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Encyclopedia > Canadian Conservatism
The Conservatism series,
part of the Politics series
Schools
Cultural conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
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In Canada, political conservatism is generally considered to be primarily represented by the Conservative Party of Canada at the federal level, and by the various right-leaning parties at the provincial levels. Organized conservatism in Canada dates back to the creation of the Liberal-Conservative Party of Canada in 1854, prior to Confederation. Canadian conservatism has similar ideological roots as British Conservatism; nationalism and protectionism, but in the last 20 years has taken a sharp turn toward economic liberalism or neoconservatism. This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Cultural conservatism is conservatism with respect to culture. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines the classical conservative concern for established tradition, respect for authority and (sometimes) religious values with liberal ideas, especially on economic issues (see economic liberalism, which advocates free market capitalism). ... National conservatism is a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a type of right-wing political philosophy. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) is an anti-authoritarian[1] right wing movement based primarily in the United States that stresses tradition, civil society and classical federalism, along with familial, religious, regional, national and Western identity. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately owned, and capital is invested in the production, distribution, and other trade of goods and services for profit in a market. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional or natural law-based morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Many countries have political parties that are deemed to represent conservative, center-right, or Tory views which may be referred to informally as conservative parties even if not explicitly named so. ... The International Democrat Union is an international grouping of conservative and, in some cases, Christian democratic parties. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The new logo of the Conservative Party The Conservative Party is the largest centre right political party in the United Kingdom. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics described by classical liberal authors such as Adam Smith or the French Physiocrats. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ...

Contents

Major historical parties

Throughout most of the last century, the Progressive Conservative Party (often abbreviated PC) dominated conservative politics at the federal level and in most provinces. Canada had many conservative Prime Ministers in the past, but the first to be elected under the Progressive Conservative banner was John Diefenbaker who served from 1957-1963. Joe Clark became Prime Minister with a minority government in 1979, but lost to a non-confidence vote after only nine months, and the Liberals again took power. After Pierre Trudeau's retirement in 1984, his successor, John Turner, called a federal election, which was won in a landslide by the PCs under Brian Mulroney. Mulroney succeeded by uniting conservatives from Western Canada with those from Quebec. During his tenure, the government attempted to negotiate the status of Quebec through the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords. The government's willingness to affirm Quebec's demands for recognition as a distinct society was seen as a betrayal by many westerners as well as angering Canadian Nationalists mostly from Ontario. The Reform Party of Canada was founded on a strongly social conservative and fiscal conservative platform as an alternative voice for these western conservatives. Following Mulroney's resignation in 1993 and Kim Campbell's brief tenure, the Conservatives were reduced to only two seats in Parliament. Much former PC support went to the Reform Party under Preston Manning, which became the official opposition from 1997-2000. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed when no political party has won a majority of seats in the parliament, typically by the party that does have a plurality. ... ... Trudeau redirects here. ... John Turner (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed constitutional amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. ... Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ...


Support for both the Reform Party and the Progressive Conservatives was negligible in Quebec until the 2006 federal election, where the renewed Conservative party won 10 seats in Quebec. Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


In the west, the Reform Party took most of the PC Party's former seats, but held much more socially or economically conservative views than the old party on most subjects (regarding, for example, homosexuality, religion in public life, gun control, and government intervention in the economy). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ...


The PCs retained moderate support in the Atlantic Provinces, eventually managing to regain a few seats. They also retained scattered support across the country. The result was that neither new party managed to approach the success of the Progressive Conservatives prior to 1993. In many ridings the conservative vote was split, letting other parties win: the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien won three successive majority governments starting in 1993. During this period, either the Bloc Québécois or the Reform Party were the Official Opposition. Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... This article or section should be merged with Spoiler effect A split vote, or vote splitting, occurs in an election when the existence of two or more candidates that represent relatively similar viewpoints among voters reduces the votes received by each of them, reducing the chances of any one of... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... In the Westminster System, a majority government is one in which the government enjoys an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or Parliament. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ...


After the 1997 federal election some members of the Reform Party tried to end the vote splitting by merging the two parties. A new party was formed, called the Canadian Alliance, and Stockwell Day was elected its leader. However, many PCs resisted the move, suspecting that Reform Party ideology would dominate the new party, and the new Party garnered only a little more support than its predecessor. Meanwhile the PCs re-elected Joe Clark as their leader and attempted to regain lost ground. 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


Day's tenure was marked by a number of public gaffes and apparent publicity stunts, and he was widely portrayed as incompetent and ignorant. Several MPs left his party in 2002.


Shifting views

Originally, Canadian conservatism tended to be loyalist and traditionalist. Conservative governments in Canada, such as those of Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Robert Borden, Richard Bennett, and John Diefenbaker were known for the creation of government-operated businesses (early Crown Corporations such as the Canadian National Railway) to develop and protect Canadian industries, protectionist programs such as the National Policy, and even social benefits such as pensions and the beginnings of Universal Health Care. Canadian conservatism thus mirrored British Toryism in its values and economic/political outlook. Canadian conservatives have generally favoured the continuation of old political institutions, government intervention in the economy when necessary, and strong ties to the monarchy. Unlike U.S. conservatism, evangelical protestantism and (especially) economic libertarianism have had a fairly limited influence on Conservative politics in Canada. In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be or The Establishment. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden (June 26, 1854–June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911 to July 10, 1920. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS), known as Canadian National Railways (CNR) between 1918 and 1960, and Canadian National/Canadien National (CN) from 1960 to present, is a Canadian Class I railway operated by Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ...


During the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the rise of Conservative politicians in Canada such as Ralph Klein, Don Getty, Brian Mulroney, Preston Manning, Mike Harris and others, the objectives and values of Conservatives in Canada began to mimic those of neo-liberals in both the United States and United Kingdom. With the rise in inflation and a large budgetary deficit in Canada, emphasis was put on "shrinking the size of government" (in part, through privatization), pursuing continentalist trade arrangements (free trade, creating tax incentives and cutting "government waste". Ralph Phillip Klein MLA (born November 1, 1942), leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservatives, is the current premier of the Canadian province of Alberta. ... Donald Ross Getty (born August 30, 1933), Canadian politician, was Premier of Alberta and leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party between 1985 and 1992. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario) was the twenty-second Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 15, 2002. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


During the government of Brian Mulroney (1984-1993), government spending on social programs was cut, taxes for individuals and businesses were reduced, government intervention in the economy was severely reduced, a free trade agreement was drafted with the United States and later with Mexico, and Crown Corporations such as Petro-Canada and Air Canada (some created by previous Conservative governments) were sold to both domestic and foreign private buyers (privatized). Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ... Air Canada Boeing 767-300ER landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ...


The Progressive Conservative Party lost a large base of its support toward the end of the Mulroney era, due to such issues as stagflation and disunity within the party. Brian Mulroney's failed attempts to reform the Canadian Constitution with the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords, and the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax only increased public anger. In the 1993 federal election, the PC Party was reduced to only two seats out of 295 in the Canadian House of Commons. The Liberal Party of Canada was elected with a strong majority and the "U.S. style" neoconservative Reform Party of Canada gradually replaced the Tories as the major right-wing party in Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Stagflation is a term in macroeconomics used to describe a period characteristic of high inflation combined with economic stagnation, unemployment, or economic recession. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed constitutional amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. ... The Goods and Services Tax is a Value-added tax that exists in a number of countries. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre to centre-left of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ...


Throughout the 1990s, most neoconservatives in the PC Party began to drift slowly to the Reform Party, and then in droves to its successor, the Canadian Alliance, leaving the PC Party under the control of the traditionally more popular Red Tory faction. Despite taking what was believed to be more popular approaches on social issues, the Tories significantly fell in the popular vote from the 1997 to 2000 elections and were never able to greatly increase their representation in the House of Commons (partially due to the First Past the Post electoral system that Canada uses). Instead, the Reform Party and then Canadian Alliance dominated the opposition benches. The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ...


In 2003, when former Prime Minister Joe Clark retired after being brought back to improve the PC party's standings, Peter MacKay was chosen in a leadership contest to replace him. MacKay immediately created controversy within the party by entering into negotiations with Canadian Alliance leader Stephen Harper to merge the two parties. MacKay had been elected on a third ballot of the party's leadership convention as a result of an agreement that he signed with another leadership contestant, David Orchard, in which he promised never to merge the PC Party with the Alliance. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... This article is becoming very long. ... In Canadian politics, a leadership convention is held by a political party when the party needs to choose a leader due to a vacancy or a challenge to the incumbent leader. ... David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ...


Later on that year, the Progressive Conservative Party, which dated back to 1854 (though existing under many different names), merged with the Canadian Alliance. 96% of the Alliance's membership and 92% of the PC Party's riding representatives approved the merger. The Conservative Party of Canada was then created, and, in 2004, Stephen Harper was elected leader. Under Stephen Harper, the platform of the Conservative Party was criticized as mirroring that of the Canadian Alliance more so than the Progressive Conservatives, emphasizing tax cuts, cuts to government spending, privatization and opposition to same-sex marriage. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


The role of conservatism in western Canada

The four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have long been a hotbed for protest politics and political parties of the far left and far right. All four provinces have, for the most part, a very rural nature and a strong Christian character, leading to an active presence of the Christian Right. The heavy presence of agriculture has led to the emergence in the past of large left-leaning, agrarian farmer's based protest movements such as the Progressive Party of Canada and the United Farmers of Canada which supported free trade with the United States and increased social benefits. These movements were later absorbed by the Liberal Party of Canada and the socialist Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). During the Great Depression two radical protest movements appeared, the CCF in Saskatchewan advocted progressive social policies and democratic socialism; while in Alberta, the Social Credit Party of Alberta formed a popular long-lasting provincial government that favoured evangelical Christian conservatism, provincial control over natural resources, limited government intervention in the economy and a radical capitalist philosophy known as Social Credit based on providing dividends to the population to support businesses and free enterprise. Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Flower Prairie Crocus Tree White Spruce Bird Great Grey Owl Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14... It has been suggested that Conservative Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The United Farmers movement in Canada rose to prominence after World War I with the failure of the wartime Union government to alter a tariff structure that hurt farmers, various farmers movements across Canada became more radical and entered the political arena. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre to centre-left of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not but felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... The Social Credit Party of Alberta is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Social Credit is an economic ideology and a social movement which started in the early 1920s. ...


The Social Credit Party went on to dominate the government of Alberta from 1934-1971 and British Columbia from 1951-1971 and 1974-1991. However unlike the CCF which survived the test of time and expanded to form provincial governments and gain support nationwide and later morphing into the social democratic, New Democratic Party the Social Credit Party eventually died out. Their popularity grew in Quebec leading to Western supporters of Social Credit feeling isolated by the federal party's Quebec nationalism. The provincial Social Credit governments of British Columbia and Alberta eventually abondoned Social Credit economic policies and followed staunchly conservative policies, while maintaining ties with the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada as opposed to the federal Social Credit Party of Canada. In BC the Social Credit Party was replaced as the party of the right wing by the British Columbia Liberal Party, and in Alberta they were completely annihilated by the more moderate Alberta Progressive Conservative Party, leaving both parties as marginal political minnows. In the 1980 federal election, the Social Credit Party of Canada lost all of its remaining seats and was forced to disband in 1989. Most of its Western members moved onto the ideologically similar Reform Party of Canada, founded by Preston Manning, the son of Alberta's one-time Social Credit premier, Ernest Manning. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The British Columbia Liberal Party (usually referred to as the BC Liberals) is the governing political party in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Alberta Progressive Conservative Party is a provincial right-of-centre party in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Hon. ...


The Reform Party grew out of the province of Alberta and was fed by dissatisfaction with the federal Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney. Right-wing Westerners felt that Mulroney's neoliberal economic policies did not go nearly far enough, that his government was overly favourable towards the more populous provinces of Quebec and Ontario, that his policies on social issues such as abortion and the death penalty were too liberal, and that, like the Liberal Party of Canada, the Progressive Conservatives had allegedly come to not take Western demands for provincial economic autonomy seriously enough. Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total... Social issues are matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate social environment. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the State as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offenses. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre to centre-left of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ...


Though for most of the 1990s the Tories enjoyed roughly the same electoral support as the Reform Party due to Canada's First Past the Post system of elected representatives to the Canadian House of Commons, Reform dominated the position of Official Opposition to the government. In 1999 the Reform Party was dissolved and joined by some right-wing members of the PC Party to create the Canadian Alliance; however, this party was unable to attract any real support east of Manitoba and was dissolved in 2003, merging with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada to create the new Conservative Party of Canada. This party, led by former Alliance leader Stephen Harper, won a minority government in the 2006 federal election, with 36% of the vote and 124 seats in the House of Commons out of 308. See also 1990s, the band Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed when no political party has won a majority of seats in the parliament, typically by the party that does have a plurality. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


In Alberta, the Progressive Conservatives have dominated the government since 1971, following very right-wing policies under premiers Peter Lougheed, Don Getty and Ralph Klein. In BC, the BC Liberals have taken a very sharp rightward economic turn under Premier Gordon Campbell. In Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the social democratic New Democratic Party currently forms very popular governments in both provinces; however, federally, the Conservatives are dominant in all four Western provinces. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Peter Lougheed, painting by C. Leeper The Honourable Peter Lougheed, PC , CC , QC (born July 26, 1928, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian lawyer, politician and Canadian Football League player. ... Donald Ross Getty (born August 30, 1933), Canadian politician, was Premier of Alberta and leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party between 1985 and 1992. ... Ralph Phillip Klein MLA (born November 1, 1942), leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservatives, is the current premier of the Canadian province of Alberta. ... Gordon Muir Campbell, BA, MBA, MLA, (born January 12, 1948) is the 34th Premier of British Columbia. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ...


Philosophies/ideologies/factions

The term Tory (from Irish Gaelic tóraighe, an outlaw or guerrilla fighter, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — literally meaning pursued man) applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... Blue Tories are, in Canadian politics, members of the former Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and current Conservative Party of Canada who are more ideologically Right wing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neoconservatism is a political movement, mainly in the United States, which is generally held to have emerged in the 1960s, coalesced in the 1970s, and has had a significant presence in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. ...

Canadian conservative parties

Federal

Represented in Parliament

A rump Progressive Conservative caucus also sits in the Canadian Senate. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


Minor parties:

The Progressive Canadian Party (PC Party) is a minor federal political party in Canada. ... There are two groups that have used the name the Christian Heritage Party. Christian Heritage Party of Canada Christian Heritage New Zealand (formerly the Christian Heritage Party) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ...

Provincial

The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a centre-right political party in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... The PEI Progressive Conservative Party is one of two major political parties on Prince Edward Island. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick is a political party in New Brunswick, Canada. ... The Nova Scotia Progressive Conservative Party is a centre-right political party in Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a fiscally right-of-center political party in Quebec, Canada. ... The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario, also known as Tories) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba is a right-of-centre political party in Manitoba, Canada. ... The Saskatchewan Party is a centre-right political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan is a political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... The Alberta Progressive Conservative Party is a provincial right-of-centre party in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... The Alberta Alliance is a right wing political party in Alberta. ... The British Columbia Conservative Party (also known as the Tories) is a conservative political party in British Columbia, Canada. ... The British Columbia Liberal Party (usually referred to as the BC Liberals) is the governing political party in British Columbia, Canada. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... Gordon Muir Campbell, BA, MBA, MLA, (born January 12, 1948) is the 34th Premier of British Columbia. ... The British Columbia Unity Party is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Yukon Party is a conservative political party in the Yukon Territory of Canada. ...

Historical

The Social Credit Party of Canada was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The Parti national social chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. ... The British Columbia Social Credit Party, whose members are known as Socreds, was the governing political party of British Columbia for more than 30 years between the 1952 provincial election and the 1991 election, although there was a break between the 1972 and 1975 elections when the New Democratic Party... The Social Credit Party of Alberta is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Anti-Confederation was the name used by several parties in what is now Atlantic Canada by movements opposed to Canadian confederation. ... Historically in Quebec, Canada, there was a number of political parties that were part of the Canadian social credit movement. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ...

Conservative prime ministers

Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada, from July 1, 1867 to November 5, 1873, and also from October 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. ... The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Hon. ... John Thompson is the name of: // Academics Sir John Eric Sidney Thompson (1898–1975), English archeologist and Mayan scholar John G. Thompson (b. ... The Honourable Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1824 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son Sir Charles Tupper, GCMG, CB, PC, DCL, LL.D, MD (July 2, 1821 – October 30, 1915) was the sixth Prime Minister of Canada and, as of 2006, the one with the shortest term of... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by MPs in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir Wilfrid Laurier in... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...

Names Used by the Conservative Party of Canada

The party changed it's name numerous times but always remain the same organization, until 2003 when it was official dissolved. The new party created out of a merger of it's remnants and the remnants of the Canadian Alliance adopted the name of the Conservative Party of Canada The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...

The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by MPs in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir Wilfrid Laurier in... The National Liberal and Conservative Party was the name adopted by the Canadian Conservatives in 1920 after the end of the Unionist government of Robert Borden. ... National Government was the name used by the Conservative Party of Canada for the 1940 federal election under leader Robert Manion. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ...

Videos

  • How Canadian conservatism differs from the American version Online video conference by Conservative senator Hugh Segal, part of the larger Predominance in the U.S. : A Moment or an Era ? 21 experts from the U.S. and abroad, including former Bush speechwriter David Frum, ponder the future of conservatism.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian conservatism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1280 words)
In Canada, political conservatism is generally considered to be primarily represented by the Conservative Party of Canada at the federal level, and by the various right-leaning parties at the provincial levels.
Originally, Canadian conservatism tended to be loyalist and traditionalist.
Canadian conservatives have generally favoured the continuation of old political institutions, government intervention in the economy when necessary, and strong ties to the monarchy.
Conservatism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5018 words)
Conservatism is a philosophy defined by Edmund Burke as "a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve".
Conservatism is tethered to the traditions of a given society and therefore it cannot hold any single or universal meaning across the world.
Conservatism is older than the left-right division in politics; and conservatives may align with either the left or right depending on the time and place.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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