: Look up ass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Similarly the word pissed can refer either to being drunk (as in Britain), or being mad or angry (as in the U.S.), though anger is often said as pissed off, while piss drunk or pissed up is said to describe inebriation.

Canadian colloquialisms

One of the most distinctive Canadian phrases is the spoken interjection eh, which is stereotyped as being said by all Canadians in modern culture. The only usage of eh exclusive to Canada, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, is for "ascertaining the comprehension, continued interest, agreement, etc., of the person or persons addressed" as in, "It's four kilometres away, eh, so I have to go by bike." In that case, eh? is used to confirm the attention of the listener and to invite a supportive noise such as mm or oh or okay. Other uses of eh—for instance, in place of huh? or what? meaning "please repeat or say again"—are also found in parts of the British Isles and Australia. This term in particular is also common in some border areas such as Northern Michigan and in the Detroit metropolitan region.[citation needed] Look up eh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The word hoser, used extensively in Bob and Doug McKenzie skits, refers to an uncouth, beer drinking man.[49] A keener is someone who is keen or enthusiastic to do a task; in some contexts derogatory. Bob & Doug McKenzie, iconic sympathetic hosers from SCTV and Strange Brew. ... Great White North album cover with Bob (left) and Doug McKenzie (right) Bob and Doug McKenzie were a pair of fictional Canadian brothers who hosted The Great White North, a sketch which was introduced on SCTV for the shows third season when it moved to the CBC in 1980. ...

A Canuck is a Canadian and used by Canadians with pride; it is not a derogatory term.

A "Newf" or Newfie is someone from Newfoundland and Labrador; sometimes considered derogatory.

Miscellaneous Canadianisms

  • The code appended to mail addresses (the equivalent of the British postcode and the American ZIP code) is called a postal code.
  • The term First Nations is often used in Canada to refer to what are called American Indians or Native Americans in the United States. This term does not include the Métis and Inuit, however; the term aboriginal peoples is preferred when all three groups are included.
  • A stagette is a female bachelorette party (US) or hen party (UK); a stag and doe is a joint male and female party prior to their wedding.
  • A Wedding Social is a pre-wedding fund-raiser for the bride and groom hosted by family and friends. Money is collected through admission, the sale of alcoholic beverages, and raffles or draws for various items. Originating in Manitoba, this term has become common throughout Northwestern Ontario as well as parts of Saskatchewan (though it is less common in that province).
  • The humidex is a measurement used by meteorologists to reflect the combined effect of heat and humidity.
  • An Expiry is the term used for the date when a perishable product will go bad. The term expiration date is more common in the United States.

A Canadian postal code is a string of six characters that forms part of a postal address in Canada. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... A stag and doe party, also known as a hen and stag party, is the equivalent of a combined bachelor and bachelorette party. ... Heat Index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ...


  1. ^ Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory (2006 Census)
  2. ^ a b c d e Labov, p. 222.
  3. ^ Boberg, C: "Geolinguistic Diffusion and the U.S.-Canada Border", "Language Variation and Change", 12(1):15
  4. ^ Chambers, p. xi.
  5. ^ Chambers, p. xi–xii.
  6. ^ AskOxford.com:Factors which shaped the varieties of English
  7. ^ Chambers, p. xi.
  8. ^ Sir Ernest Gowers, ed., Fowler's Modern English Usage, 2nd ed. (Oxford: OUP, 1965), 314.
  9. ^ J.K. Chambers, Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and Its Social Significance, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.[1]
  10. ^ Barber, p. 77.
  11. ^ Labov, p. 214
  12. ^ Boberg
  13. ^ a b c d Labov p. 218.
  14. ^ Martinet, Andre 1955. Economie des changements phonetiques. Berne: Francke.
  15. ^ Labov p. 219.
  16. ^ Esling, John H. and Henry J. Warkentyne (1993). "Retracting of /æ/ in Vancouver English."
  17. ^ Charles Boberg, "Sounding Canadian from Coast to Coast: Regional accents in Canadian English."
  18. ^ Labov et al. 2006; Charles Boberg, "The Canadian Shift in Montreal"; Robert Hagiwara. "Wovel production in Winnipeg"; Rebecca V. Roeder and Lidia Jarmasz. "The Canadian Shift in Toronto."
  19. ^ Boberg
  20. ^ Labov p. 221
  21. ^ Labov, p. 219.
  22. ^ Erin Hall "Regional variation in Canadian English vowel backing"
  23. ^ Labov p. 214-215.
  24. ^ Boberg, p. 36.
  25. ^ Trudgill and Hannah, International English (4th edition), p. 76.
  26. ^ http://ling.uta.edu/~laurel/stvan98_ch1.pdf
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ American Speech 80.1 (2005), p. 47.
  29. ^ a b c American Speech 80.1 (2005), p. 48.
  30. ^ Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, "bachelor".
  31. ^ Boberg 2005, p. 38.
  32. ^ fire hall - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  33. ^ Webster's New World College Dictionary, Wiley, 2004.
  34. ^ Boberg 2005.
  35. ^ http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/images/un212.gif
  36. ^ Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, ABM; Boberg 2005.
  37. ^ [3]
  38. ^ chesterfield. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  39. ^ [4] J.K. Chambers, "The Canada-U.S. border as a vanishing isogloss: the evidence of chesterfield." Journal of English Linguistics 23 (1995): 156-66.
  40. ^ Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, eavestrough; Oxford English Dictionary; American Heritage Dictionary.
  41. ^ According to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary (second edition), garburator is "Canadian" and garbage disposal is "North American."
  42. ^ Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, hydro.
  43. ^ (1998) in Barber, Katherine: The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 1st Edition, Toronto: Oxford University Press, p .1075. ISBN 0-19-541120-X. 
  44. ^ Pogey: What Does it Mean? Bonny, 2006
  45. ^ Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, runner.
  46. ^ American Speech 80.1 (2005).
  47. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.
  48. ^ CBC.ca Arts - 'Double-double'? Now you can look it up
  49. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, third edition (in progress), "hoser".

See also

Spelling differences redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Canadian French is an umbrella term for the dialects or varieties of French found in Canada [1] and areas of French Canadian settlement in the United States. ... Canadian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig Canadanach, locally just Gaelic or The Gaelic) is the dialect of Scots Gaelic that has been spoken continuously for more than 200 years on Cape Breton Island and in isolated enclaves on the Nova Scotia mainland. ... A screen capture of Joe from an I am Canadian commercial, with the maple leaf of the Canadian flag projected on the background I am Canadian was a popular series of Canadian television commercials aired in the 1990s and early 2000s advertising the Canadian brand of Molson beer in Canada... In many ways, compared to British English, American English is conservative in its phonology. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A vowel shift is a systematic change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language. ...

Further reading

  • Boberg, Charles McGill University Sounding Canadian from Coast to Coast: Regional accents in Canadian English
  • Barber, Katherine, editor (2004). Canadian Oxford Dictionary, second edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541816-6.
  • Barber, Katherine. "11 Favourite Regionalisms Within Canada", in David Vallechinsky and Amy Wallace (2005). The Book of Lists, Canadian Edition. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-676-97720-2.
  • Boberg, Charles (2005). "The North American Regional Vocabulary Survey: Renewing the study of lexical variation in North American English." American Speech 80/1.[5]
  • Courtney, Rosemary, et al., senior editors (1998). The Gage Canadian Dictionary, second edition. Toronto: Gage Learning Corp. ISBN 0-7715-7399-5.
  • Chambers, J.K. (1998). "Canadian English: 250 Years in the Making," in The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed., p. xi.
  • Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8. 
  • Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X.
  • Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, editors (2006). American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 140, 234-236. ISBN 1-4051-2108-4. 
  • Canadian Raising: O'Grady and Dobrovolsky, Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 3rd ed., pp. 67-68.
  • Canadian English: Editors' Association of Canada, Editing Canadian English: The Essential Canadian Guide, 2nd ed. (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2000).
  • Canadian federal government style guide: Public Works and Government Services Canada, The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).
  • Canadian newspaper and magazine style guides:
    • J.A. McFarlane and Warren Clements, The Globe and Mail Style Book: A Guide to Language and Usage, 9th ed. (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998).
    • The Canadian Press, The Canadian Press Stylebook, 13th ed. and its quick-reference companion CP Caps and Spelling, 16th ed. (both Toronto: Canadian Press, 2004).
  • Canadian usage: Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine, Guide to Canadian English Usage (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001).

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This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English language skills of European Union citizens The English language in Europe, as a native language, is mainly spoken in the two countries of the British Isles: the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) and the Republic of Ireland. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... East Anglia - the easternmost area of England - was probably home to the first-ever form of language which can be called English. ... Traditionally, East Midlands English was spoken in those parts of Mercia lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). ... West Midlands English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... The West Country dialects and West Country accents are generic terms applied to any of several English dialects and accents used by much of the indigenous population of the southwestern part of England, the area popularly known as the West Country. ... Northern English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... Lancashire Dialect and Accent refers to the vernacular speech in the historic county of Lancashire excluding that of Liverpool. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is about the accent. ... Not to be confused with the Celtic Cumbric language Cumbria, in the extreme North West of England, is by no means unique in having a traditional local dialect, but the isolation of the area and its rich history mean that this is perhaps one of the most interesting rural dialects... Look up Mackem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English[1][2]. It is the language normally used in formal, non-fiction written texts in Scotland. ... Glasgow patter or Glaswegian is a dialect shouted in and around Glasgow, Scotland. ... Highland English is the variety of Gaelic influenced Scottish English spoken in the Scottish Highlands. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mid Ulster English (Ulster Anglo-Irish) is the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Appalachian English is a common name for the Southern Midland dialect of American English. ... Baltimorese, sometimes phonetically written Bawlmerese or Ballimerese, is a dialect of American English which originated among the white blue-collar residents of working class South and Southeast Baltimore. ... The Boston accent is found not only in the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself but also much of eastern Massachusetts. ... Buffalo English, sometimes colloquially referred to as Buffalonian, is the unique variety of English used in and around Buffalo, New York. ... California English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the U.S. state of California. ... Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos (persons of Mexican descent in America). ... Acadiana, the tradtitional Cajun homeland and the stronghold of both the Cajun French and English dialects. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Vermont English be merged into this article or section. ... For a small state, New Jersey is dialectally quite diverse, with two regions of the state overlapping with other dialect areas, New York and Philadelphia, and several autochthonous dialects. ... The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans who were raised in New York City and much of its metropolitan area including the lower Hudson Valley, western Long Island, and in northeastern New Jersey. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Northeast Pennsylvania English is the local dialect of American English spoken in northeastern Pennsylvania, specifically in the Wyoming Valley area, which includes Wilkes-Barre and Scranton. ... The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ... Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... City Hall The Philadelphia Dialect is the accent of English spoken in Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphias suburbs in the Delaware Valley and southern New Jersey. ... Pittsburgh English, popularly known as Pittsburghese, is the dialect of American English spoken by many residents of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and surrounding Western Pennsylvania. ... Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern and Eastern Maryland, West Virginia and Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the Atlantic coast to throughout most of Texas. ... Tidewater Accent is a American English accent. ... Utah English, sometimes humorously referred to as Utahnics, is a dialect of the English language spoken in the U.S. state of Utah. ... Yat refers to a unique collection of dialects of English spoken in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and most homogeneous dialect areas in North America. ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ... Bahamians speak an English creole or a dialect of English, known in the Bahamas as Bahamian Dialect. ... Trinidadian English or Trinidad and Tobago Standard English is a dialect of English used in Trinidad and Tobago. ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... Torres Strait English is a dialect of the English language spoken by the Torres Strait Islanders of north Queensland, Australia. ... An example of Engrish on a sign in Sasebo, Japan. ... Sri Lankan English (SLE) is the English language as spoken in Sri Lanka. ... Tinglish (also Thenglish or Thailish) is the imperfect form of English produced by native Thai speakers due to language interference from the first language. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ... For the region within the United States, see: Mid-Atlantic States Mid-Atlantic English describes a version of the English language which is neither predominantly American or British in usage. ... Plain English focuses on being a flexible and efficient writing style that readers can understand in one reading. ... Disambiguation: see also simple English Simplified English is a controlled language originally developed for aerospace industry maintenance manuals. ... Special English is a simplified version of the English language first used on October 19, 1959 and presently employed by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America in daily broadcasts. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... E-Prime, short for English Prime, is a modification of the English language that prohibits the use of the verb to be in all its forms. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and the most homogenous dialect areas in North America. ... British Columbian English and Pacific Northwest English have several words still in current use which are loanwords from the Chinook Jargon, which was widely spoken throughout the Pacific Northwest by all ethnicities well into the middle of the 20th Century. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and the most homogenous dialect areas in North America. ... An example of written chinglish on a signpost. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The West/Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and the most homogenous dialect areas in North America. ... Canadian English is the form of English used in Canada, spoken as a first or second language by over 25 million Canadians (as recorded in the 2001 census [1]). Canadian-English spelling is a mixture of the spelling used in the United States and that used in Australia, New Zealand... An example of written chinglish on a signpost. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Lunenburg English is a dialect of English, spoken in the Lunenburg-Bridgewater towns in the province of Nova Scotia. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Canadian English (1557 words)
Canadian Raising was first brought to the attention of linguists by Joos (1942).
A notable aspect of Canadian pre-rhotic vowels is their resistance to the emergent pattern in American English of substituting [a] for [o] before inter-vocalic [r].
The reason for this property of Canadian English is a matter of conjecture; Boberg does not speculate as to its source.
Spelling and Pronunciation in Canadian English (4591 words)
Canadian English does not suffer from any lack of prestige, especially since over half of all Canadians claim it as their mother tongue.
Canadian English speakers have adopted all of the words, spellings, and pronunciations of the British and American immigrants and incorporated them into the vernacular.
Canadians are so obliging that they will allow in useful new words rather than try to keep their language (what some might see as) “pure”.
  More results at FactBites »



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