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Encyclopedia > Canadian

Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada is a nation of 32 million inhabitants, occupying almost all of the northern half of the North American continent, and being the second largest country in the world. ... This is a timeline of the history of Canada. ...


Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. A Scandinavian expedition, visited about AD 1000, briefly settling in the area known as L'Anse aux Meadows. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... For other uses, see number 1000. ... Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses (Jellyfish Cove)) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by...


British claims to North America began when John Cabot reached what he called "Newfoundland" in 1497. French claims began with explorations by Jacques Cartier (from 1534) and Samuel de Champlain (from 1603). In 1604, French settlers, who became known as Acadians, were the first Europeans to settle permanently in Canada, followed by other French settlements in the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Canada regions. Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Jacques Cartier Jacques Cartier (Saint-Malo, France, December 31, 1491 – September 1, 1557) was a French explorer who is popularly thought of as one of the major discoverers of Canada, or more specifically, the interior region that would be part of the first area that could become that nation. ... Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain (1567 – 1635) was a French geographer, draftsman, explorer and founder of Quebec City. ... Acadians are the original French settlers of parts of the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. ... The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ...


British settlements were established along the Atlantic seaboard and around Hudson's Bay. With the expansion of these French and British colonies, and wars between France and England in Europe, four French and Indian Wars erupted from 1689 to 1763. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, France surrendered to Great Britain nearly all of New France, including Acadia and what comprises present-day Quebec and Ontario. Britain established the colonies of Nova Scotia, Lower Canada, and Upper Canada. New colonies corresponding to the present-day jurisdictions of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island were soon formed. The Canadas were joined to form Canada. Cape Breton was merged with Nova Scotia. British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ... The East Coast (also known as the Eastern Seaboard) is a term referencing the easternmost coastal states in the United States of America. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... There are several treaties that have taken place in Paris: Treaty of Paris (1259) - between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France Treaty of Paris (1763) - ended Seven Years War Treaty of Paris (1783) - ended American Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris (1810) - ended war between France and Sweden... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... There is a also a U.S. national park called Acadia National Park; For the former electoral district, see Acadia (electoral district) The national flag of Acadia, adopted in 1884. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,284 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ... Lower Canada was a British colony in North America, at the downstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in the southern portion of the modern-day province of Quebec. ... Upper Canada Village in Morrisburg, Ontario Upper Canada is an early name for the land at the upstream end of the Saint Lawrence River in early North America – the territory south of Lake Nipissing and north of the St. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,284 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72,908 km² (8th)  - Land 71,450 km²  - Water 1,458 km² (2. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900 (10th... The Canadas were two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, part of modern-day Canada. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


During and after the American Revolution, many British Loyalists left the Thirteen Colonies to settle in Canada. Other settlers during this time of a population boom came from Europe, in particular the British Isles. Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ... United Empire Loyalists is the name given to individuals who are descendants of British North American loyalists who, during the American War of Independence, left the 13 rebellious American colonies for the future Canada: the two British colonies of Quebec (including the Eastern Townships and modern-day Ontario) and Nova... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of...


On July 1, 1867, three colonies - Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick - were granted by Britain a constitution, the British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada. It consisted of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (formerly Canada East), and Ontario (formerly Canada West). The term "Confederation" refers to this 1867 act of union. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form the Dominion of Canada, a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ...


Other British colonies and territories soon joined Canada: by 1880, Canada included all of its present area except for Newfoundland and Labrador, which joined in 1949. The Statute of Westminster of 1931 established self-government for Canada. Patriation of Canada's constitution occurred when the British government passed the Canada Act 1982. 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established the legislative equal status of the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and United Kingdom. ... The Canada Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed virtually all remaining constitutional and legislative ties between the United Kingdom and Canada. ...


In the second half of the 20th century, some citizens of the mainly French-speaking province of Quebec sought independence ("sovereignty") in two referendums held in 1980 and 1995. In the 1980 referendum the vote against independence was 60%; in the 1995 Quebec referendum the vote against independence was 50.6%. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article describes the Canadian province. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec that put to public vote the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward independent statehood (sovereignty). The referendum was called by Quebecs governing party, the Parti Québécois (PQ), which strongly favoured secession. ... The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second referendum in Quebec (see 1980 Quebec referendum) that put to public vote the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward independent statehood (sovereignty). The referendum was the culmination of years of rising support for autonomy (see Quiet...


Geography

Map of Canada.

Main article: Geography of Canada File links The following pages link to this file: Canada Geography of Canada Categories: Canada copyright images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Canada Geography of Canada Categories: Canada copyright images ... Download high resolution version (622x813, 220 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Canada Categories: Images with unknown source ... Download high resolution version (622x813, 220 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Canada Categories: Images with unknown source ... Wilcox Pass The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of Canada Canada occupies most of the upper half of the continent of North America, spanning a vast expanse of territory between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and between the United States to the south and northwest, and the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea to the north; Greenland lies...

Canada occupies the northern half of North America. It is bordered to the south by the contiguous United States and to the northwest by Alaska. The country stretches from the Atlantic Ocean and Davis Strait in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; hence the country's motto. To the north lie the Beaufort Sea and Arctic Ocean; Greenland lies to the northeast. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60 degrees west longitude and 141 degrees west longitude ([3] (http://atlas.gc.ca/site/english/maps/historical/territorialevolution/1927/1)). The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island -- latitude 82.5°N -- just 834 kilometres from the North Pole. World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... Davis Strait lies between mid-Western Greenland and the Canadian island of Baffin Island. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Map of Earth showing curved lines of longitude Longitude, sometimes denoted λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ...


Canada is the world's second-largest country in total area, after Russia, covering approximately 41% of the North American continent. Much of Canada's territory lies in Arctic regions, however, and thus Canada has only the fourth most usable land behind Russia, China and the United States. The population density is 3.2 people per square kilometre, which is extremely low compared to other countries. Eighty percent of Canadians live within 200 km of the United States, the location of the country's most temperate climates and arable soil. While Canada covers a larger geographic area than its nearest neighbour, it has only one-ninth its population. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...


The most densely-populated part of the country is the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence River Valley in the east. To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and gouged with lakes and rivers— over 60 percent of the world's lakes are located in Canada. The Canadian Shield encircles the immense Hudson Bay. The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield is a large craton in eastern and central Canada and adjacent portions of the United States, composed of bare rock dating to the Precambrian Era (between 4. ... Vegetation types at time of last glacial maximum. ... Hudson Bay is a large body of water in northeastern Canada. ...


The Canadian Shield extends to the Atlantic Coast in Labrador, the mainland part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The island of Newfoundland, North America's easternmost region, is at the mouth of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary, and the first region to be settled by Europeans. The Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward from the southern coast of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, sandwiched between the Gulf to the north and the Atlantic to the south. The provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, an arm of the Atlantic that experiences the world's largest tidal variations. Prince Edward Island is Canada's smallest province. This article is about the region in Canada. ... Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the north-east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing numerous ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits and services. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72,908 km² (8th)  - Land 71,450 km²  - Water 1,458 km² (2. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,284 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ... The Bay of Fundy is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900 (10th...


To the west of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies, consisting of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, spread towards the Rocky Mountains, which divide the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The Canadian prairies is a vast area of flat sedimentary land that stretches from Ontario and the Canadian Shield to the Canadian Rockies covering much of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - the Prairie Provinces. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th)  - Land 553,556 km²  - Water 64,241 km² (14. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th)  - Land 591,670 km²  - Water 59,366 km² (9. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th)  - Land 642,317 km²  - Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th)  - Land 925,186 km²  - Water 19,549 km² (2. ...


Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the largest islands on Earth. Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ...


Canada has a reputation for cold temperatures. Indeed, the winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, with risks of blizzards and ice storms and temperatures reaching lows of -50°C in the far North. Southern British Columbia is an exception: it enjoys a temperate climate with much milder winters than the rest of the country. Blizzards are characterized by high winds and blinding precipitation Sudden blizzards can cause terrible damage to infrastructure as well as danger to human life. ... Ice storm could refer to: A type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain. ...


In the most densely populated regions, summers range from mild to quite hot, attaining highs of well over 30°C in Montreal and 15°C even in Iqaluit, Nunavut. In Vancouver, temperatures usually remain stable at around 5-25°C year round, whereas in parts of the central prairies, they can drop to -40°C in the winter and attain a high of 35°C in the summer. In the Great Lakes region, temperatures can range from -30°C to 35°C. The country experiences four distinct seasons. {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... Iqaluit (ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ in Inuktitut) is the territorial capital and the largest community of Canadas youngest territory, Nunavut. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: By sea, land and air we prosper City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Location. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Canada Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ...

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
Queen of Canada, wearing the Order of Canada and Order of Military Merit
Her Excellency The Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson
Governor General of Canada
The Right Honourable Paul Martin
Prime Minister of Canada

The prerogatives of the Head of State are exercised by the Governor General, who is generally a retired politician or other prominent Canadian appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada. The Governor General is a non-partisan figure who fulfils many ceremonial roles including providing Royal Assent to bills passed by the House of Commons and the Senate, reading the Speech from the Throne, signing state documents, formally opening and ending sessions of Parliament, and dissolving Parliament for an election. Download high resolution version (2000x2500, 759 KB)Queen of Canada - Wearing the Order of Canada Official Photographic Portrait of Her Majesty The Queen of Canada The official Canadian portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was taken during the 2002 Jubilee Visit and unveiled on June 2, 2003, in honour... Download high resolution version (2000x2500, 759 KB)Queen of Canada - Wearing the Order of Canada Official Photographic Portrait of Her Majesty The Queen of Canada The official Canadian portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was taken during the 2002 Jubilee Visit and unveiled on June 2, 2003, in honour... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, awarded to those who adhere to the Orders motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam meaning they desire a better country. ... The Order of Military Merit is an award issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces whom have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... Her Excellency The Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, Governor General of Canada, wearing the Order of Canada. ... Her Excellency The Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, Governor General of Canada, wearing the Order of Canada. ... The Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, normally simply known as the Governor General of Canada in French, Gouverneur(e) général(e) is the Canadian representative of the monarch (presently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). ... government portrait of The Right Honourable Paul Martin, 21st Prime Minister of Canada This work is copyrighted. ... government portrait of The Right Honourable Paul Martin, 21st Prime Minister of Canada This work is copyrighted. ... The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, normally simply known as the Governor General of Canada in French, Gouverneur(e) général(e) is the Canadian representative of the monarch (presently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or...


The Queen and the Governor General are primarily figureheads, with little real power as they almost always act on the advice of Canada's Head of Government, the Prime Minister. They serve as symbols of continuity when there is a change of government. A figurehead is a person, usually in a political role, who may hold an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ...


Canada's constitution (see this page for text (http://lois.justice.gc.ca/en/const/index.html)) governs the legal framework of the country, but has to be interpreted in light of various unwritten traditions and conventions (see Westminster system). The patriation of the constitution, with procedures for amending it, was agreed to one night in November 1981. Quebec nationalists refer to that night as The Night of the Long Knives - because it occurred without the consent of the province of Quebec. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Westminster System is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system of government and used in Westminster, the seat of government, hence its name. ... The Night of the Long Knives (in French Nuit des longs couteaux) is the name Quebec nationalists use to refer to the night in November 1981 when the Constitution Act 1982 was agreed upon by the Prime Minister of Canada and the provincial Premiers, excluding René Lévesque the Premier... This article describes the Canadian province. ...


The Governor General appoints the Prime Minister, who is usually the leader of the political party that holds the most seats in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister in turn appoints the Cabinet drawn by convention from members of the Prime Minister's party in the House of Commons and the Senate. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of whose members are sworn into the Privy Council of Canada and become Ministers of the Crown. The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Cabinet of Canada plays an important role in the Canadian government in accordance with the Westminster System. ... The Queens Privy Council for Canada is the ceremonial council of advisors to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by her Governor General in Canada for life on the advice of the Prime Minister. ...


The legislative branch of government, the Parliament, has two houses: the elected House of Commons and the appointed Senate. Elections for the House of Commons are called by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, though they must occur no later than five years after the previous one. The federal parliament may only legislate in those areas assigned to it by the constitution. The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Senate (French: Sénat) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


Canada has three main national parties: the New Democratic Party (NDP), which is the party furthest to the "left", the Liberal Party of Canada, and the Conservative Party of Canada, which is the party furthest to the "right". These left-right classifications can be misleading, however, since there are numerous members in all three major parties that are "leftist" on social issues, and "rightist" on economic issues. As a result, all three parties can have sustained shifts on the left-right political spectrum. A regional party, the Bloc Québécois, holds many seats in Quebec, and promotes the independence of Quebec from Canada. There are many smaller parties and while none had representation in Parliament as of the 2004 federal election, the list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial. Independent candidates are rarely elected (Chuck Cadman was an exception in the 2004 election). The New Democratic Party (NDP) (French: Nouveau Parti démocratique (NPD)) is a social democratic political party in Canada. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada) is Canadas largest political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada) is a right wing political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada that is primarily devoted to promoting sovereignty for the province of Quebec. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the Canadian federation. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Chuck Cadman (born February 21, 1948) is a Canadian politician. ... A Canadian federal election (more formally, the 38th general election) was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


The Liberal Party has formed the government of Canada for 32 of the last 42 years, and is the party of the current Prime Minister Paul Martin and his predecessor Jean Chrétien. The only other party ever to have formed a government is the now-defunct Progressive Conservative Party, and its predecessor, the Conservative Party. The PC Party merged with the Canadian Alliance to form a new "Conservative Party" in December 2003. The Right Honourable Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, PC, MP, (born August 28, 1938 in Windsor, Ontario) is the 21st Prime Minister of Canada, succeeding Jean Chrétien on December 12, 2003. ... The Right Honourable Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, PC (born January 11, 1934) was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The name which emphasised a revitalised National Policy and links to Britain. ... The Canadian Alliance (in full, the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance) was a Canadian right_of_centre conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ...


Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting federal, provincial and municipal laws and regulations, and has the power to strike down laws that violate the constitution. All judges at the superior, appellate and Supreme Court of Canada levels are selected and appointed by the federal government, after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. Judicial posts at the lowest levels with jurisdiction limited to one province or territory are filled by each provincial or territorial government. The Supreme Court of Canada is the final arbiter. (see Court system of Canada for more detail). The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... The Supreme Court Building in Ottawa The Supreme Court of Canada is Canadas highest court and is located in the capital city of Ottawa. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ...


Canada is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the Organization of American States, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the G8, and APEC. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent sovereign states, most of which are former colonies once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire. ... The Francophonie flag, symbolising the five continents, was adopted in 1987 on Nigers suggestion. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ... APEC can also stand for Atlantic Provinces Economic Council Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. ...


Provinces and territories of Canada

Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ...

Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. The provinces have a large degree of autonomy from the federal government, while the territories have somewhat less. Each has its own provincial or territorial symbol. Here is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ...


The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. The federal government can initiate national policies that the provinces can opt out of, but this rarely happens in practice. "Equalization payments" are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. The term medicare (in lowercase) (French: assurance-maladie) is the unofficial name for Canadas universal public health insurance system. ...


Criminal law is solely the responsibility of the federal government, and is uniform throughout Canada. Though enforcement is a provincial responsibility, most of the provinces contract these services out to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). The RCMP is the only police force in the world that enforces three different levels of enforcement: municipal, provincial, and federal. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ...


The ten provinces have unicameral, elected legislatures with governments headed by a premier who is chosen in the same fashion as the prime minister. Every province also has a figurehead lieutenant governor representing the Queen, appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada. In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ...


Most provinces' political climates include provincial counterparts to the three national federal parties. However, some provincial parties are not formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name. Some provinces have regional political parties, such as the Saskatchewan Party. The Saskatchewan Party is a conservative political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ...


The provincial political climate of Quebec is quite different, with the main split being between separatism, represented by the Parti Québécois, and federalism, represented by the Parti Libéral du Québec. The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the Canadian federation. ... The Parti Québécois or PQ is a centre-left political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada. ... Quebec federalism, in regards to the future of the Quebec people, defends the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada as opposed to Quebec sovereigntism, proponent of Quebec independence (most often, but not for all followers, along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union). ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ...

The three territories have fewer political powers than provinces, having been created by acts of the national Parliament rather than having their status enshrined in the Constitution. There is no lieutenant governor to represent and fulfill the functions of the Queen. A politically-neutral commissioner is appointed by the federal government to act as the "Government of Canada's senior representative". Only the legislature of the Yukon territory follows the same political system as the provincial legislatures. The other two territories use a consensus government system with no parties, in which each member runs as an independent, and the premier is elected by and from the members. I made this photo myself, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... I made this photo myself, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The City of Dawson is a town in the Yukon territory of Canada, located at a latitude of 64° 03 45 N and a longitude of 139° 25 50 W. The current population is approximately 2,000. ... A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek The Klondike Gold Rush was a frenzy of immigration to and gold prospecting in the Klondike near Dawson City in the Yukon Territory, Canada, after gold was discovered in the late 19th century. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Consensus government is a system of government which does not elect members of political parties but rather rule based on consensus. ...


Relations between the federal government and the territorial governments have been tense. Many of the disputes between the two levels of government have been between the usage of resources and funding. The poverty rate in the territories has been constantly large because of isolation, the extreme difficulty and cost of supplying goods, and the scarcity of jobs.


Economy

The skyline of Toronto, Ontario, Canada's most populous city, and the heart of the Canadian economy.

Main article: Economy of Canada, Economic history of Canada File links The following pages link to this file: Canada ... File links The following pages link to this file: Canada ... Motto: Diversity Our Strength Map of Ontario Counties, Toronto being red Area: 641 sq. ... As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. ... Canadian history has long tended to be focused on economics. ...

As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the United States in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. In the last century, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Energy self-sufficient, Canada has vast deposits of natural gas on the east coast and in the three western provinces, and a plethora of other natural resources. The 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. As of 2003, unemployment was up, with contraction in the manufacturing and natural resource sectors. Canada has successfully avoided economic recession after 2001 and has maintained the best economic growth rates in the G8 group of nations. With its great natural resources, skilled labour force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a free trade sphere. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ...

The city and harbour of Charlottetown on Prince Edward Island.

Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing political differences over the constitution between Quebec and the rest of Canada. This has raised the possibility of a split in the federation. However, as the economy has become stronger, notably in Quebec, fears of separation have waned. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island waterfront. ... Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island waterfront. ... For the federal electoral district see Canadian city and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, with a population of 32,245 as of 2001. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900 (10th...


Another long-term concern is the fear of a flow of professionals south to the USA, referred to as the "Brain Drain", lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and high-tech opportunities. Simultaneously, a largely under-recognized "Brain Gain" is occurring, as educated immigrants continue to enter Canada [4] (http://www.statcan.ca/english/indepth/81-003/feature/eqhi2000006003s1a01.htm).


Language

Main article: Language in Canada This article presents the current demolinguistics of Canada. ...

Canada's two official languages are English and French. On July 7, 1969, French was made equal to English throughout the federal government. This started a process that led to Canada redefining itself as a bilingual and multicultural nation at the federal level. July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government -- and some other levels of government -- mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ...

  • English and French have equal status in the Parliament of Canada, in federal courts and in all federal institutions.
  • Everyone has the right to a criminal trial in either English or French.
  • The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French.
  • Official language minority groups in most provinces and territories have the right to be educated in their language.
  • While multiculturalism is official policy, to become a citizen one must be able to speak either English or French.
  • More than 98 percent of Canadians speak either English or French or both.

New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province, a status specifically guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, with its citizens having the same language rights at the provincial level as all citizens of Canada have at the federal level. Some provincial governments, notably Manitoba and Ontario, offer many services to their French minority populations.

Halifax, Nova Scotia skyline at night

The official language of Quebec is French, as defined by the province's Charter of the French Language which protects the use of French, but also provides certain rights for speakers of English and aboriginal languages. Quebec provides most government services in both French and English. Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 1288 KB)halifax skyline File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 1288 KB)halifax skyline File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) City Symbol: Kingfisher Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada Location. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101) is a framework law in the province of Quebec, Canada, defining the linguistic rights of all Quebecers and making French, the language of the majority, the sole official language of Quebec. ...


French is mostly spoken in Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and southern Manitoba. In the 2001 census, 6,864,615 people listed French as a first language, of whom 85% lived in Quebec, and 17,694,835 people listed English as a first language. This article describes the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72,908 km² (8th)  - Land 71,450 km²  - Water 1,458 km² (2. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th)  - Land 553,556 km²  - Water 64,241 km² (14. ... First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ...


Languages other than the official languages are also important in Canada, with 5,470,820 people listing a non-official language as a first language. (The above three statistics include those who listed more than one first language.) Among the most important non-official first language groups are Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers), especially Cantonese (322,315); Italian (469,485); and German (438,080). This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ...


Aboriginal groups

The Constitution Act of 1982 recognizes three main groups of Aboriginal peoples in Canada: the First Nations, the Inuit and the Métis. The Aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the rest of the population in Canada. Aboriginal peoples make up about three percent of all Canadians, or roughly 790,000 people. About 69 percent are First Nations, 26 percent are Métis and five percent are Inuit. First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. ... Inuit woman Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are an ethnic group of the Canadian prairies, Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, and the Canadian Northwest Territories. ...


Today, there are more than 50 different languages spoken by Aboriginal peoples, most of which are spoken only in Canada. However, all but a few are in decline. In the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, there are eleven official languages: English and French with special status, and nine native languages: Chipewyan, Cree, Dogrib, Gwich‘in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey. The only aboriginal languages believed to be fully sustainable at present are the Cree (with 72,885 first-language speakers), Inuktitut (in the NWT and Nunavut; 29,010 speakers), and Ojibwa (together with Cree, Ojibwa will make up 150,000 speakers). The Chipewyan are a aboriginal people of Canada. ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... The Tli Cho (Tłįchǫ) First Nation, formerly known as the Dogrib, are an Aboriginal Canadian people living in the Northwest Territories (NWT). ... The Gwichin (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin), literally one who dwells, are a First Nation people who live in the northern part of North America. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Inuvialuktun is an indigenous language of Canada, spoken by a portion of the Inuit. ... The Slavey (comprised of two groups, North and South Slavey) are a native American group indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... The Slavey (comprised of two groups, North and South Slavey) are a native American group indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemoowin is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut). ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Canada Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ...

The 2001 census recorded 30,007,094 people, and as of April 2005 the population has been estimated by Statistics Canada as 32.2 million people[5] (http://www.statcan.ca/english/edu/clock/population.htm). 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with gathering and analysing statistics about Canada. ...


In the 2001 Canadian National Census, respondents reported their ethnic origins [6] (http://www.canada.com/national/features/census/story.html?id=%7BC78A4458-7085-4FEC-AD57-45F3BA869561%7D). 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


39.42% of respondents identified their ethnic origin as "Canadian". Most of these are believed to be from the British, Irish and French heritage of earlier immigrants. 20.17% identified their ethnic origin as English; 15.75% as French, 14.03% as Scottish, 12.90% as Irish. English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ...


Numerous other groups were also reported (but only German (9.25%) and Italian (4.29%) were reported by more than 4% of respondents.


See also: List of Canadians by ethnicity for the complete list. This is a list of Canadians by the ethnic identification or identifications they chose to list on their census form. ...


The total non-white ("visible minority" [7] (http://www.statcan.ca/english/census2001/dict/pop127.htm)) population is 13% of the Canadian population [8] (http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/highlight/Ethnicity/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&View=1&Code=0&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=2&B1=Distribution) (this does not include First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples).


Culture

Main articles: Culture of Canada, Canadian identity It has been said that Canadian culture rests solely in the effort to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour, the United States. ... Early years For many years, the English Canadian identity was in large measure defined by British influences, and a desire among many Canadians, such as the United Empire Loyalists, to retain British culture and traditions. ...

The city of Calgary, Alberta nicknamed "cowtown" by its local Calgarians. Officially its Motto is Heart of the new west

Canadian culture has been heavily influenced by British and French cultures and traditions as a result of its colonial past. In addition, Canadian culture has also been influenced by American culture because of the close proximity of the two countries and the migration of people, ideas, capital and politics across the border. Despite these inherited British, French and American traditions, Canadian culture has developed many unique characteristics. In many respects, a more robust and distinct Canadian culture has developed in recent years, partially because of the civic nationalism that pervaded Canada in the years leading up to and following the Canadian Centennial in 1967, and also due to a focus on programs to support Canadian culture and the arts by the federal government. Saddledome Arena at Night File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Saddledome Arena at Night File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Heart of the new west City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada Location. ... The Expo 67 site on le Sainte-H ne and le Notre-Dame The Canadian Centennial was a year long celebration held in 1967 when Canada celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


Early Europeans helped form the basis of Canadian culture. During their colonization of Canada settlers wrote a great deal of folklore about the land around them. The tales of Paul Bunyan are a product of French-Canadian folklore and the style of jigs from Newfoundland found their origins in Ireland. Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Paul Bunyan is a mythical lumberjack in tall tales. ... This article is about the folk dance jig, for other meanings, see Jig (disambiguation). ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the north-east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Many American movies, authors, TV shows and musicians are equally popular in Canada, and vice-versa across the border. Most cultural products of these types are now increasingly marketed towards a unified "North American" market, and not specifically a Canadian or American one.


The United States and Canadian governments share a variety of close working partnerships in matters of trade, economics, and legal concerns.

The waterfront of Vancouver, British Columbia

As Canada and the United States have grown closer, many Canadians have developed complex feelings and concerns, regarding what makes Canada a "distinct" nation within North America. The large American cultural presence in Canada has prompted some fears of a "cultural takeover," and has initiated the establishment of many laws and government institutions to protect Canadian culture. Much of Canadian culture remains defined in contrast to American culture (see Canadian identity). North waterfront of Vancouver, B.C. Primary image for Vancouver, British Columbia article Sourced from http://people. ... North waterfront of Vancouver, B.C. Primary image for Vancouver, British Columbia article Sourced from http://people. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: By sea, land and air we prosper City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Location. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th)  - Land 925,186 km²  - Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Early years For many years, the English Canadian identity was in large measure defined by British influences, and a desire among many Canadians, such as the United Empire Loyalists, to retain British culture and traditions. ...


In recent years, Canada has increasingly distinguished itself from the United States by both more liberal social policy and more conservative fiscal policy. Canadian governments (and to a large extent, the Canadian people) support issues such as universal health care, gay marriage and decriminalization of marijuana. At the same time, they have supported balanced budgets, tax cuts, and free trade. Canadians also tend to live in or near very large urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton. Same-sex marriage is widely anticipated to be legalized across Canada by Bill C-38, introduced by Paul Martins Liberal government in the federal Parliament on February 1, 2005. ... }|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Official Flag]]|Coat Image=[[Image:{{{Coat Image}}}|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Coat of Arms]]}} {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Diversity Our Strength {{Canadian City/Location Image is:{{{Location Image Type}}}|[[Image:{{{Location Image}}}|thumbnail|250px|City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Location. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: By sea, land and air we prosper City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Location. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Location. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Heart of the new west City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada Location. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Industry Integrity Progress City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Location. ...


National symbols

The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century, and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms. Canada is known for its vast forests and mountain ranges (including the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia) and the wild animals that reside within them, such as moose, caribou, beavers, polar bears, and grizzly bears. Canada is also well-known for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police force, and products made from the country's natural resources, such as maple syrup. Anything pertaining to hockey, Canada's official winter sport, is also often used as a national symbol of unity and pride. Snowy, cold winters and the nation's northern climate have also produced a sense of identity for Canadians. Maple leaves in fall The maple leaf is a leaf of the maple tree and is a national symbol of Canada. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 (1965-Present) The National Flag of Canada (), popularly known as the Maple Leaf Flag (French: lUnifolié the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a red stylized 11-pointed maple leaf. ... English Red Ensign as it appeared in the seventeenth century. ... In Canada a penny is a coin worth one cent or 1/100th of a dollar. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (from 1957) Canadas coat of arms was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th)  - Land 642,317 km²  - Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th)  - Land 925,186 km²  - Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) The animal Alces alces, called the Moose in North America and the Elk in Europe (see also elk for other animals called elk) is the largest of all the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from other members of Cervidae by the form of the antlers... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... The name Polar Bear is also a tradename for a type of scuba divers warm undersuit to be worn under a drysuit. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) is a species of bear that can reach weights of 130-700 kg (300 to 1500 pounds). ... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ... A sugarhouse where sap is boiled down to maple syrup. ... Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a puck (a flat, 6 oz. ...


See also

It has been said that Canadian culture rests solely in the effort to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour, the United States. ...

International rankings

IMF, World Economic Outlook Database, Sept 2004
  • Total GDP (nominal) : 8th - 1,034,532 (millions of US dollars)
IMF, World Economic Outlook Database, Sept 2004
  • Total value of foreign trade (imports and exports), 2003: 4th (out of 185)
  • Human Development Index, 2004: 4th (out of 177)
  • Reporters Without Borders World-wide Press Freedom Index 2004: 5th out of 167 countries¹
  • Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 (http://www.transparency.org/cpi/2004/cpi2004.en.html) - 12th of 146 countries
  • Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom, 2005 (http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/) - 16th (out of 155)

¹ Four-way tie for 2nd place. This is a list of the worlds economies sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP) at market or government official exchange rates. ...


References

  • Bumsted, J. 2004. History of the Canadian Peoples, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Miscellaneous topics

A grain elevator outside London, Ontario.

grain elevator near London, Ontario Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 15:44, Jun 2, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... grain elevator near London, Ontario Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 15:44, Jun 2, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... London is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada on the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of about 447,286; the city proper has a population of about 351,267 (2004). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Black Canadian is a term used to identify a Canadian of African descent. ... Canadian Forces Flag The Canadian Armed Forces (Fr. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 20,802,900 (1999) Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,751,300 (1997) Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean... The Canadian court system is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... Canada has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. ... The Canadian education system is a diverse one that differs from province to province. ... Canada regards itself as a middle power -- it is rarely able to act unilaterally, but through coalitions and international organizations it affects the world. ... See also: Canadas Athletes of the 20th Century Alpine Skiing Jean-Luc Brassard, freestyle ski - moguls, Olympic Gold Medal - 1994 Nancy Greene, alpine skiing - downhill, Olympic Gold Medal - 1968 Ann Heggtveit, world and 1960 Winter Olympics ski champion Dave Irwin, a Crazy Canuck, Kerrin Lee-Gartner, alpine skiing - downhill... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... The term medicare (in lowercase) (French: assurance-maladie) is the unofficial name for Canadas universal public health insurance system. ... Canadian Forces Flag The Canadian Armed Forces (Fr. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ... The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, awarded to those who adhere to the Orders motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam meaning they desire a better country. ... Canada has a wide mix of religions, it has no official religion and support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canadas political culture. ... Same-sex marriage is widely anticipated to be legalized across Canada by Bill C-38, introduced by Paul Martins Liberal government in the federal Parliament on February 1, 2005. ... Secessionist movements of Canada Movements seeking independence from Canada Quebec Quebec Sovereignism seeks independence from Canada for the province of Quebec. ... Slavery in Canada was first practised by some aboriginal nations, who routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes as part of their accepted laws of war. ... Weapons of mass destruction By Type Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare Nuclear weapon history Nuclear weapon design Nuclear explosion Nuclear testing See... Railways: total: 49,422 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA. standard gauge: 49,422 km 1. ...

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Canada


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Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... National Flag of Canada / lUnifolié For more information, see Department of Canadian Heritage and Image_talk:Canada_flag_large. ... Flag of Alberta - thumbnail Source: Alberta Public Affairs Bureau. ... British Columbia flag, with official proportions This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Proportions according to Provincial Flag Act of Manitoba. ... flag of New Brunswick (thumbnail) - resizing of Nb flag big. ... PNG version File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th)  - Land 642,317 km²  - Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th)  - Land 925,186 km²  - Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th)  - Land 553,556 km²  - Water 64,241 km² (14. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72,908 km² (8th)  - Land 71,450 km²  - Water 1,458 km² (2. ... Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... Flag of Nova Scotia - thumbnail (version of ca-ns. ... Flag of Ontario, Canada The flag of Ontario was officially adopted in 1965. ... Prince Edward Island flag - copied from meta, converted from GIF to PNG File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Le Fleurdelisé: Flag of Quebec, Canada For more information, see Government of Québec, National Flag and Emblems. ... Flag of Saskatchewan (thumbnail) Modified version of image:Canada-saskatchewan_flag. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,284 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900 (10th... This article describes the Canadian province. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th)  - Land 591,670 km²  - Water 59,366 km² (9. ... Flag of Yukon (thumbnail) © 2000, Government of Yukon. ... Flag of the NWT, thumbnail (version of Canada-northwest-territories-flag. ... This is the flag of Nunavut. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... A former territory in the United States is called Northwest Territory. ... For the electoral districts of the same name, see Nunavut (electoral district) and Nunavut (Senate Division). ...

Countries in North America
Antigua and Barbuda | Bahamas | Barbados | Belize | Canada | Costa Rica | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | El Salvador | Grenada | Guatemala | Haiti | Honduras | Jamaica | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad and Tobago | United States
Dependencies: Anguilla | Aruba | Bermuda | Cayman Islands | Greenland | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Montserrat | Navassa Island | Netherlands Antilles | Puerto Rico | Saint-Pierre and Miquelon | Turks and Caicos Islands | U.S. Virgin Islands | British Virgin Islands

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5367 words)
Canadian soldiers advance behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.
South of the Gulf, the Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward from the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec.
Particularly, the use of the maple leaf, as a Canadian symbol, dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms.
Canadian Hosting : Terms of Service (4586 words)
Canadian Web Hosting is not responsible for the content or tone of any email or other transmissions of the subscribers to its service or other parties using the Internet.
Canadian Web Hosting, upon receiving notification that certain posts violate this policy, or any provincial or federal law, or infringe on the trademarks or copyrights of another, reserves the right to remove such posts from our news server and to terminate your account.
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