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Encyclopedia > Canada
Canada
Flag of Canada Coat of arms of Canada
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
A Mari Usque Ad Mare
(Latin for "From Sea to Sea")
Anthem
O Canada
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N, 75°40′W
Largest city Toronto
Official languages English, French
Government Parliamentary democracy
and federal constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean
 -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Establishment
 -  Act of Union February 10, 1841 
 -  British North America Act July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of
   Westminster

December 11, 1931 
 -  Canada Act April 17, 1982 
Area
 -  Total 9,984,670 km² (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km²)
Population
 -  2007 estimate 32,876,200 (36th)
 -  2006 census 31,612,897 
 -  Density 3.2 /km² (219th)
8.3 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1.105 trillion (11th)
 -  Per capita $34,273 (7th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1.132 trillion (8th)
 -  Per capita $35,133 (16th)
HDI (2006) 0.950 (high) (6th)
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Internet TLD .ca
Calling code +1
Visit the Canada Portal

Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America. It is the world's second-largest country by total area, and extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada shares land borders with the United States to the northwest and south. Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Larger coat of arms of Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (from 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... Many countries choose to include the national motto in the coat of arms. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... God Save the King/Queen is a patriotic hymn, and the National Anthem and Royal Anthem of the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A federal constitutional monarchy is a federation of states with the executive under the authority of a constitutional monarch. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... The Act of Union (3 & 4 Vict. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... The numeral trillion refers to one of two number values, depending on the context of where and how it is being used. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code CAD User(s) Canada Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .ca is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Canada. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Countries by area This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. ...


Inhabited first by aboriginal peoples, Canada was founded as a union of British colonies (some of which were formerly French colonies). Canada gained independence from the United Kingdom in an incremental process that began in 1867 and ended in 1982; it remains a Commonwealth Realm. Aboriginal peoples in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories (British Antarctic Territory and Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus not shown) A British Overseas Territory is one of fourteen[1] territories which are under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but not considered part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


Canada is a federal constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy. Comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. A technologically advanced and industrialized nation, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade — particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. A federal constitutional monarchy is a federation of states with the executive under the authority of a constitutional monarch. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Map of Canada As shown by the map to the left, the North American nation of Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, together with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Map of Canada As shown by the map to the left, the North American nation of Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, together with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Canada-United States relations span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. ...

Contents

Origin and history of the name

Main article: Canada's name

The name Canada comes from a word in the language of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians meaning "village" or "settlement." In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona.[1] Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada.[2] Detail from the current Canadian $20 bank note, issued in 2004. ... Territory occupied by the St. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (Gift of God shall make prosper) Area: 547. ... Chief Donnacona (died c. ...


The French colony of Canada referred to the part of New France along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes. Later, it was split into two British colonies, called Upper Canada and Lower Canada until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was officially adopted for the new dominion, which was referred to as the Dominion of Canada until the 1950s. As Canada increasingly acquired political authority and autonomy from Britain, the federal government increasingly simply used Canada on state documents and treaties. The Canada Act 1982 refers only to "Canada" and, as such, it is currently the only legal (and bilingual) name. This was reflected again in 1982 with the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Church of England Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... Dominion Day is a commemoration day of the granting of national status in various Commonwealth countries. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday. ...


History

Main articles: History of Canada and Timeline of Canadian history

Aboriginal tradition holds that the First Peoples inhabited parts of Canada since the dawn of time. Archaeological studies support a human presence in northern Yukon to 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario to 9,500 years ago.[3][4] Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows circa AD 1000. Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows Viking colonisation site at LAnse-aux-Meadows LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses (Jellyfish Cove)) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains...

Map of New France showing location of First Nations - 1702

The next Europeans to explore Canada's Atlantic coast included John Cabot in 1497 for England and Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixel Image in higher resolution (2050 × 1400 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixel Image in higher resolution (2050 × 1400 pixel, file size: 5. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... Samuel de Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, was born around 1567 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... French Canadian (or Franco-Canadian) is a term that refers to Canada. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists (and eventual Metis) who settled in Acadia (located on the northern portion of North Americas east coast). ... The Maritime provinces. ... Meaning It is a French word meaning Runners of the woods True Definition When the French Colonized in the new world, they were abundant in the trade of beaver skins. ... Engraving of Cavelier de La Salle René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle (November 24, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded The Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded all of New France to Britain following the Seven Years' War. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... British colonization of the Americas began under the Kingdom of England in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after the Acts of Union 1707, which established the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Treaty of Utrecht comprised a series of peace treaties signed in Utrecht in March and April 1713 that helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Huron * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ...

The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. It also restricted the language and religious rights of French Canadians. In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. To avert conflict in Quebec, the Quebec Act of 1774 expanded Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, and re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law in Quebec; it angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, helping to fuel the American Revolution.[5] The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the Unites States. Approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada.[6] New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia to recognize Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec , the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada and English-speaking Upper Canada, granting each their own elected Legislative Assembly. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders James Wolfe † Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm † Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle of the North American theatre of... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Carl D. Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those British Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Maritime provinces. ... Province of Quebec (COLONIAL PERIOD, 1763-1791) Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France, which was viewed as a vast, frozen wasteland... The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Church of England Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative...

The Canadas 1791, upper (orange) and lower (green)
The Canadas 1791, upper (orange) and lower (green)

Canada was a major front in the War of 1812 between the United States and British Empire. Its defence contributed to a sense of unity among British North Americans. Large-scale immigration to Canada began in 1815 from Britain and Ireland. The timber industry would also surpass the fur trade in importance in the early 1800s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixel Image in higher resolution (1688 × 1099 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of Upper and Lower Canada, or known as The Canadas. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixel Image in higher resolution (1688 × 1099 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of Upper and Lower Canada, or known as The Canadas. ... Combatants United States Eastern Woodland Indians United Kingdom, Canada Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates... For another article about a different type of logging, see data logging. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


The desire for Responsible Government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. As a result, The Durham Report(1839) recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture.[7] The Act of Union (1840) merged The Canadas into a United Province of Canada. French and English Canadians would work together in the Assembly to reinstate French rights. They later established responsible government in 1849, as would all British North American colonies. Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as Lord Durhams Report, is an important document in the history of Quebec, Canada and the British Empire. ... The Act of Union passed in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841, abolished the legislatures of Lower Canada and Upper Canada and established a new political entity the Province of Canada to replace them. ... The Canadas were two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, part of modern-day Canada. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ...


The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel, and paving the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada launched a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region. The Canadian population grew rapidly because of high birth rates; British immigration was offset by emigration to the United States, especially by French Canadians moving to New England. Map of the lands in dispute The Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, also known as the Oregon Treaty or Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States that was signed... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the international boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side, or from the Lake of the Woods to the Strait of Georgia. ... See main article Vancouver Island Colonial flag of Vancouver Island, consisting of the British Blue Ensign and the great seal of the colony. ... The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony of British North America from 1858 until 1871. ... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Confederation

Animated map of evolution of the borders and names of Canada's provinces and territories.

Following several constitutional conferences, the British North America Act brought about Confederation creating "one dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867 with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[8] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories. Métis grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively. Prime Minister John A. MacDonald's Conservative Party established a National Policy of tarrifs to protect nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways (most notably the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. Under Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x864, 853 KB) Summary An animated GIF of the evolution of Canadas internal borders, from the formation of the dominion to the present. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x864, 853 KB) Summary An animated GIF of the evolution of Canadas internal borders, from the formation of the dominion to the present. ... The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... The North-Western Territory at its greatest extent, 1859 The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870. ... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, TłįchÇ« [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, Countryborn, or Black Scots, are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Colony of British Columbia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... The Dominion Lands Act was an 1872 Canadian law that aimed to encourage the settlement of Canadas prairie provinces. ... “Mountie” redirects here. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th...

Canadian soldiers advance behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.
Canadian soldiers advance behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.

Canada automatically entered the First World War in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, sending volunteers to the Western Front to fight as a national contingent. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain; in 1931 the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence. Image File history File linksMetadata Canadian_tank_and_soldiers_Vimy_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Canadian_tank_and_soldiers_Vimy_1917. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Arthur Currie Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // Background At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ...


The Great Depression of 1929 brought economic hardship to all of Canada. In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan presaged a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King secured Parliament’s approval for entry into the Second World War in September 1939, after Germany invaded Poland. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939.[9] The economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest militaries in the world.[9] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... A recruiting poster in Canada. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ...

In 1949, Newfoundland joined Confederation as Canada's 10th province. Post-war prosperity and economic expansion ignited a baby boom and attracted immigration from war-ravaged European countries, changing the country's demographics.[10] Canada asserted an independent foreign policy, acting as a neutral broker to diffuse the Suez Crisis of 1956 and deploying Canadian soldiers as part of the first United Nations peacekeeping force. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... As is often the case with a large war, after the end of World War II many countries around the globe, notably those of Europe, Asia, North America, and Australasia experienced a baby boom. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Québécois nationalists began pressing for greater provincial autonomy. The separatist Parti Québécois first came to power in 1976. A referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980 was rejected by a solid majority of the population, and a second referendum in 1995 was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%.[11] In 1997, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province to be unconstitutional; Quebec's sovereignty movement has continued nonetheless.[11] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... Look up Québécois in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... Reference re Secession of Quebec [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217 was an opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada. ...

Under successive Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau, a new Canadian nationalism emerged. Canada adopted its current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965. In response to a more assertive French-speaking Quebec, the federal government became officially bilingual with the Official Languages Act of 1969. Non-discriminatory Immigration Acts were introduced in 1967 and 1976, and official multiculturalism in 1971; waves of non-European immigration have changed the face fo the country. Social democratic programs such as Universal Health Care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans were initiated in the 1960s and consolidated in the 1970s; provincial governments, particularly Quebec, fought these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau pushed through the patriation of the constitution from Britain, enshrining a Charter of Rights and Freedoms based on individual rights in the Constitution Act of 1982. Image File history File links Charter. ... Image File history File links Charter. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... Look up Francophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... The Official Languages Act of 1969 is an Act of Parliament which recognizes English and French as the official languages of Canada. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program. ... The Canada Student Loans Program is a Human Resources and Skills Development Canada programme which promotes accessibility to Canadas post-secondary education institutes by allowing Canadians who demonstrate a financial need for access to student loans and grants. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Patriation is a legal term particularly used in Canada, to describe a process of constitutional change also known as bringing home the constitution. ... The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the bill of rights which forms part of the Constitution of Canada adopted in 1982. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Canada Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed virtually all remaining constitutional and legislative ties between the United Kingdom and Canada. ...


Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (or Auto Pact) in 1965 and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement of 1987 were defining moments in integrating the two economies. Canadian nationalists continued to worry about their cultural autonomy as American television shows, movies and corporations became omnipresent.[12] However, Canadians take special pride in their system of universal health care and their commitment to multiculturalism.[13] The Canada-United States Automotive Agreement more commonly known as the Auto Pact was an important trade agreement between Canada and the United States. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ...


Government

Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada as head of state,[14][15] and a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions. The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... Image File history File links Canada_Parliament2. ... Image File history File links Canada_Parliament2. ... Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada Parliament Hill, (French Colline du Parlement), -The Hill for locals- is a scenic location on the banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


Canada's constitution governs the legal framework of the country and consists of written text and unwritten traditions and conventions.[16] The basic framework of the Canadian constitution is contained in the British North America Act 1867, renamed the Constitution Act 1867 in 1982. It states that Canada has a constitution "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom" and divides the powers between the federal and provincial governments. The Constitution includes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms for Canadians that, generally, cannot be overridden by legislation of any level of government in Canada. It contains, however, a "notwithstanding clause", which allows the federal parliament and the provincial legislatures the power to override some other sections of the Charter temporarily, for a period of five years. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Section Thirty-three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution of Canada. ...


The position of Prime Minister, Canada's head of government, belongs to the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister and their Cabinet are formally appointed by the Governor General (who is the Monarch's representative in Canada). However, the Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet, and by convention, the Governor General respects the Prime Minister's choices. The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, and become Ministers of the Crown. The Prime Minister exercises vast political power, especially in the appointment of other officials within the government and civil service. Michaëlle Jean has served as Governor General since September 25, 2005, and Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party, has been Prime Minister since February 6, 2006. The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada since Confederation. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The federal parliament is made up of the Queen and two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in a "riding" or electoral district; general elections are called by the Governor General when the Prime Minister so advises. While there is no minimum term for a Parliament, a new election must be called within five years of the last general election. Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, are chosen by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Governor General, and serve until age 75. The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The plurality electoral system (or first past the post electoral system), is a voting system for single-member districts. ... An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ...


Canada's four major political parties are the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, the New Democratic Party (NDP), and the Bloc Québécois. The current government is formed by the Conservative Party of Canada. While the Green Party of Canada and other smaller parties do not have current representation in Parliament, the list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Bloc Québécois is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... This article lists political parties in Canada. ...


Law

Main article: Law of Canada
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill.
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill.

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and is led by the Right Honourable Madam Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Its nine members are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice, after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal cabinet appoints justices to superior courts at the provincial and territorial levels. Judicial posts at the lower provincial and territorial levels are filled by their respective governments (see Court system of Canada for more detail). The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system, inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... Supreme Court of Canada Building, August 2004, Ottawa, ON, CDN, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Supreme Court of Canada Building, August 2004, Ottawa, ON, CDN, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Rt. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ...


Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial responsibility, but in rural areas of all provinces but Ontario and Quebec policing is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world, with its origins in Roman law, and sets out a comprehensive system of rules, usually codified, that are applied and interpreted by judges. ... Criminal law in Canada is a matter of law in the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government. ... “Mountie” redirects here. ...


Foreign relations and military

Canada has a close relationship with the United States, sharing the world's longest undefended border, co-operating on some military campaigns and exercises, and being each other's largest trading partners. Canada also shares history and long relationships with the United Kingdom and France, the two former imperial powers most influential in its founding. These relations extend to other former-members of the British and French empires, through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie. // The British North American colonies which constitute modern Canada had little control over their foreign affairs. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... Canadian soldiers advancing behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, one of Canadas greatest military victories. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1352x951, 215 KB) Peacekeeping Monument, seen from southeast entrance, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, July 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1352x951, 215 KB) Peacekeeping Monument, seen from southeast entrance, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, July 2005. ... Peacekeeping Monument, seen from southeast. ... Canada-United States relations were famously described by Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau as being like sleeping with an elephant. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as The Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states all of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom, except for Mozambique and the United Kingdom itself. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ...


Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor in June 2000, and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States of America. ... The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is an economic forum for a group of Pacific Rim countries to discuss matters on regional economy, cooperation, trade and investment. ...


Over the past sixty years, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.[17][18] This was clearly demonstrated during the Suez Crisis of 1956 when Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force.[19] In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts; Canada has served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989.[20] Canada's UN peacekeeping contributions have diminished over the first years of the 21st century. Although Canadian foreign policy is often similar to that of the United States, Canada has always maintained an independent foreign policy in such areas as maintaining full diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba. Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ...

Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan.
Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan.

A founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Canada currently employs about 64,000 regular and 26,000 reserve military personnel.[21] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the army, navy, and air force. Major CF equipment deployed includes 1,400 armoured fighting vehicles, 34 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft.[22] Image File history File links Canadian soldiers from 3PPCLI move into the hills to search for Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters after an air assault onto an objective north of Qualat, Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Canadian soldiers from 3PPCLI move into the hills to search for Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters after an air assault onto an objective north of Qualat, Afghanistan. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the combined armed forces of Canada. ... Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ... HMCS Bastion, flagship of the Canadian Navy. ... CF-18 off the coast Hawaii CH-124 Sea King CH-149 Cormorant CC-115 Buffalo Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ...


In addition to major participation in the Second Boer War, the First World War, the Second World War, and the Korean War, Canada has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions, various missions in the former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Since 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force. Canada's Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) has participated in three major relief efforts in the past two years; the two-hundred member team has been deployed in relief operations after the December 2004 tsunami in South Asia, the Hurricane Katrina in September 2005 and the Kashmir earthquake in October 2005. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Combatants al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Hezbi Islami Afghanistan, Northern Alliance, United States, ISAF, NATO members: United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, other allies Commanders Osama bin Laden, Mohammed Omar, Obaidullah Akhund, Mullah Dadullah Bismillah Khan, Tommy Franks, Dan McNeill, David Fraser Strength al-Qaeda: unknown, Taliban: unknown Afghan National... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation.. International Security Assistance Force (6) (ISAF) is an international stabilization force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ... DART sets up camp in Sri Lanka. ... -1... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ... The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asia earthquake or Pakistan earthquake) of 2005 was a major earthquake whose epicenter was the Pakistan-administered disputed region of Kashmir. ...


In February 2007, Canada, Italy, Britain, Norway, and Russia announced their funding commitments to launch a $1.5 billion project to help develop vaccines they said could save millions of lives in poor nations, and called on others to join them.[23]


Administrative divisions

A geopolitical map of Canada, exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories.
A geopolitical map of Canada, exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories.

Canada is composed of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The three territories are the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon. The provinces have a large degree of autonomy from the federal government, the territories somewhat less. Each has its own provincial or territorial symbols. Map of Canada As shown by the map to the left, the North American nation of Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, together with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1128, 494 KB) Summary Map: Canada – geopolitical Drawn and adapted by E Pluribus Anthony from Atlas of Canada Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1128, 494 KB) Summary Map: Canada – geopolitical Drawn and adapted by E Pluribus Anthony from Atlas of Canada Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Map of Canada As shown by the map to the left, the North American nation of Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, together with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, TłįchÇ« [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Canadian federalism is one of the three pillars of the constitutional order, along with responsible government and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ...


The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Welfare is financial assistance paid by taxpayers to groups of people who are unable to support themselves, and determined to be able to function more effectively with financial assistance. ... The Canada Health Act is a piece of Canadian federal legislation, adopted in 1984, that lists the conditions and criteria to which the provinces and territories must conform in order to receive the full amount of negotiated transfer payments relating to health care. ... Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to state or provincial governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue (commonly referred to as fiscal disparities) or in the cost of providing services. ...


All provinces have unicameral, elected legislatures headed by a Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of Canada. Each province also has a Lieutenant-Governor representing the Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada, appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of consultation with provincial governments in recent years. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canadas provinces and territories. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Canada
A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in the Arctic and through the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains, and the relatively flat Prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.
A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in the Arctic and through the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains, and the relatively flat Prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.

Canada occupies most of the northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and with the US state of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.[24] Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude;[25] this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—just 817 kilometres (450 nautical miles) from the North Pole.[26] Canada is the world's second-largest country in total area, after Russia, and the fourth largest in land area, after Russia, China and the United States.[27] Continent North America Subregion Northern America Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 2nd 9,984,670 km² 891,163 km² (8. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 813 KB) Summary Canada, satellite image composite; obtained and adapted from NASA Blue Marble images Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 813 KB) Summary Canada, satellite image composite; obtained and adapted from NASA Blue Marble images Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... The Saint Elias Mountains is a mountain range located in southeastern Alaska (United States) and southwestern Yukon (Canada). ... A prairie is an area of land of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda),[1][2] describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island at . ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...


The population density of 3.5 people per square kilometre (9.1/mi²) is among the lowest in the world.[28] The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in the southeast.[29] To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with lakes and rivers—Canada by far has more lakes than any other country in the world and has a large amount of the world's freshwater.[30][31] A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and...

The Horseshoe Falls in Ontario is the largest component of Niagara Falls, one of the world's most voluminous waterfalls, a major source of hydroelectric power, and a tourist destination.
The Horseshoe Falls in Ontario is the largest component of Niagara Falls, one of the world's most voluminous waterfalls,[32] a major source of hydroelectric power, and a tourist destination.

In eastern Canada, the Saint Lawrence River widens into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary; the island of Newfoundland lies at its mouth. South of the Gulf, the Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward from the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, which experiences the world's largest tidal variations. Ontario and Hudson Bay dominate central Canada. West of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which separate them from British Columbia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 623 KB) Overview photograph of the Niagara Falls with the ship called The Maid of the Mist. Photographed by contributor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 623 KB) Overview photograph of the Niagara Falls with the ship called The Maid of the Mist. Photographed by contributor. ... Horseshoe Falls, viewed from Goat Island, showing a portion of the mist generated by the falls. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... Confectionary Company, see Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km...


Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the world's largest islands. Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ...


Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the Prairie provinces, where daily average temperatures are near −15°C (5°F), but can drop below -40°C (-40°F) with severe wind chills.[33] Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy winter. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


On the east and west coast average high temperatures are generally in the low 20°C (68 to 74°F), while between the coasts the average summer high temperature range between 25°C to 30°C (78 to 86°F) with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40°C (104°F).[34][35] For a more complete description of climate across Canada see Environment Canada's Website.[36]


Economy

Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations with a high per capita income, a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). Canada is a free market economy with slightly more government intervention than the United States, but much less than most European nations.[37] Canada has traditionally had a lower per capita gross domestic product (GDP) than its southern neighbour (whereas wealth has been more equally divided), but higher than the large western European economies.[38][39] For the past decade, the Canadian economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses on the federal level. Today Canada closely resembles the U.S. in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards.[40] While as of October 2006, Canada's national unemployment rate of 6.3% is among its lowest in 30 years, provincial unemployment rates vary from a low of 3.6% in Alberta to a high of 14.6% in Newfoundland and Labrador.[41] Canada is one of the worlds wealthiest nations, a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). ... Canadian historians until the 1960s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. ... Hay bale lying in field Chickens pecking at feed Day is done. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (342x773, 56 KB) Image of current denominations of Canadian Banknotes (C) 2006, Bank of Canada. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (342x773, 56 KB) Image of current denominations of Canadian Banknotes (C) 2006, Bank of Canada. ... Sample Canadian bank notes, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100 Canadian banknotes are the banknotes of Canada, denominated in Canadian dollars (CAD). ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ... An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the past century, the growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. As with other first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians.[42] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. A map of countries often considered to make up the First World. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... The primary sector of industry generally involves the conversion of natural resources into primary products. ... Loggers on break, c. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Canada is one of the few developed nations that is a net exporter of energy.[42] Canada has vast deposits of natural gas on the east coast and large oil and gas resources centred in Alberta, and also present in neighbouring British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The vast Athabasca Tar Sands give Canada the world's second largest reserves of oil behind Saudi Arabia.[43] In Quebec, British Columbia, Newfoundland & Labrador, Ontario and Manitoba, hydroelectric power is a cheap and relatively environmentally friendly source of abundant energy. Tar sands in Alberta The Athabasca Tar Sands is a large deposit of tar sands in north-western Canada located mainly in the province of Alberta and, to a much lesser degree Saskatchewan. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural products, with the Canadian Prairies one of the most important suppliers of wheat and other grains.[44] Canada is the world's largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead;[45] many, if not most, towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector, centred in southern Ontario, with the automobile industry especially important, and in southern Quebec, with an especially great number of aeronautics and space industries. General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic and silvery with a gold tinge Atomic mass 58. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ...


Canada is highly dependent on international trade, especially trade with the United States. The 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the U.S. Since 2001, Canada has successfully avoided economic recession and has maintained the best overall economic performance in the G8.[46] Since the mid 1990s, Canada's federal government has posted annual budgetary surpluses and has steadily paid down the national debt. International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. ...


Demographics

13.4% of the Canadian population are non-aboriginal visible minorities.
13.4% of the Canadian population are non-aboriginal visible minorities.
A graph showing the biggest ethnic groups present in Canada.
A graph showing the biggest ethnic groups present in Canada.

The 2006 national census recorded 31,612,897 people which was a rise of 5.4% since 2001.[47] Population growth is largely accomplished through immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About three-quarters of Canada's population live within 160 kilometres (100 mi) of the U.S. border.[48] A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor (notably the Golden Horseshoe - South Central Ontario, Montreal, and Ottawa metropolitan areas, the BC Lower Mainland (Vancouver and environs), and the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.[49] Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (811x570, 14 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (811x570, 14 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Visible minorities are persons who are not of the majority race in a given population. ... Image File history File links CanadianEthnicOrigins. ... Image File history File links CanadianEthnicOrigins. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... The city of San Francisco, an example of an urban area. ... Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ... The skyline of Hamilton, Ontario The skyline of Toronto, Ontario. ... Nickname: City of Mary (Ville-Marie) Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2] [3]  - City 365. ... The National Capital Region is an informal designation for the Census Metropolitan Area consisting of the Canadian capital of Ottawa, Ontario, the neighbouring city of Gatineau, Quebec and the surrounding area. ... The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ... The Calgary-Edmonton Corridor is a geographical region of the Canadian province of Alberta. ...


Canada is an ethnically diverse nation. According to the 2001 census, it has 34 ethnic groups with at least one hundred thousand members each. In the 2001 census, 83% (24,618,250 respondents out of 29,639,035 respondents) of the total populaton claimed they are white.[1] The largest ethnic group is English (20.2%), followed by French (15.8%), Scottish (14.0%), Irish (12.9%), German (9.3%), Italian (4.3%), Chinese (3.7%), Ukrainian (3.6%), and First Nations (3.4%) - although almost 40% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian."[50] Canada's aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the rest of the Canadian population. In 2001, 13.4% of the population belonged to non-aboriginal visible minorities.[2] According to the federal government, Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world,[51] driven by economic, family reunification, and humanitarian reasons. Immigrants are particularly attracted to the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... Scottish-Canadian is an ethnic group in Canada with a population of 4,157,210 people, according to the 2001 Census of Canada data. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Visible minorities are persons who are not of the majority race in a given population. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... The Economic impact of immigration to Canada is a controversial topic in Canada. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ...

Top religious denominations in Canada in 2001.
Top religious denominations in Canada in 2001.

Canadians adhere to a wide variety of religions, as people in Canada have the freedom of religion as one of their rights. According to 2001 census,[52] 77.1% of Canadians identified as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada; about 16.5% of Canadians declared no religious affiliation, and the remaining 6.3% were affiliated with religions other than Christianity, of which the largest is Islam numbering 1.9%, followed by Judaism: 1.1%. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (835x599, 11 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (835x599, 11 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Canada has a wide mix of religions, but it has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canadas political culture. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


In Canada, the provinces and territories are responsible for education; thus Canada has no national department of education. Each of the thirteen education systems are similar while reflecting their own regional history, culture and geography.[53] The mandatory school age varies across Canada but generally ranges between the ages of 5-7 to 16-18,[53] contributing to an adult literacy rate that is 99%.[42] Postsecondary education is the responsibility of the provincial and territorial governments that provide most of their funding; the federal government provides additional funding through research grants. In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged between 25 and 64 had post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34 the postsecondary attainment reaches 51%.[54]


Language

The population of Montreal is mainly French-speaking, with a significant English-speaking community.
The population of Montreal is mainly French-speaking, with a significant English-speaking community.


Canada's two official languages, English and French, are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population respectively,[55] and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population respectively.[56] On July 7, 1969, under the Official Languages Act, French was made commensurate to English throughout the federal government. This started a process that led to Canada redefining itself as an officially bilingual nation. This article presents the current demolinguistics of Canada. ... Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mont. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mont. ... This article needs cleanup. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... The Arcade Fire: Montreal Indie band English-speaking Quebecers (also Anglo-Quebeckers, English Quebecker, or Anglophone Quebecker) are English-speaking (anglophone) residents of the primarily French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Official Languages Act of 1969 is an Act of Parliament which recognizes English and French as the official languages of Canada. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French. While multiculturalism is official policy, to become a citizen one must be able to speak either English or French, and 98.5% of Canadians speak at least one (English only: 67.5%, French only: 13.3%, both: 17.7%).[57] The Act for the Preservation and Enhancement of Multiculturalism in Canada was passed in 1988, with minor organizational amendments since that time (Multiculturalism & Citizenship Canada, 1991). ...


French is mostly spoken in Quebec, but there are substantial Francophone populations elsewhere, mainly in the northern parts of New Brunswick, eastern, northern and southwestern Ontario, and southern Manitoba. Of those who speak French as a first language, 85% live in Quebec. Ontario has the largest French population outside Quebec. French has been the only official language of Quebec since 1974; New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province in the country.[58] No provinces other than Quebec and New Brunswick have constitutionally official language(s) as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and other government services in all of the majority English or Inuktitut speaking provinces and territories. In Ontario, French has some legal status but is not fully co-official. Several aboriginal languages have official status in Northwest Territories. Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the territory. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Non-official languages are important in Canada, with 5,202,245 people listing one as a first language.[55] Some significant non-official first languages include Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers), Italian (469,485), German (438,080), and Punjabi (271,220).[55] Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ...


Culture

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, seen here at Expo 67, are the federal and national police force of Canada and an international icon.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, seen here at Expo 67, are the federal and national police force of Canada and an international icon.

Canadian culture has historically been influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal cultures and traditions. It has also been influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries. American media and entertainment are popular if not dominant in Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the US and worldwide.[59] Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified "North American" or global market. Bonhomme, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is an important national symbol of Canada. ... A wide variety of sports are played in Canada. ... Image File history File links RCMP_officer_Expo_67. ... Image File history File links RCMP_officer_Expo_67. ... “Mountie” redirects here. ... The 1967 International and Universal Exposition, or simply Expo 67 was a Worlds Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1967 to coincide with the Canadian Centennial that year. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ...


The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture are supported by federal government programs, laws and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[60] The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ...

A Kwakwaka'wakw totem pole and traditional "big house" in Victoria, BC.

Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country. There are cultural variations and distinctions from province to province and region to region. Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration from all over the world. Many Canadians value multiculturalism, and see Canadian culture as being inherently multicultural.[13] Multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2132x1629, 2240 KB) Summary Thunderbird Park, 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2132x1629, 2240 KB) Summary Thunderbird Park, 2006. ... Kwakwakawakw (also Kwakiutl, pronounced Kwa-gyu-thl) is a term used to describe a group of Canadian First Nations people, numbering about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the mainland. ... A Gitxsan pole (left) and Kwakwakawakw pole (right) at Thunderbird Park in Victoria, British Columbia. ... Victoria is the capital of the western Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... Section Twenty-seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a section of the Charter that, as part of a range of provisions within the section 25 to section 31 bloc, helps determine how rights in other sections of the Charter should be interpreted and applied by the...


National symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and First Nations sources. Particularly, the use of the maple leaf, as a Canadian symbol, dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms.[61] Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, the Crown, and the RCMP.[61] The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, and is an important national symbol of Canada. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... Maple leaves in fall For other meanings, see maple leaf (disambiguation). ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... The Red Ensign, as currently used by the United Kingdoms Merchant Navy The Red Ensign is a flag that originated in the early 1600s as an ensign flown by the Royal Navy. ... In Canada a penny is a coin worth one cent or 1/100th of a dollar. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (from 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Binomial name Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Canada Goose distribution, including introduced and feral populations Yellow: summer Blue: winter Green: year-round Subspecies Dusky Canada Goose Vancouver Canada Goose Lesser Canada Goose Moffitts Canada Goose Giant Canada Goose Interior Canada Goose Atlantic Canada Goose The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) belongs... Binomial name Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... “Mountie” redirects here. ...


Canada's official national sports are ice hockey (winter) and lacrosse (summer).[62] Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. It is the most popular sport Canadians play, with 1.65 million active participants in 2004.[63] Canada's six largest metropolitan areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton - have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the league than from all other countries combined. After hockey, other popular spectator sports include curling and football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). The CFL is the nation's second most popular professional sports league.[64]. Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels,[63] but professional leagues and franchises are not as widespread. Canada will host the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, and the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.[65][66] Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A National Pastime is a sport or game that is consider to be a culturally intrinsic part of a country or nation. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... Curling is a precision team sport similar to bowls or bocce, played on a rectangular sheet of prepared ice by two teams of four players each, using heavy polished granite stones which players slide down the ice towards a target area called the house. ... Canadian football is a sport in which two teams of twelve players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (100. ... Lions Stampeders Eskimos Roughriders Blue Bombers Tiger-Cats Argonauts Alouettes The Canadian Football League (CFL), also known by its French name, Ligue canadienne de football (LCF), is a professional sports league located in Canada that plays Canadian football, and is the second most popular sports league in Canada. ... The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the worlds Home of Golf. Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and also is one of the few ball games that does not use... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Members of the U.S. Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest Downhill Ski Racing This article is about snow skiing. ... Soccer has been one of the many popular recreational sports in Canada and has overtaken hockey as the sport with the most registered players in Canada, but professional soccer is considerably less popular then contemporary sports, and has had much less success developing than in the rest of the world. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... The FIFA U-20 World Cup Canada 2007, the 16th such tournament, will be hosted by the cities of Toronto, Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Victoria, and Burnaby (Vancouver) and is scheduled to run from June 30, 2007 to July 22, 2007. ... The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next Winter Olympics, scheduled to be performed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ... Street signs in Whistler Village. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km...


International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2005 6 out of 111
IMD International World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005 5 out of 60
The Economist The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005 14 out of 111
Yale University/Columbia University Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf) 6 out of 146
Reporters Without Borders World-wide Press Freedom Index 2006 16 out of 168
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2005 14 out of 159
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom, 2007 10 out of 161

Canada was ranked number one country by the United Nations' Human Development Index 10 times out of 16 between 1980 and 2004. A.T. Kearney is one of the worlds largest high-value strategic management consulting firms. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Switzerland. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The Heritage Foundation is a conservative public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with a worldwide average daily circulation of more than 2. ...


See also

Dominion of Canada Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... This is a list of Canada-related topics. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... // Main article: Province of Quebec (1763-1791) In North America, Seven Years War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. ... // Confederation Main article: Canadian Confederation Fathers of Confederation meet in Quebec City In the 1860s, in the wake of the American Civil War, the British were concerned with possible American reprisals against Canada for Britains tacit support of the Confederacy. ... A Canadian WWI recruiting poster // World War I Main article: Military History of Canada during WWI On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I. By August 4, Britain had declared war on Germany and, as... The Post-war world The Second World War brought many changes to Canada; the government was necessarily more centralized during the war, and it remained so afterwards. ... // Main article: Great Flag Debate Diefenbaker was succeeded by Pearson in 1963, at a time of increasing political unrest in much of the Western world. ... // The New constitution Main article: Patriation In 1982 Britain passed the Canada Act, repatriating the Constitution of Canada. ... // Chretien years and the 1995 referendum Jean Chrétien became prime minister in the 1993 election, pledging to repeal the GST, which proved to be unfeasible due to the economic circumstances at the time. ... Canadian soldiers advancing behind a tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, one of Canadas greatest military victories. ... Canadian historians until the 1960s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. ... The constitutional history of Canada begins with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which France ceded most of New France to Great Britain. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... The Court system of Canada is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... Ringrose Peak, Lake OHara, British Columbia, Canada The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of North American mountains mostly in the United States, and partly in Canada, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from the island of Newfoundland some 1,500 miles... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... The Maritime provinces. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of incorporated cities of Canada in alphabetical order by province. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... The Canadian National Parks system is run by Parks Canada, which also runs Canadas National Historic Sites. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ... Banking in Canada is one of the most efficient and safest banking systems in the world. ... The Bank of Canada Building in Ottawa The Bank of Canada is Canadas central bank. ... ISO 4217 Code CAD User(s) Canada Inflation 2. ... This is a list of companies from Canada. ... Canadas health care system is a publicly funded health care system, with most services provided by private entities. ... Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The table below is a list of the 100 largest cities (or municipalities) in Canada. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... Bonhomme, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... The Gothic Revival Parliament Buildings are some of Canadas best known structures The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of the First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Europe and the United States. ... The following is a list of some important Canadian artists and groups of artists: Individuals Ran Andrews, 1956-, painter Robert Bateman, 1930-, painter Emily Carr, 1871-1945, painter Alex Colville, 1920-, painter Ken Danby, 1940-, painter Charles Daudelin, 1920-2001, sculptor and painter Paterson Ewen, 1925-2002, painter Marcelle Ferron... This is a list of well-known Canadians. ... Canadian national holidays (with provincial exceptions): Each province of Canada has its own provincial holiday or holidays. ... Skating on the Rideau Canal in Ottawa. ... Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Celtic music is primarily associated with the folk traditions of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, as well as the popular styles derived from folk culture. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Canadian hip hop developed much more slowly than the rock music scene. ... Canada has been a source of rock and roll music for decades, beginning with rockabilly singer Jack Scott in the 1950s. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid 20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. ... The contemporary theatre scene in Canada revolves around companies and summer festivals based at facilities in Canadian cities. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (from 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... This is a list of flags used in Canada. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ... This is a list of the symbols of Canadian provinces and territories. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Trigger, Bruce G.; Pendergast, James F. (1978). "Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians", Handbook of North American Indians Volume 15. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 357-361. OCLC 58762737. 
  2. ^ Jacques Cartier (1545). Relation originale de Jacques Cartier. Tross (1863 edition). Retrieved on February 23, 2007.
  3. ^ Cinq-Mars, J. (2001). "On the significance of modified mammoth bones from eastern Beringia". The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. 
  4. ^ Wright, J.V (2001-09-27). A History of the Native People of Canada: Early and Middle Archaic Complexes. Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  5. ^ Wars on Our Soil, earliest times to 1885. Retrieved on August 21, 2006.
  6. ^ Moore, Christopher (1994). The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6093-9. 
  7. ^ David Mills. Durham Report. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  8. ^ Farthing, John (1957). Freedom Wears a Crown. Toronto: Kingswood House. ASIN B0007JC4G2. 
  9. ^ a b Stacey, C.P. (1948). History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Queen's Printer. 
  10. ^ Harold Troper (2000-03). History of Immigration to Toronto Since the Second World War: From Toronto 'the Good' to Toronto 'the World in a City'. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved on May 19, 2006.
  11. ^ a b Dickinson, John Alexander; Young, Brian (2003). A Short History of Quebec, 3rd edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2450-9. 
  12. ^ Granatstein, J.L. (1997). Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638541-9. 
  13. ^ a b Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
  14. ^ Heritage Canada (2005-04-21). The Queen and Canada: 53 Years of Growing Together. Heritage Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  15. ^ Governor General of Canada (2005-12-06). Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General. Governor General of Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  16. ^ Department of Justice. Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982. Department of Justice, Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  17. ^ Government of Canada (2005). Canada's international policy statement : a role of pride and influence in the world. Ottawa: Government of Canada. ISBN 0-662-68608-X. 
  18. ^ Cooper, Andrew Fenton; Higgot, Richard A.; Nossal, Kim R. (1993). Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0450-5. 
  19. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2006). Lester B. Pearson. CBC.ca. Retrieved on May 22, 2006.
  20. ^ Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, pg. 258. ISBN 0-7710-6514-0. 
  21. ^ Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). The National Defence family. Department of National Defence. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  22. ^ Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). Canadian Forces Equipment. Department of National Defence. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  23. ^ "Rich Nations Launch Vaccine Pact". Reuters. February 10, 2007.
  24. ^ In addition, Canadian territory includes a small enclave in France surrounding the Canadian National Vimy Memorial at the site of the Battle of Vimy Ridge: With what flag should we honour Vimy Ridge? "But Veterans Affairs cited a governmental protocol that allows no other flag than the Maple Leaf to fly on federal property. The land on which the Vimy Memorial was build was donated to Canada by France."
  25. ^ National Resources Canada (2004-04-06). Territorial Evolution, 1927. National Resources Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  26. ^ National Defence Canada (2006-08-15). Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert. National Defence Canada. Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  27. ^ World Factbook: Area Country Comparison Table
  28. ^ WorldAtlas.com (2006-02). Countries of the World (by lowest population density). WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved on May 16, 2006.
  29. ^ railwaypeople.com (2006). Quebec - Windsor Corridor Jet Train, Canada. railwaypeople.com. Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  30. ^ The Atlas of Canada (2004-04-02). Drainage patterns. National Resources Canada. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  31. ^ Encarta (2006). Canada. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on June 12, 2006.
  32. ^ Natural Resources Canada (2004-04-05). Significant Canadian Facts. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on May 16, 2006.
  33. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics, Regina SK. The Weather Network. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  34. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics: Vancouver Int'l, BC. The Weather Network. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  35. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics: Toronto Pearson Int'l. The Weather Network. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  36. ^ Environment Canada (2004-02-25). Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971-2000. Environment Canada. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  37. ^ The Heritage Foundation (2006). Index of Economic Freedome. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  38. ^ Britton, John NH (1996). Canad and the Global Economy: The geography of Structural and Technological Change. Montreal: = McGill-Queen's University Press, pp. 6-7. ISBN 0-7735-0927-5. 
  39. ^ Shaw, Daniel J (2002-10-24). Canada's Productivity and Standard of Living: Past, Present and Future. Government of Canada. Retrieved on October 2, 2006.
  40. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2005). The World Factbook. Washington, DC: National Foreign Assessment Center. ISSN 1553-8133. 
  41. ^ Statistics Canada (2006-08-04). Latest release from Labour Force Survey. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on August 4, 2006.
  42. ^ a b c Central Intelligence Agency (2006-05-16). The World Factbook: Canada. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  43. ^ Clarke, Tony; Campbell, Bruce; Laxer, Gordon (2006-03-10). U.S. oil addiction could make us sick. Parkland Institute. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  44. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (2006). Agriculture and Food: Export markets. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  45. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (2006). Canadian Mining. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on May 18, 2006.
  46. ^ Chretien, Jean (2003-12-04). Notes for an Address by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien on the Occasion of the Commonwealth Business Forum. Privy Council Office, Government of Canada. Retrieved on August 7, 2006.
  47. ^ Beauchesne, Eric (2007-03-13). We are 31,612,897. National Post. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
  48. ^ Hillmer, Norman (2005-01-25). Canada World View - Issue 24. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  49. ^ Statistics Canada (2001). Urban-rural population as a proportion of total population, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on October 3, 2006.
  50. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-25). Population by selected ethnic origins, by provinces and territories. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  51. ^ Benjamin Dolin and Margaret Young, Law and Government Division (2004-10-31). Canada's Immigration Program. Library of Parliament. Retrieved on November 29, 2006.
  52. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-25). Population by religion, by provinces and territories. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  53. ^ a b Council of Ministers of Canada. General Overview of Education in Canada. Education@Canada. Retrieved on May 22, 2006.
  54. ^ Department of Finance (2005-11-14). Creating Opportunities for All Canadians. Department of Finance Canada. Retrieved on May 22, 2006.
  55. ^ a b c Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). Population by mother tongue, by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  56. ^ Language Spoken Most Often at Home (8), Language Spoken at Home on a Regular Basis (9), Sex (3) and Age Groups (15) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas 1 and Census Agglomerations, 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada, 2001 Census of Population. Retrieved on March 23, 2007.
  57. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  58. ^ While Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages, New Brunswick is the only province to have a statement of official bilingualism in the constitution. See Canadian Heritage
  59. ^ Blackwell, John D. (2005). Culture High and Low. International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  60. ^ National Film Board of Canada (2005). Mandate of the National Film Board. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  61. ^ a b Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2. 
  62. ^ National Sports of Canada Act (1994). Consolidated Statutes and Regulations. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 20, 2006.
  63. ^ a b Conference Board of Canada (December 2004). Survey: Most Popular Sports, by Type of Participation, Adult Population. Strengthening Canada: The Socio-economic Benefits of Sport Participation in Canada — Report August 2005. Sport Canada. Retrieved on July 1, 2006.
  64. ^ Canadian Press (2006-06-08). Survey: Canadian interest in pro football is on the rise. Globe and Mail. Retrieved on June 8, 2006.
  65. ^ The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (2006). Vancouver 2010. www.vancouver2010.com. Retrieved on October 1, 2006.
  66. ^ Canadian Soccer Association (2006). FIFA U-20 World Cup Canada 2007. canadasoccer.com. Retrieved on October 1, 2006.

February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Colonel Charles Perry Stacey OC, OBE, CD, BA, AM, PhD, LLD, DLitt, D.c Mil, FRSC, was the official historian of the Canadian Army in the Second World War and has been published extensively on matters both military and political. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (140th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Department of Canadian Heritage, also referred to as Heritage Canada or simply Department of Heritage, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, and sports and multiculturalism. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Professor Desmond Morton, OC , Ph. ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Vimy Memorial face The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is one of Canadas most important overseas war memorials to those Canadians who gave their lives in the First World War. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Arthur Currie Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is a department of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Primetime on-air personality Anne Marie Sweeney in April 2006. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Primetime on-air personality Anne Marie Sweeney in April 2006. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Primetime on-air personality Anne Marie Sweeney in April 2006. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Environment Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of wildlife. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Department of Justice of Canada ensures that the Canadian justice system is a fair, accessible and efficient system. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Conference Board of Canada is a not-for-profit Canadian organization dedicated to researching and analyzing economic trends, as well as organizational performance and public policy issues. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

Origin and history of the name
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History
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Government and law
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Foreign relations and military
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Provinces and territories
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Geography and climate
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Economy
  • Central Intelligence Agency (2005). The World Factbook. Washington, DC: National Foreign Assessment Center. ISSN 1553-8133. 
  • Wallace, Iain (2002). A Geography of the Canadian Economy. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540773-3. 
  • Marr, William L. (1980). Canada: An Economic History. Toronto: Gage. ISBN 0-7715-5684-5. 
  • Innis, Mary Quayle (1943). An Economic History of Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ASIN B0007JFHBQ. 
Demography and statistics
  • Statistics Canada (2001). Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Queen of Canada. ISBN 0-660-18360-9. 
  • Leacy, F. H. (ed.) (1983). Historical statistics of Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 
Language
Culture
  • Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
  • Blackwell, John D. (2005). Culture High and Low. International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  • Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2.  Similar publication online here.
  • National Film Board of Canada (2005). Mandate of the National Film Board. Retrieved on March 15, 2006.
  • Currie, Gordon (1968). 100 years of Canadian football: The dramatic history of football's first century in Canada, and the story of the Canadian Football League. Don Mills, ON: Pagurian Press. ASIN B0006CCK4G. 
  • Maxwell, Doug (2002). Canada Curls: The Illustrated History of Curling in Canada. North Vancouver, BC: Whitecap books. ISBN 1-55285-400-0. 
  • McFarlane, Brian (1997). Brian McFarlane's History of Hockey. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing Inc. ISBN 1-57167-145-5. 
  • Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots Of Canadian Identity. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-705-3. 
  • Ross, David & Hook, Richard (1988). The Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1873-1987. London: Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-834-X. 

Professor Desmond Morton, OC , Ph. ... Hon. ... Professor Desmond Morton, OC , Ph. ... Professor Desmond Morton, OC , Ph. ... Professor Desmond Morton, OC , Ph. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Further references

Flora and fauna

South, G.R. 1984. A checklist of marine algae of eastern Canada, second revision. Can. J.Bot. 62: 680 - 704.


External links

Canada Portal
Find more information on Canada by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews
 Learning resources from Wikiversity
Government
  • Official website of the Government of Canada
  • Official website of the Prime Minister of Canada
  • Official website of the Governor General of Canada
  • Official website of the Canadian Forces
  • Official Government of Canada online Atlas of Canada
  • Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Crown corporations
  • Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
  • Canada Post
  • Canadian Tourism Commission
Other
  • Culture.ca - Canada's Cultural Gateway
  • Culturescope.ca - Canadian Cultural Observatory
  • Canadian Studies: A Guide to the Sources
  • Statistics Canada with Canada's population clock
  • The Canadian Atlas Online
  • Canada at The World Factbook
  • UN Human Development Program: Country Fact Sheet: Canada, Statistics - Country Sheet: Canada
  • Canada travel guide from Wikitravel
Provinces and territories of Canada
v  d  e
Provinces: British Columbia · Alberta · Saskatchewan · Manitoba · Ontario · Quebec
New Brunswick · Nova Scotia · Prince Edward Island · Newfoundland and Labrador
Territories: Yukon · Northwest Territories · Nunavut


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