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Encyclopedia > Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years
A Canadian WWI recruiting poster
A Canadian WWI recruiting poster

Contents

Image File history File links New_Names_Canadian_WW1_recruiting_poster. ... Image File history File links New_Names_Canadian_WW1_recruiting_poster. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster J. M. Flaggs Uncle Sam recruited soldiers for World War I. A recruiting poster is a poster used in advertisement to recruit people into an organization, usually a military. ...


World War I

On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as part of the Empire, Canada automatically entered in the fray. Although Canada had no choice in the matter, as foreign affairs were still conducted from Britain, the war was initially popular even among French Canadians, including Henri Bourassa. Canadians fought at Ypres, the Somme, Passchendaele, and other important battles, originally under British command, but eventually under a unified Canadian command. From a Canadian point of view the most important battle of the war was the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917, during which Canadian troops captured a fortified German hill that had eluded both the British and French. Vimy, as well as the success of the Canadian flying ace Billy Bishop, helped give Canada a new sense of identity. Prime Minister of Canada Robert Borden at the outbreak at the Great War. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... The Belfry of Ypres Ypres (French, generally used in English;1 Ieper official name in the local Dutch) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Somme is a French département, named after the Somme River, located in the north of France. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Canada Australia New Zealand German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert Plumer Francois Anthoine Max von Gallwitz Erich Ludendorff Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 448,000 killed and wounded 260,000 killed and wounded The 1917 Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of... Combatants Allies Central Powers Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead 7,104 wounded 20,000 The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Billy Bishop William Avery Billy Bishop VC, CB, DSO & Bar, MC, DFC, ED (February 8, 1894 – September 11, 1956) was a Canadian World War I flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, the highest number for a British Empire pilot. ...


With mounting costs at home, Sir Thomas Whyte introduced the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure. The lowest bracket was 4% and highest was 25%. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The conscription crisis of 1917

After three years of a war that was supposed to have been over in three months, Canada was suffering from a shortage of volunteers. Prime Minister Robert Borden had originally promised not to introduce conscription, but now believed it was necessary to win the war. The Military Service Act was passed in July, but there was fierce opposition, mostly from French Canadians (led not only by Bourassa, but also Wilfrid Laurier), as well as Quakers, Mennonites, and other pacifists. Borden's government almost collapsed, but he was able to form a Union government with the Liberal opposition (although Laurier did not join the new government). In the 1917 election, the Union government was re-elected, but with no support from Quebec. Over the next year, the war finally ended, with very few Canadian conscripts actually participating. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // Background At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir... The Canadian parliament after the 1917 election The 1917 Canadian federal election (sometimes referred to as the khaki election) was held on December 17, 1917, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Halifax Explosion

Main article: Halifax Explosion

On December 6 of 1917, the Imo, a Belgian relief ship collided with the Mont-Blanc, a French munitions ship in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The crash set the Mont-Blanc, whose holds were full of benzol, picric acid, and TNT, on fire. The crew could not stop the benzol-fuelled fire and abandoned ship as the ship drifted towards the harbor. Twenty minutes after the crash, the fire reached the TNT and picric acid and the Mont-Blanc exploded with a force stronger than any man-made explosion before it, destroying most of Halifax and the surrounding towns. Halifax had served as a key link between the United States and Europe, helping organize convoys for trans-Atlantic crosses. After the explosion, Halifax dropped out of the war effort, focusing primarily on survival. The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday December 6, 1917 at 9:04:35 a. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mont Blanc (French for white mountain) or Monte Bianco (Italian, same meaning) also known as La Dame Blanche (Fr. ...


More than 620,000 Canadians served in the war. Of these, more than 60,000 died and more than 155,000 were wounded.


Post-war society

During the war, the women's suffrage movement gained support. The provinces began extending voting rights to women in 1916, and women were finally allowed to vote in federal elections in 1918 (but only if they were over 21 years of age). Canada was also faced with the return of thousands of returning soldiers, with few jobs waiting for them at home. They also brought back with them the Spanish Flu, which killed over 50 000 people by 1919, almost the same number that had been killed in the war. Suffrage parade, New York City, 1912 The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage-the right to vote-to women. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as , , or the 1918 flu, was a pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919
Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919

The move from a wartime to a peacetime economy, combined with the return of the soldiers from Europe, led to another crisis. In 1919 the One Big Union was formed, an organization of the various unions across the country. This Union was a large influence on the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919, which some saw as an outbreak of Bolshevism, especially as the Soviet Union had recently been formed. The army had to be sent in to break up the strike. Crowd gathered outside old City Hall, at Main Street and William Avenue, during the Winnipeg General Strike. ... Crowd gathered outside old City Hall, at Main Street and William Avenue, during the Winnipeg General Strike. ... The One Big Union was a concept which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century amongst working class trade unionists. ... Crowd gathered outside old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919 The Winnipeg General Strike was Canadas most influential labour action. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ...


Meanwhile, in western Canada, and to some extent in the Maritimes, populist reformers were pushing for increased provincial rights and a focus on agriculture, rather than the industrial focus of Central Canada. They formed the Progressive Party of Canada, which supported Mackenzie King when the Liberals had a minority government in 1925-26. King eventually lost support, however, because of the trade tariffs issue, as well as a liquor smuggling scandal. He was forced to resign in 1926, but was re-elected later that year. Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the... Central Canada is a term used to refer to the two largest and most populous provinces in Eastern Canada: Ontario and Quebec. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Canadian parliament after the 1926 election The Canadian federal election of 1926 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


The Great Depression

The Single Men's Unemployed Association parading to Bathurst Street United Church in Toronto
Enlarge
The Single Men's Unemployed Association parading to Bathurst Street United Church in Toronto

Canada suffered greatly when the Great Depression began in 1929. While the decline started in the United States, it quickly spread to Canada because of the gold standard and the close economic links between the two countries. The Canadian economy was the second-worst affected in the world by the Depression, after the United States. The first area affected was wheat, which saw a collapse in prices. This destroyed the economies of the Prairie provinces, but as wheat was then Canada's largest export it also hurt the rest of the country. This was soon followed by a deep recession in manufacturing, first caused by a drop-off in demand in the United States, and then by Canadians also not buying unneeded luxuries. Perhaps most harmful, however, was the subsequent reduction of investment: both large companies and individuals were unwilling and unable to invest in new ventures. Unemployment rose to 25 per cent. Canada is sometimes considered to be the country hardest hit by the Great Depression. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Single-Mens-Unemployed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Single-Mens-Unemployed. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although it effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is on the monetary principle. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ...


Government Reaction

kevinn likss puunn Mackenzie King believed the crisis would pass and refused to send federal aid to the provinces and only introduced moderate relief efforts. The Liberals lost the 1930 election to Richard Bedford Bennett and the Conservatives. Bennett, a successful western businessman, campaigned on high tariffs and large scale spending, but as deficits increased he became wary and cut back severely on federal spending. With falling support and the depression only getting worse Bennett attempted to introduce policies based on the New Deal of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the United States, but this was largely unsuccessful. The government became a focus of popular discontent, even though its policies were largely the same as those of other Western governments. Canadian car owners who could no longer afford gasoline reverted to having their vehicles pulled by horses and dubbed them Bennett Buggies. Bennett's perceived failures during the Great Depression led to the re-election of Mackenzie King's Liberals in the 1935 election. William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1930 election The Canadian federal election of 1930 was held on July 28, 1930 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons to the 17th Parliament. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Bennett Buggy (University of Saskatchewan) A Bennett buggy was a term used in Canada during the Great Depression to describe a car pulled by a horse. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election The Canadian federal election of 1935 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Although the United States began to see rapid improvements as a result of FDR's policies, Canada saw far less growth. Nevertheless, by this time the worst of the Depression was over. Mackenzie King implemented some relief programs such as the National Housing Act and National Employment Commission, and also established the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1936) and Trans-Canada Airlines (1937, the precursor to Air Canada). It took until 1939 and the outbreak of war for the Canadian economy to return to 1929 levels, however. William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Air Canada, Canadas largest airline and flag carrier, has its corporate headquarters in Montreal, Quebec and was founded in 1937. ...


New Parties

The Progressive and United Farmers Parties had achieved some success in the 1920s, but during the 1930s, their members generally joined other parties, like the Social Credit movement and the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation. The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The United Farmers movement in Canada rose to prominence after World War I with the failure of the wartime Union government to alter a tariff structure that hurt farmers, various farmers movements across Canada became more radical and entered the political arena. ... The Canadian social credit movement was a Canadian political movement originally based on the Social Credit theory of Major C. H. Douglas. ... The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups as well as the League for Social Reconstruction. ...

William Aberhart addresses a rally (1937)
William Aberhart addresses a rally (1937)

In Alberta, a Christian radio broadcaster named William "Bible Bill" Aberhart became interested in politics partly because the Great Depression had been especially harsh on Albertan farmers. Particularly, he was drawn to the "social credit" theories of Major C. H. Douglas, a Scottish engineer. From 1932 to 1935, Aberhart lobbied for the governing political party, the United Farmers of Alberta, to adopt these theories. The basis of social credit is that the difference in production cost and individuals' purchasing power should be supplemented through government grants. When these efforts failed, Aberhart helped found the Social Credit Party of Alberta, which won the 1935 provincial election by a landslide with over 54% of the popular vote. William Aberhart addresses a rally on St. ... William Aberhart addresses a rally on St. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Flower Wild rose Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 6th 661,848 km² 642,317 km² 19... William Aberhart - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although it effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... Social Credit is an economic ideology and a social movement which started in the early 1920s. ... Major C. H. (Clifford Hugh) Douglas MIMechE, MIEE, (January 20, 1879-September 29, 1952) son of Hugh Douglas and Louisa Horfdern, was a Scottish engineer and pioneer of the Social credit concept. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United Farmers of Alberta was founded in 1909 as a lobby organization representing the interests of farmers. ... The Social Credit Party of Alberta is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada that was founded on the social credit monetary policy and conservative Christian social values. ... The Alberta general election of 1935 was the eighth general election for the Province of Alberta, Canada. ...

CCF founding meeting, Calgary, 1932
CCF founding meeting, Calgary, 1932

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. The CCF aimed to alleviate the suffering of the Great Depression through economic reform and public "co-operation". Many of the party's first Members of Parliament (MPs) were former members of the Ginger Group of left-wing Progressive and Labour MPs. In its first election in 1935, seven CCF MPs were elected to the House of Commons. Eight were elected in the following election in 1940. Founding meeting of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation Party, 1932, Calgary, Alberta Credit: Library and Archives Canada C-029313 Retrieved from http://www. ... Founding meeting of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation Party, 1932, Calgary, Alberta Credit: Library and Archives Canada C-029313 Retrieved from http://www. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... Calgary is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) comprises a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members, with no passive shareholders. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... The League for Social Reconstruction was a circle of Canadian socialist intellectuals formed in 1931 by academics advocating radical social and economic reforms and political education as a response to the Great Depression. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although it effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... The Ginger Group was not a formal political party in Canada, but a faction of radical Progressive and Labour Members of Parliament who advocated socialism. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... There have been various groups in Canada who have nominated candidates under the label Labour Party or Independent Labour Party or other variations from the 1870s until the 1960s. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election The Canadian federal election of 1935 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1940 election The Canadian federal election of 1940 was the 19th general election in Canadian history. ...


The period also saw the rise of a small Communist Party of Canada, but only informally as the party was declared illegal under Section 98 of Canada's Criminal Code. The party continued to exist, but was under the constant threat of legal harassment, and was for all intents and purposes an underground organization until 1936. The party mobilised the 1,500-man Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion to fight in the Spanish Civil War as part of the International Brigades. The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada. ... The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion or Mac-Paps were a battalion of Canadians who fought as part of the Fifteenth International Regiment for the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Foreign volunteers Soviet Union CNT militia UGT militia POUM militia Nationalist Spain Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Foreign volunteers Falangists Carlists Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Emilio Mola The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17, 1936 to April... Blason of the International Brigades The International Brigade was the name given to the band of volunteers and mercenaries who travelled to Spain to fight against the Nationalist forces led by General Franco and helped by Nazi German and Mussolini Italian forces, and defend the legitimate Spanish Republic government in...


On to Ottawa Trek

Strikers from unemployment relief camps climbing on boxcars in Kamloops, British Columbia
Strikers from unemployment relief camps climbing on boxcars in Kamloops, British Columbia

The depression had crippled the economy and left one in nine Canadians on relief.[1] Nor did relief come free; the Bennett government had asked the Canadian Department of National Defense to organize work camps where the labour of unemployed single men was used to construct roads and other public works with little remuneration. The poor working conditions in the camps led to serious unrest, including a major strike in Vancouver in April 1935.[2] The strikers’ demands included adequate first aid equipment in the camps, the extension of the Workmen’s Compensation Act to include camp workers, and that workers in camps be granted the right to vote in Federal elections. Public support was enormous, and the action snowballed into a bigger movement when the men decided to take their grievances to the federal government. In June 1935, hundreds of men boarded boxcars headed East in what would come to be known as the “On to Ottawa Trek.” Image File history File links Kamloops_on_to_Ottawa. ... Image File history File links Kamloops_on_to_Ottawa. ... This page is about the city of Kamloops, British Columbia. ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, the Canadian Armed Forces. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Workers compensation systems (workers comp or compo) exist to protect employees who have incurred work-related injuries. ... See also: Canadian electoral system and Canadian federal election, 2006 Elections in Canada provides information on elections and election results in Canada. ... The On-to-Ottawa Trek was a protest movement in Canada during the Great Depression by the poor and unemployed. ...


The protest was halted, however, before it could reach the capital. In Regina, the RCMP confined the protestors in a local stadium. Only the eight leaders of the protest were actually allowed to proceed to Ottawa, where they were granted a meeting with Prime Minister R.B. Bennett. Bennett attacked the group as radicals, and eventually had the delegation hustled out of his office. Upon returning to Regina to unite with the rest of the protestors, they organized large public rallies, which broke out into riots when the Federal government deployed police to break up the rallies and arrest the leaders. Two people were killed and several injured. When the trek was over the government provided free transportation as a peace sign back to the camps. Control of the camps was handed over to the provinces, and pay rates also improved somewhat.[citation needed] Flag Seal Nickname: The Queen City Motto: Floreat Regina (Let Regina Flourish) Coordinates , Government Country Province District Canada Saskatchewan Assiniboia Established 1882 City Mayor Governing Body MPs MLAs Pat Fiacco Regina City Council Dave Batters Ralph Goodale Tom Lukiwski Andrew Scheer Joanne Crofford Doreen Hamilton Ron Harper Warren McCall Sandra... The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ...


World War II

Canadian troops resting on board a destroyer after the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe during WWII.
Canadian troops resting on board a destroyer after the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe during WWII.

The Canadian economy, like the economies of many other countries, improved in an unexpected way--the outbreak of the Second World War. Canada had been a founding member of the League of Nations, but elected to remain neutral throughout the 1930s. Mackenzie King even met with Adolf Hitler and decided he was not a threat. When Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Mackenzie King was finally convinced that military action would be necessary, but, in a show of independence, waited until September 10 to declare war (unlike World War I, when Canada was automatically at war as soon as Britain was). Utimately over one million Canadian servicemen fought in the war, mostly alongside British troops in Europe and Southeast Asia. A recruiting poster in Canada. ... Image File history File links CanadiansdestroyerDieppe. ... Image File history File links CanadiansdestroyerDieppe. ... Dieppes chert beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Hitler redirects here. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ...


One of Canada's major contribution to the war was the Commonwealth Air Training Plan, run by Billy Bishop and the Royal Air Force as a training ground for Commonwealth pilots. The first military action of the war for Canadians came in 1941, when they unsuccessfully defended Hong Kong from the Japanese. Hong Kong was taken on December 25 with horrendous Canadian and British casualties. On August 19, 1942, Canadians were again defeated in the Dieppe Raid, an unsuccessful attempt at an invasion of Europe. Canadian troops fought in Italy in 1943, and in 1944 successfully captured Juno Beach during the Battle of Normandy. They were instrumental in liberating the Netherlands, for which the Dutch still fondly remember Canadians today. External links The Canadian Contribution (includes newspaper archives) World War II Newspaper Archives — The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Dieppes chert beach and cliff immediately following the raid on 19 August 1942. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, Lieutenant-General H.D.G. Crerar, 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000 Unknown Casualties 574 dead, 340 wounded Unknown Juno Beach was one of the landing sites... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in France by early June, but split...


The conscription crisis of 1944

As in World War I, the number of volunteers began to run dry as the war dragged on. Mackenzie King had promised, like Borden, not to introduce conscription, though his position was somewhat ambiguous, as he had declared "conscription if necessary, but not necessarily conscription." The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ...


With rising pressure from the people, on June 21, 1940, King passed the National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA) which gave the government the power to "call out every man in Canada for military training for the defence of Canada", and only Canada. Conscripts could not be sent overseas to fight. English Canadians, expectedly, were displeased and took to calling these soldiers "zombies" who they stereotyped as French Canadians who were "sitting comfortably" while countrymen died. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


On April 27, 1942, Mackenzie King held a national plebiscite to decide on the issue, having made campaign promises to avoid conscription (and, it is thought, winning the election on that very point). English Canada was mostly in favour of conscription, but, as expected, French Canada was not. Nevertheless, the vote was yes overall and King was free to bring in a conscription law if he wanted. However, the issue was put off for another two years, until 1944, when it was decided conscription was now necessary. There were riots in Quebec, and even an aged Henri Bourassa spoke out against the decision. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ...


Some 13,000 NRMA men eventually left Canada, but only 2,463 reached units in the field before the end of the fighting. 69 died in battle.


Japanese internment

A R.C.N. officer questions Japanese-Canadian fishermen while confiscating their boat.
Enlarge
A R.C.N. officer questions Japanese-Canadian fishermen while confiscating their boat.

When Canada declared war on Japan in December 1941, members of the non-Japanese population of British Columbia, including municipal government offices, local newspapers and businesses called for the internment of the Japanese. In British Columbia, some claimed that Japanese residents who worked in the fishing industry were charting the coastline for the Japanese navy, and many of their boats were confiscated. The pressure from the public was so great that early in 1942 the government gave in to the pressure and began the internment of both Japanese nationals and Japanese Canadian citizens. About 95% of the nearly 23,000 people of Japanese descent who lived in Canada, were naturalised or native-born citizens.[citation needed] Those unwilling to live in internment camps faced the possibility of deportation to Japan. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata JapaneseCanadian-Confiscating-Boat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata JapaneseCanadian-Confiscating-Boat. ... The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three branches of the Canadian military were merged into the Canadian Armed Forces. ... A Japanese Canadian is a Canadian of Japanese ancestry. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Flower Pacific dogwood Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (大日本帝國海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) was the navy of Japan before 1945. ... A Japanese Canadian is a Canadian of Japanese ancestry. ...


Unlike Japanese American internment, where families were generally kept together, Canada initially sent its male evacuees to road camps in the British Columbian interior, to sugar beet projects on the Prairies, or to internment in a POW camp in Ontario, while women and children were moved to six inland British Columbia towns. There, the living conditions were so poor that the citizens of wartime Japan even sent supplemental food shipments through the Red Cross.[citation needed] During the period of detention, the Canadian government spent one-third the per capita amount expended by the U.S. on Japanese American evacuees.[citation needed] Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Japanese American Internment refers to the forcible relocation of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, 62 percent of whom were United States citizens, from the West Coast of the United States during World War II to hastily constructed... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Prairie refers to an area of land in North America of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Zuehlke, Mark (1996). The Gallant Cause: Canadians in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Vancouver: Whitecap Books. ISBN1551104881.
  2. ^ Hoar (Howard), Victor (1969). The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion: Canadian Participation in the Spanish Civil War. Toronto: Copp Clark.

See also

This article is part of the series:
History of Canada
New France
Canada under British Imperial Control (1764-1867)
Post-Confederation Canada (1867-1914)
Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years
History of Canada (1945-1960)
History of Canada (1960-1981)
History of Canada (1982-1992)
History of Canada (1992-Present)
Military history
Economic history
Constitutional history
Timeline

 
 

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