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Encyclopedia > Canaanite religion

Canaanite religion was the group of Ancient Semitic religions, belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

Contents

Etymology and history

The Levant region was inhabited by people who themselves referred to the land as 'ca-na-na-um' as early as the mid-third millennium BCE[1]. There are a number of possible etymologies for the word. Etymologies redirects here. ...


Some suggest the name comes from Hebrew "cana'ani" word meant merchant, for which, as Phoenicians the Canaanites became justly famous. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ...


The Akkadian word "kinahhu", however, referred to the red-colored wool, dyed from the Murex molluscs of the coast, which was throughout history a key export of the region. When the Greeks later traded with the Canaanites, this meaning of the word seems to have predominated as they called the Canaanites the Phoenikes or "Phoenicians", which may derive from the Greek word "Phoenix" meaning crimson or purple, and again described the cloth for which the Greeks also traded. The Romans transcribed "phoenix" to "poenus", thus calling the descendants of the Canaanite settlers in Carthage "Punic".


Thus while Phoenician and Canaanite refer to the same culture, archaeologists and historians commonly refer to the Bronze Age, pre-1200 BCE Levantines as Canaanites and their Iron Age descendants, particularly those living on the coast as Phoenicians. More recently, the term Canaanite has been used for the secondary Iron Age states of the interior, that were not ruled by Aramaean peoples, a separate and closely related ethnic group, a group which included the Philistines and the states of Israel and Judah [2]. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Until the excavation of Canaanite Ras Shamra (the site historically known as Ugarit), and the discovery of its Bronze Age archive of clay tablet alphabetic cuneiform texts, little was known of Canaanite religion, as papyrus seems to have been the preferred writing medium, and unlike Egypt, in the humid Mediterranean climate, these have simply decayed. As a result the highly negative and biased accounts of the Bible were almost the only sources of information on ancient Canaanite religion. This was supplemented by a few secondary and tertiary Greek sources (Lucian of Samosata's De Syria Dea (The Syrian Goddess), fragments of the Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos, and the writings of Damasacius). More recently detailed study of the Ugaritic material, other inscriptions from the Levant and also of the Ebla archive from Tel Mardikh, excavated in 1960 by a joint Italo-Syrian team, have cast more light on the early Canaanite religion. Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Lucian of Samosata (c. ... Philo of Byblos (Herennios Philon), (ca 64 - 141 CE) was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek, whose name Herennius makes it appear that he was a client of the Consul suffectus Herennius Severus, through whom Philo could have achieved the status of a Roman citizen. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ...


Canaanite religion was strongly influenced by their more powerful and populous neighbours, and shows clear influence of Mesopotamian and Egyptian religious practices. Like other people of the Ancient Near East Canaanite religious beliefs were polytheistic, with families typically focusing worship on ancestral household gods and goddesses while acknowledging the existence of other deities such as Baal and El. Kings also played an important religious role and in certain ceremonies, such as the sacred marriage of the New Year Festival may have been revered as gods. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Jupiter and Juno, by Agostino Carracci Hieros Gamos (Greek ιερός γάμος, holy wedding) or Hierogamy (Greek ιερογαμία, again holy wedding) means a coupling (sometimes marriage) of a god and a man or a woman, often having a symbolic meaning and generally conducted in the spring. ... For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ...


Pantheon

The pantheon was conceived as a divine family, headed by the supreme god El; the gods collectively made up the Elohim: EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ...

  • Anat, Goddess of War and Strife, wife of Ba'al Hadad
  • Asherah walker of the sea, Mother Goddess, wife of El (also known as Elat)
  • Astarte, possibly androgynous divinity associated with Venus
  • Baalat or Baalit, the wife or female counterpart of Baal (also Belili)
  • Ba'al Hadad, storm God, superseded El as head of the Pantheon
  • Baal-Hammon, god of fertility and renewer of all energies in the Phoenician colonies of the Western Mediterranean
  • Dagon, god of crop fertility.
  • El Elyon (i.e. God most high) and El
  • Eshmun or Baalat Asclepius, god of healing
  • Kotharat
  • Kathirat, goddesses of marriage and pregnancy
  • Kothar, Hasis, the skilled, god of craftsmanship
  • Lotan, serpent ally of Yam
  • Melqart, king of the city, the underworld and cycle of vegetation in Tyre
  • Moloch, "king" of child sacrifices
  • Mot, God of Death
  • Qadeshtu, Holy One, Goddess of Love
  • Resheph God of Plague and healing
  • Shalim and Shachar
  • Shamayim, the God of the Heavens.
  • Shemesh
  • Tehwom, Goddess of the "Deeps"
  • Yam-nahar or Yam, also called Judge Nahar
  • Yarikh God of the moon
  • Zedek

Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Eilat or Elat (אילת), pop. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Tammuz or Tamuz (Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; all from Sumerian Dumuzid or Dumuzi legal son who was the dying and rising shepherd... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Báʿal / Báʿal) is a northwest Semitic word signifying The Lord, master, owner (male), husband cognate with Akkadian Bēl of the same meanings. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly of grain and agriculture. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyōn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyōn when it means God or is applied to... Ä’l is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... The Kotharat or Kotharot or Kathirat (various suggested pronunciations of Ugaritic ktrt) the skilful ones were a group of northwest Semitic goddesses apearing in the Ugartic texts as divine midwives. ... The Kotharat or Kotharot or Kathirat (various suggested pronunciations of Ugaritic ktrt) the skilful ones were a group of northwest Semitic goddesses appearing in the Ugartic texts as divine midwives. ... Kothar can be a reference to: Kothar-wa-Khasis, a Canaanite god. ... This page is about the biblical creature; for other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... In Egyptian mythology and Canaanite religion, Qetesh (also Qadesh, Kadesh, Qatesh, Qadeshet, Qudshu, Quodesh) referred to a Goddess or Goddesses of Love and Beauty (rather than fertility), who is thought to have originally been a Semitic divinity, from Canaanite religion, adopted into the Egyptian pantheon at a later date. ... Resheph was a Semitic god of plague and war. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... The god of dawn in the pantheon of Ugarit. ... Shamayim (literally sky in Hebrew) or the Heavens, was an important concept in the religions and cosmology of the ancient Levant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shammash. ... Tehwom in the Bible means the depths or the deeps. It is cognate with Babylonian Tiamat, the creatrix Goddess of Salt Water, who with her freshwater partner Apsu/Abzu, was the original creators of the Babylonian cosmos, mother and father of Lahm and Lahmu. ... Yam, from the Canaanite word Yam, meaning Sea, is one name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea. ... Yam, Yamm, or Yaw (jaÊŠ) is the name of the Levantine god of chaos and mass-destruction, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Els) or sons of El. ... The Nahar is the name of the currency that Chechen separatists planned for Chechen Republic. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... Zedek or Tzedek, West Semitic for Justice, was probably the name of the chief god of the Jebusites, and possibly of other Canaanite people. ...

Cosmology

According to the pantheon, known in Ugarit as 'ilhm (=Elohim) or the children of El (cf. the Biblical "sons of God"), supposedly obtained by Philo of Byblos from Sanchuniathon of Berythus (Beirut) the creator was known as Elion (Biblical El Elyon = God most High), who was the father of the divinities, and in the Greek sources he was married to Beruth (Beirut = the city). This marriage of the divinity with the city would seem to have Biblical parallels too with the stories of the link between Melkart and Tyre; Yahweh and Jerusalem; Chemosh and Moab; Tanit and Baal Hammon in Carthage. El Elyon is mentioned as 'God Most High' occurs in Genesis 14.18–19 as the God whose priest was Melchizedek king of Salem. This article is about the Hebrew word. ... There are several theories concerning the identity of the sons of God (bnei elohim, בני האלהים, contrasted with daughters of men) identified in the book of Genesis. ... Philo of Byblos (Herennios Philon), (ca 64 - 141 CE) was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek, whose name Herennius makes it appear that he was a client of the Consul suffectus Herennius Severus, through whom Philo could have achieved the status of a Roman citizen. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa) replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemosh (disambiguation). ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Basic Tanit symbol Tanit was a Carthaginian lunar goddess. ... Ba‘al Hammon (more properly Ba‘al Ḥammon or possibly Ba‘al Ḥamon) was the chief god of Carthage, generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ...


From the union of El Elyon and his consort was born Uranus and Ge, Greek names for the "Heaven" and the "Earth". This closely parallels the opening verse of Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning Elohim gave birth to the Heaven (Shemayim) and the Earth (Eretz)", and this would appear to be based upon this early Canaanite belief. This also has parallels with the story of the Babylonian Anunaki (i.e. = "Heaven and Earth"; Shamayim and Erets) too. For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Shamayim (literally sky in Hebrew) or the Heavens, was an important concept in the religions and cosmology of the ancient Levant. ... The Anunaki, from Anu = Heaven/Sky, na = and, Ki = Earth, was the name given to the Sumerian, and later Babylonian pantheon. ... Shamayim (literally sky in Hebrew) or the Heavens, was an important concept in the religions and cosmology of the ancient Levant. ...


In Canaanite mythology there were twin mountains Targhizizi and Tharumagi which hold the firmament up above the earth-circling ocean, thereby bounding the earth. We learn from W. F. Albright for example that El Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû ("mountain") and shaddā`û or shaddû`a ("mountain-dweller"), one of the names of Amurru. Philo of Byblos states that Atlas was one of the Elohim, which would clearly fit into the story of El Shaddai as "God of the Mountain(s)." Harriet Lutzky has presented evidence that Shaddai was an attribute of a Semitic goddess, linking the epithet with Hebrew šad "breast" as "the one of the Breast". The idea of two mountains being associated here as the breasts of the Earth, fits into the Canaanite mythology quite well. The ideas of pairs of mountains seem to be quite common in Canaanite mythology (similar to Horeb and Sinai in the Bible).


The appearance of "high places" or "holy places" in early Biblical tales (until the centralisation of the cult in the temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem by Hezekiah and Josiah). Certainly the idea of the "Lords of the Mountain" (Ba'al Hermon and Ba'al Zephon) suggests that there are twin gods mentioned here in the north also. These twin Gods, located on the Eastern and Western extremities are probably the homes of Shachar (the Rising Sun) and Shalim (the setting sun), sons of Asherah and El, known as the "beneficent gods".


Contact with other areas

Canaanite religion was influenced by its peripheral position, intermediary between Egypt and Mesopotamia, whose religions had a growing impact upon Canaanite religion. For example during the Hyksos period, when horse using maryannu Asiatics ruled in Egypt, at their capital city of Avaris, Baal became associated with the Egyptian God Set, and was considered identical - particularly with Set in his form as Sutekh. Iconographically henceforth Baal was shown wearing the crown of Lower Egypt and shown in the Egyptian-like stance, one foot set before the other. Similarly Athirat/Asherah, Astarte and Anath henceforth were portrayed wearing Hathor like Egyptian wigs. From the other direction, Botero has suggested that Yah, of Ebla (a possible precursor of Yam), was equated with the Mesopotamian Ea, during the Akkadian period. In the Middle and Late Bronze Age, there are also strong Hurrian and Mitannite influences upon the Canaanite religion. The Hurrian Goddess Hebat was worshipped in Jerusalem, and Baal was closely considered equivalent to the Hurrian storm God Teshub, and the Hittite storm God Tarhunt. Canaanite divinities seem to have been almost identical in form and function to the neighbouring Aramaeans to the east, and can Baal Hadad and El be distinguished amongst earlier Amorites, who at the end of the Early Bronze Age invaded Mesopotamia. Carried west by Phoenician sailors, Canaanite religious influences can be seen in Greek mythology, particularly in the tripartite division between the Olympians Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, mirroring the division between Baal, Yam and Mot, and in the story of the Labours of Hercules, mirroring the stories of the Tyrian Melkart. An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted nobility which dominated many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Set, in KV34 Set (also Setekh, Seth, etc) was originally a god of strength, war, storms, foreign lands (and foreigners) and deserts in Egyptian mythology. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For other uses, see Hathor (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Iah was a lunar deity. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Yam may refer to: Yam (vegetable), common name for members of Dioscorea Yam (god), a Levantine deity A colloquially American term for Shellfish Yam (route), a Mongolian supply point system An animal in the same family as the Yak and Wild Buffalo A colloquially American term for sweet potato A... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ancient Near Eastern religion. ... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The mother goddess of the Hurrians. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Olympians can refer to any of the following: The Twelve Olympians of Ancient Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Yam may refer to: Yam (vegetable), common name for members of Dioscorea Yam (god), a Levantine deity A colloquially American term for Shellfish Yam (route), a Mongolian supply point system An animal in the same family as the Yak and Wild Buffalo A colloquially American term for sweet potato A... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Hercules and the hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours of Hercules (Greek: dodekathlos) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by the greatest of the Greek heroes Heracles, romanised as Hercules. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa) replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ...


Similarities with the Bible

El Elyon also appears in Baalam's story in Numbers and in Moses song in Deuternomy 32.8. The Masoretic Texts suggest The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ...

When the Most High (`Elyōn) divided to the nations their inheritance, he separated the sons of man (Ādām); he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the sons of Israel

The Septuagint suggests a different reading of this. Rather than "sons of Israel" it suggests the "angelōn theou" or 'angels of God' and a few versions even have "huiōn theou" 'sons of God'. The Dead Sea Scrolls version of this suggests that there were in fact 70 sons of God sent to rule over the 70 nations of the Earth. This idea of the 70 nations of Earth, each ruled over by one of the Elohim (sons of God) is also found in Ugaritic texts. The Aslan Tash inscription suggests that each of the 70 sons of El Elyon were bound to their people by a covenant. Thus as Crossan translates it The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ...

"The Eternal One (`Olam) has made a covenant oath with us,
Asherah has made (a pact) with us.
And all the sons of El,
And the great council of all the Holy Ones (Qedesh).
With oaths of Heaven and Ancient Earth."

For the Stargate character, see Qetesh (Stargate). ...

References

  1. ^ Aubet, Maria E., (1987, 910 "The Phoenicians and the West", (Cambridge University Press, New York) p.9
  2. ^ Tubb, Jonathan "The Canaanites" (British Museum Press)
  • Moscatti, Sabatino (1968), "The World of the Phoenicians" (Phoenix Giant)
  • Ribichini, Sergio "Beliefs and Religious Life" in Maoscati Sabatino (1997), "The Phoenicians" (Rissoli)

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canaanite and Phoenician religions (2279 words)
The religions of the peoples of this region, Phoenicians, Moabites, Canaanites, Hebrews etc., did have regional differences, and according to sources never was never any unifying ideas, rituals and pantheons across the region.
Very early, in the religions of this region we see that the Mother Goddess was the subject of important cults (at this point in history it is not correct to use the terms "Canaanite" or "Phoenician").
Canaanite religion and its symbols and gods are mentioned over and over again in the Old Testament, and there also are many similarities in ideas and in rituals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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