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Encyclopedia > Canaan
Map of Canaan
Map of Canaan
Canaanites redirects here. For the 1940s social and political movement in Israel, see Canaanites (movement).
See also: Phoenicians

Canaan (Hebrew: כנען , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic ܟܢܥܢ, whence Arabic کنعان) is an ancient term for a region encompassing present-day Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. The Hebrew Bible identifies Canaan with Lebanon — foremost with the city of Sidon — but extends the "Land of Canaan" southward across Gaza to the "Brook of Egypt" and eastward to the Jordan Valley, thus including modern Israel with the Palestinian Territories. This southern area included various ethnic groups. The Amarna Letters found in Ancient Egypt mention Canaan (Akkadian: Kinaḫḫu) in connection with Gaza and other cities along the Phoenician coast and into Upper Galilee. Many earlier Egyptian sources also make mention of numerous campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na, just inside Asia. Download high resolution version (568x950, 76 KB)Map of Canaan http://www. ... Download high resolution version (568x950, 76 KB)Map of Canaan http://www. ... The ancient region of Canaan was the part of Palestine between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Canaanites is a political and aesthetic movement, which reached its peak in the 1940s among the Jewish residents in Palestine, and has significantly impacted the course of Israeli art, literature, and spiritual and political thought. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Brook of Egypt (identified with the Wady el-Arish) is a desert stream on the borders of Egypt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jordan Rift Valley. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Various Canaanite sites have been excavated by archaeologists. Although the residents of ancient Ugarit in modern Syria don't seem to have considered themselves Canaanite, archaeologists have considered the site, which was rediscovered in 1928, as quintessentially Canaanite. Much of the modern knowledge about the Canaanites stems from excavation in this area. They spoke Canaanite languages, closely related to other West Semitic languages. Canaanites are mentioned in the Bible, Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian texts. They have often been considered an ethnic group centered in Lebanon[1][2] ; though some recent sources, without specifying any physical evidence, have asserted an origin on the Arabian Peninsula[3],[4] a hypothesis that was also popular at the time of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, including Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and eventually Philistines. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Arabia redirects here. ... (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...

Contents

Nomenclature

The name Land of Canaan is mentioned frequently in the the Bible. It predates the Land of Israel name and describes the same land [5]. The classical Jewish view, as explained by Schweid, is that Canaan is the geographical name; the renaming as Israel prior to its conquest by the the people of Israel marks its sanctification, the origin of the Holy Land concept [6]. This land was later renamed Palestine by the Romans. In the Bible and elsewhere, Zion originally meant the region around Jerusalem but, because of the importance of this city, came to designate the whole of the land, as for example in the naming of Zionism. The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz Yiśrāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Etymology

History of the Levant
Stone Age

Kebaran · Natufian culture ·
Halafian culture · Jericho
This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...

Ancient History

Sumerians · Ebla · Akkadian Empire ·
Canaan · Phoenicians
Amorites · Aramaeans · Edomites · Hittites
Nabataeans ·Palmyra · Philistines ·Israel and Judah
Assyrian Empire · Babylonian Empire
Persian Empire · Seleucid Empire ·
Hasmonean kingdom
Roman Empire · Byzantine Empire
“Ancient” redirects here. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

The Middle Ages

Umayyad · Abbasid · Fatimid
Mamluks · Ottoman Empire
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

Modern Times

British Mandate of Palestine
Syria · Lebanon · Jordan
Israel · Palestinian territories It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

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The name Canaan is of obscure origins, with one possibility being the non-Semitic Hurrian "Knaa" or Akkadian Kinahhu, referring to the rich purple dye produced from the murex snail. The first known references appear in the 2nd millennium BC, possibly from Hurrian sources in the Mesopotamian city of Nuzi. The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ...


Another etymology is straightforward. "Can" means low as "Aram"[3] means high. A straightforward meaning of Canaan is "lowland." This was first applied to the lowland or classical Phoenicia, mainly Sidon, then by extension to the whole region.[4] Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


A third possibility is that Canaan derives from the Semitic root *k-n-' meaning "to be subdued" [7]. This meaning is supported by the story contained in the Bible. The Bible attributes the name to Canaan, the son of Ham and the grandson of Noah, whose offspring correspond to the names of various ethnic groups in the land of Canaan, listed in the "Table of Nations" (Gen. 10), where Sidon is named as his firstborn son, to be subdued by the descendents of Shem. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Canaan is a biblical figure who, according to the Old Testament, was the son of Ham and the grandson of the prophet Noah. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...


The eponym Ham[5] merely means "Hot" or "Red" in Hebrew or Canaanite, although it may have been derived initially from the Egyptian word Kemet (KMT), a word applied to the land along the Nile. Some authors reason that the attribution was made because the Canaanite coast but not the interior was under Egyptian domination for several centuries.[8] For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ...


Canaan in Mesopotamian inscriptions

Certain scholars of the Eblaite material (dated 2350 BC) from the archive of Tell Mardikh see the oldest reference to Canaanites in the ethnic name ga-na-na which provides a third millennium reference to the name Canaan.[9] Ebla was an ancient city located in northern Syria, about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. ...


Canaan is mentioned in a document from the 18th century BC found in the ruins of Mari, a former Sumerian outpost in Syria, located along the Middle Euphrates. Apparently Canaan at this time existed as a distinct political entity (probably a loose confederation of city-states). A letter from this time complains about certain "thieves and Canaanites (i.e. Kinahhu)" causing trouble in the town of Rahisum.[10] // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


Tablets found in the Mesopotamian city of Nuzi use the term Kinahnu ("Canaan") as a synonym for red or purple dye, produced from murex shells on the Mediterranean coast, apparently a renowned Canaanite export commodity. The dyes were likely named after their place of origin (much as "champagne" is both a product, and the name of the region where it is produced). The name 'Phoenicia' is connected with the Greek word for "purple", apparently referring to the same product, but it is difficult to state with certainty whether the Greek word came from the name, or vice versa. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well known far and wide and long associated with royalty. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...


Anne Killebrew has shown how cities such as Jerusalem were large and important walled settlements in the Middle Bronze IIB and Iron Age IIC periods (ca. 1800-1550 and 720-586 BCE), but that during the intervening Late Bronze (LB) and Iron Age I and IIA/B Ages sites like Jerusalem were small and relatively insignificant and unfortified towns[11]. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


References to Canaanites are also found throughout the Amarna letters of Pharaoh Akenaton circa 1350 BC, and a reference to the "land of Canaan" is found on the statue of Idrimi of Alalakh in modern Syria. After a popular uprising against his rule, Idrimi was forced into exile with his mother's relatives to seek refuge in "the land of Canaan", where he stayed, preparing for an eventual attack to recover his city. Texts from Ugarit also refer to an individual Canaanite (*kn'ny), suggesting that the people of Ugarit, contrary to much modern opinion, considered themselves to be non-Canaanite[12]. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Idrimi was the king of Alalakh in the first half of the 15th century BC. Idrimi was a son of the king of Aleppo who had been deposed by the new regional master, Barattarna, king of the Mitanni. ... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ...


Archaeological excavations of a number of sites, later identified as Canaanite, show that prosperity of the region reached its apogee during this Middle Bronze Age period, under leadership of the city of Hazor, at least nominally tributary to Egypt for much of the period. In the north, the cities of Yamkhad and Qatna were hegemons of important confederacies, and it would appear that Biblical Hazor was the chief city of another important coalition in the south. In the early Late Bronze Age, Canaanite confederacies were centred on Megiddo and Kadesh, before again being brought into the Egyptian Empire. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ... Yamkhad (also written Jamhad) was an ancient Syrian kingdom centered around Aleppo. ... Qatna is an ancient city in Syria, present day Tell-el-Mishrife in the Wadi il-Aswad, a tributary of the Orontes, 18 km northeast of Homs. ... Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; or more broadly, that cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Early Development of Canaanite Civilization

Main article: Pre-history of the Southern Levant

The urban development of Canaan lagged considerably behind that of Egypt and Mesopotamia and even Syria, where from ca. 3500 BC a sizable city developed at Hamoukar. This city, which was colonised, probably by people coming from Uruk, perhaps saw the first connections between Syria and Southern Mesopotamia that were repeated throughout history. Urban development again began, culminating in the Early Bronze Age development of sites like Ebla, which by ca. 2300 BC was incorporated once again into the Akkadian empire of Sargon the Great and Naram-Sin of Akkad (Biblical Accad). Sumerian references to the Mar.tu ("tent dwellers" - considered to be Amorite) country West of the Euphrates date from even earlier than Sargon, at least to the reign of Enshakushanna of Uruk. The archives of Ebla show reference to a number of Biblical sites, including Hazor, Jerusalem, and as a number of people have claimed, to Sodom and Gomorrah mentioned in Genesis as well. The collapse of the Akkadian Empire saw the arrival of peoples using Khirbet Kerak Ware pottery,[13] coming originally from the Zagros Mountains, east of the Tigris. It is suspected by some [14]that this event marks the arrival in Syria and Canaan of the Hurrians, possibly the people later known in the Biblical tradition as Horites. The Pre-history of the Southern Levant explains the various cultural changes that occurred, as revealed by archaeological evidence, prior to recorded traditions in the area of the Southern Levant, also referred to by a number of other largely overlapping historical designations, including Canaan, the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel... Hamoukar is a large archaeological site located in a remote part of northeastern Syria near the Iraqi border, in the Jazira region in the Al Hasakah governorate. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Bronze head of Sargon (?), from Nineveh, stolen from National Museum of Iraq in 2003 Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Sharru-kin, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ... ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Horites (Egyptian Khar) were cave-dwellers mentioned in the Torah (Genesis 14:6, 36:20, Deuteronomy 2:12) inhabiting areas around Petra. ...


John Bright[15]and William F. Albright[16] have suggested that contact during the early Isin-Larsa period of Amorite states lies behind the Abraham stories of the patriarchal traditions. However, since the critiques of Jon Van Seters and Thomas L. Thompson, these views have failed to find a consensus. William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ...


Today it is thought that Canaanite civilization is a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change. During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilisations of the Middle East — Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Minoan Crete — to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub (Hurrian) or Ba'al Hadad (Aramaean) and Ya'a, Yaw, Yahu or Yam, god of the sea and rivers. Small walled market towns characterized early Canaanite civilization surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley. Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced — shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. Evidence of this cycle of agriculture is found in the Gezer Calendar and in the Biblical cycle of the year. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... Teshub was the Hurrian god of sky and storm. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Yam, from the Canaanite word Yam, meaning Sea, is one name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pistacia vera L. The Pistachio (Pistacia vera, Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to southwestern Asia (Iran west to the Levant). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Periods of rapid climate change generally saw a collapse of this mixed Mediterranean farming system; commercial production was replaced with subsistence agriculural foodstuffs; and transhumance pastoralism became a year-round nomadic pastoral activity, whilst tribal groups wandered in a circular pattern north to the Euphrates, or south to the Egyptian delta with their flocks. During the periods of the collapse of Akkad and the First Intermediary Period in Egypt, the Hyksos invasions and the end of the Middle Bronze Age in Babylonia, and the Late Bronze Age collapse, trade through the Canaanite area would dwindle, as Egypt and Mesopotamia withdrew into their isolation. When the climates stabilized, trade would resume firstly along the coast in the area of the Philistine and Phoenician cities. The Philistines, while an integral part of the Canaanite milieu, do not seem to have been ethnically homogenous with the Canaanites; the Hurrians, Hittites, Aramaeans, Moabites, and Ammonites are also considered distinct from generic Canaanites or Amorites, in scholarship or in tradition (although in the Biblical Book of Nations, "Heth", (Hittites) are a son of Canaan). As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea, through Hebron, Lachish, Jerusalem, Bethel, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh through Galilee to Jezreel, Hazor and Megiddo. Secondary Canaanite cities would develop in this region. Further economic development would see the creation of a third trade route from Eilath, Timna, Edom (Seir), Moab, Ammon and thence to Damascus and Palmyra. Earlier states (for example the Philistines and Tyrians in the case of Judah and Israel, for the second route, and Judah and Israel for the third route) tried generally unsuccessfully to control the interior trade. Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The First Intermediary Period is the name given to the era of anarchy and chaos, following the dissolution of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... Kadesh (Hebrew: קָדֵשׁ), also known as Kadesh-Barnea (קָדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ), was a place in the south of Ancient Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Shiloh may be: A name mentioned in the Bible: Shiloh (Biblical), meaning peace or: // Shiloh (river), stream in the Samarian mountains, originating at Biblical Shiloh. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל; Emek Yizrael) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ... Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... For the Israeli destroyer, see HMS Zealous (R39). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Edomite redirects here. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Judah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Eventually, the prosperity of this trade would attract more powerful regional neighbors, such as Ancient Egypt, Assyria, the Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks and Romans, who would attempt to control the Canaanites politically, levying tribute, taxes and tariffs. Often in such periods, thorough overgrazing would result in a climatic collapse and a repeat of the cycle (eg. PPNB, Ghassulian, Uruk, and the Bronze Age cycles already mentioned). The fall of later Canaanite civilization occurred with the incorporation of the area into the Greco-Roman world (as Iudaea province), and after Byzantine times, into the Arab, Ottoman[clarify] and Abbasid Caliphates. Aramaic, one of the two lingua francas of Canaanite civilization, is still spoken in a number of small Syrian villages, whilst Phoenician Canaanite disappeared as a spoken language in about 100 AD. Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in Palestine. ... The Ghassulian was an archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Palestine (c. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, spoken by the ancient Canaanite peoples. ...


Egyptian Canaan

The name Canaan occurs in hieroglyphs as k3nˁnˁ on the Merneptah Stele in the 13th century BC
The name Canaan occurs in hieroglyphs as k3nˁnˁ on the Merneptah Stele in the 13th century BC

During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian province, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza (Numbers 34). Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrew uses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in Syria near Turkey as part of the "Land of Canaan", so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire levantine coast of the Mediterranean Sea, making it a synonym of another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retenu. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x600, 10 KB) Summary Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canaan ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x600, 10 KB) Summary Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Canaan ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Hama is a province of Syria with currently approximately 350,000 inhabitants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jordan Rift Valley. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Retenu, also rendered Retchenu, was an Ancient Egyptian name for Canaan and Syria. ...


There is uncertainty about whether the name Canaan refers to a specific ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, or a region under the control of this ethnic group, or perhaps any of the three.


At the end of what is referred to as the Middle Kingdom era of Egypt, was a breakdown in centralised power, the assertion of independence by various nomarchs and the assumption of power in the Delta by Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty. Around 1674 BC, these rulers, whom the Egyptians referred to as "rulers of foreign lands" (Egyptian, Heqa Khasut), hence "Hyksos" (Greek), came to control Lower Egypt (northern Egypt), evidently leaving Canaan an ethnically diverse land. The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... Nomarchs is the name given by Egyptologists to the semi-feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces (or Nomes), in the period from the breakdown of the Old Kingdom First Intermediary Period to the rise of the New Empire at the end of the Second Intermediary Period, when stronger centralised control... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ... (Redirected from 1674 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC Events and trends Egypt: Start of Fifteenth Dynasty Significant people Categories: 1670s BC ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ...


Among the migrant tribes who appear to have settled in the region were the Amorites. In the Old Testament, we find Amorites mentioned in the Table of Peoples (Gen. 10:16-18a). Evidently, the Amorites played a significant role in the early history of Canaan. In Gen. 14:7 f., Josh. 10:5 f., Deut. 1:19 f., 27, 44, we find them located in the southern mountain country, while in Num. 21:13, Josh. 9:10, 24:8, 12, etc., we hear of two great Amorite kings residing at Heshbon and Ashtaroth, east of the Jordan. However, in other passages such as Gen. 15:16, 48:22, Josh. 24:15, Judg. 1:34, etc., the name Amorite is regarded as synonymous with "Canaanite" — only "Amorite" is never used for the population on the coast. Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Heshbon was a town in Ancient Israel. ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with the east-Semitic goddess Ishtar. ...


In Egyptian inscriptions Amar and Amurru are applied strictly to the more northerly mountain region east of Phoenicia, extending to the Orontes. In the Akkadian Empire, as early as Naram-Sin's reign (ca. 2240 BC), Amurru was called one of the "four quarters" surrounding Sumer, along with Subartu, Akkad, and Elam, and Amorite dynasties also came to dominate in Mesopotamia, including at Babylon and Isin. Later on, Amurru became the Assyrian term for the interior of south as well as for northerly Canaan. At this time the Canaanite area seemed divided between two confederacies, one centred upon Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley, the second on the more northerly city of Kadesh on the Orontes River. The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... ... The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Å ubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Å ubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Å ubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Megiddo is the English designation for an important ancient settlement and city site in the Jezreel Valley of northern Israel, known alternatively as Tel Megiddo (Hebrew) and Tell es-Mutesellim (Arabic). ... Jezreel Valley and Mount Tabor, Israel Jezreel Valley The Jezreel Valley ; ‎, Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon (Esdraelon is the Koine Greek rendering of Jezreel[1]), and as the Zirin Valley (Arabic: , Sahel Zirin), and as the Meadow of Amrs son (مرج بن عامر, Marj Ibn Amer), is... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ...


In the centuries preceding the appearance of the Biblical Hebrews, Canaan and Syria became tributary to the Egyptian Pharaohs, although domination by the sovereign was not so strong as to prevent frequent local rebellions and inter-city struggles. Under Thutmose III (14791426 BC) and Amenhotep II (14271400 BC), the regular presence of the strong hand of the Egyptian ruler and his armies kept the Syrians and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. Nevertheless, Thutmose III reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru or (in Egyptian) 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries, brigands or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad-luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element of the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor or princeling prepared to undertake their support. Although Habiru SA-GAZ (a Sumerian ideogram glossed as "brigand" in Akkadian), and sometimes Habiri (an Akkadian word) had been reported in Mesopotamia from the reign of Shulgi of Ur III, their appearance in Canaan appears to have been due to the arrival of a new state in Northern Mesopotamia based upon Maryannu aristocracy of horse drawn charioteers, associated with the Indo-Aryan rulers of the Hurrians, known as Mitanni. The Habiru seem to have been more a social class than any ethnic group. One analysis shows that the majority were, however, Hurrian, though there were a number of Semites and even some Kassite adventurers amongst their number. The reign of Amenhotep III, as a result was not quite so tranquil for the Asiatic province, as Habiru/'Apiru contributed to greater political instability. It is believed that turbulent chiefs began to seek their opportunities, though as a rule could not find them without the help of a neighboring king. The boldest of the disaffected nobles was Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta, a prince of Amurru, who even before the death of Amenhotep III, endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus. Akizzi, governor of Katna-(Qatna?) (near Hamath), reported this to the Pharaoh, who seems to have sought to frustrate his attempts. In the next reign, however, both father and son caused infinite trouble to loyal servants of Egypt like Rib-Addi, governor of Gubla (Gebal), not the least through transferring loyalty from the Egyptian crown to that of the expanding neighbouring Hittites under Suppiluliuma I. For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... (Redirected from 1479 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC Events and Trends Significant People Hatshepsut of Egypt starts her rule Categories: 1470s... (Redirected from 1426 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC Events and Trends Crete conquered by Mycenae (approximately 1420 BC) - start of the... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes... (Redirected from 1427 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC Events and Trends Crete conquered by Mycenae (approximately 1420 BC) - start of the... (Redirected from 1400 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board... Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Butch Cassidy, a famous Western American outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, meaning literally outside of the law. ... An outlaw is a person living outside the law. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr. ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted nobility which dominated many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... For the torpedo-shaped underwater vehicle ridden by two frogmen, sometimes referred to as a chariot, see Human torpedo. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ... Abdi-Ashirta was the ruler of Amurru, a new kingdom in southern Syria subject to nominal Egyptian control that was in conflict with king Rib-Hadda of Byblos. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Prince Akizzi was the ruler of Qatna in the 14th century BC. Prince Akizzi authored three of the Amarna letters correspondence. ... Qatna is an ancient city in Syria, present day Tell-el-Mishrife in the Wadi il-Aswad, a tributary of the Orontes, 18 km northeast of Homs. ... Hama is a province of Syria with currently approximately 350,000 inhabitants. ... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ...


Egyptian power in Canaan thus suffered a major setback when the Hittites (or Hatti) advanced into Syria in the reign of Amenhotep III, and became even more threatening in that of his successor, displacing the Amurru and prompting a resumption of Semitic migration. Abd-Ashirta and his son Aziru, at first afraid of the Hittites, afterwards made a treaty with their king, and joining with other external powers, attacked the districts remaining loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Addi send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern Bogazköy...


In the el Amarna letters (~1350 BC) sent by governors and princes of Canaan to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) in the 14th century BC — commonly known as the Tel-el-Amarna tablets — we find, beside Amar and Amurru (Amorites), the two forms Kinahhi and Kinahni, corresponding to Kena' and Kena'an respectively, and including Syria in its widest extent, as Eduard Meyer has shown. The letters are written in the official and diplomatic Akkadian language, though "Canaanitish" words and idioms are also in evidence. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... The Amarna letters is the name popularly given to a cache of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE). ... Eduard Meyer (January 25, 1855 - August 31, 1930) was a German historian, born at Hamburg and educated at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


In the El Amarna letters(~1350 BC), we meet with the Habiri in northern Syria. Itakkama wrote thus to the Pharaoh, EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Etakkama, as a common name, but also, Aitukama, Atak(k)ama, Etak(k)ama, and Itak(k)ama is the name for the mayor of Qidšu, (Kadesh) of the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence. ...

"Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord to the SA-GAZ in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi. But I will go, and if thy gods and thy sun go before me, I will bring back the cities to the king, my lord, from the Habiri, to show myself subject to him; and I will expel the SA-GAZ."

Similarly Zimrida, king of Sidon- (named 'Siduna'), declared, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the Habiri." The king of Jerusalem, Abdi-Heba, reported to the Pharaoh, Biryawaza was king of Damascus in the mid fourteenth century BCE. In the Amarna letters, he was ordered by his Egyptian overlords to take armed action against Labayas sons (EA 250). ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... Zimredda (Sidon mayor), also Zimr-Edda or Zimr-Eddi was the mayor of Siduna, (modern Sidon) in the mid 14th century BC. His name means, Protection/Protector Hadad, (My) protector (is) Hadad, The protector is Hadad, Protector-Hadad, etc. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was king of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC). ...

"If (Egyptian) troops come this year, lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my lord."

Abdi-heba's principle trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Labaya, who are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Habiri. Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina. All these princes, however, maligned each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protested their own innocence of traitorous intentions. Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accused of disloyalty, wrote thus to the Pharaoh, Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Libayu) was a Canaanite warlord who lived about contemporaneously with Pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century BCE). ... Gina (Canaan), mentioned in the Amarna Letters, was a town in ancient Canaan. ...

"Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAZ, and my Suti ?9 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands." [17]

Just after the Amarna period a new problem arose which was to trouble the Egyptian control of Canaan. Pharaoh Horemhab campaigned against Shasu (Egyptian = "wanderers") or living in nomadic pastoralist tribes, who had moved across the Jordan to threaten Egyptian trade through Galilee and Jezreel. Seti I (ca. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered these Shasu, Semitic nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to "Ka-n-'-na". After the near collapse of the Battle of Kadesh, Rameses II had to campaign vigorously in Canaan to maintain Egyptian power. Egyptian forces penetrated into Moab and Ammon, where a permanent fortress garrison (Called simply "Rameses") was established. After the collapse of the Levant under the so called "Peoples of the Sea" Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen in "Ka-n-'-na." This geographic name probably meant all of western Syria and Canaan, with Raphia, "the (first) city of the Ka-n-'-na,", on the southwest boundary toward the desert. Some archaeologists have proposed that Egyptian records of the 13th century BC are early written reports of a monotheistic belief in Yahweh noted among the nomadic Shasu. Evidently, belief in Yahweh had arisen among these nomadic peoples. By the reign of King Josiah (around 650 BC).[18][19] Yahweh had displaced the polytheistic family of "El" as the principle God amongst those living in the high country of Israel and Judah. The Suteans were a tribe who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan circa 1350 BC. They are mentioned in eight of the 382 Amarna letters. ... Shasu is an Egyptian term for nomads who appeared in the Levant from the 15th Century BC all the way to the Third Intermediate Period. ... Nomadic pastoralism is a farming system where animals (such as cattle, sheep, goats, and camels), are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures. ... This article is on the social structure. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל; Emek Yizrael) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... (Redirected from 1290 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... Shasu is an Egyptian term for nomads who appeared in the Levant from the 15th Century BC all the way to the Third Intermediate Period. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew Ê»Ammon, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Ammôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... (Redirected from 1194 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC Events and Trends 1197 BC -The beginning of first period (1197 BC - 982... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ...


Some believe the "Habiru" signified generally all the nomadic tribes known as "Hebrews." and particularly the early Israelites, who sought to appropriate the fertile region for themselves, but the term was rarely used to describe the Shasu. Whether the term may also include other related peoples such as the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites is uncertain. It may not be an ethnonym at all; see the Habiru article for details. Shasu is an Egyptian term for nomads who appeared in the Levant from the 15th Century BC all the way to the Third Intermediate Period. ... Moab (מוֹאָב Seed of father/leader, Standard Hebrew Moʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Môʾāḇ) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... Habiru (Ha biru) or Apiru or pr. ...


Biblical Canaanites

The part of the book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible often called the Table of Nations describes the Canaanites as being descended from an ancestor called Canaan (Hebrew: כְּנַעַן‎, Knaan), saying (Genesis 10:15–19): For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Canaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn; and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then [inland around the Jordan Valley] toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Jebus redirects here. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Girgashites The Girgashites were descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah. ... The Hivites were one of the sons of Canaan according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. ... By some scholars the Sinites were the Chinese tribes. ...

The Biblical scholar, Richard Friedman, argues that this part of Genesis showing the origin of the Canaanites was written by the hypothetical Priestly Source[20][21]. Richard Friedman is the name of: Richard Elliott Friedman, contemporary Bible scholar Richard S. Kinky Friedman, songwriter and candidate for Governor of Texas Category: ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ...


The Sidon whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon, in Lebanon. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the "Land of Canaan". View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Similarly, Canaanite populations are said to have inhabited:

During the Canaanite Period of the Archaeology of Israel, the cities of Canaan were ruled by vassals of the Egyptian Empire. The Table of Nations calls Canaan the "son of Ham", whose ethnicities, e.g. Egypt ("Mitzrayim"), are associated with Africa (Genesis 10:6). The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Jordan Rift Valley. ... The archaeology of Israel is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was an organized civilization of the Nile Valley from around 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, although recent excavations reveal a cattle-herding society of peoples living in the region as early as 6000 BC. By 4000 BC...


A Biblical story involving Canaan seems to refer to the ancient discovery of the cultivation of grapes around 4000 BC around the area of Ararat, which is associated with Noah.[22] After the Flood, Noah planted a vineyard, made wine but became drunk. While intoxicated, an incident occurred involving him and his youngest son, Ham. Afterward, Noah cursed Ham's son Canaan (but not Ham, for reasons that are not stated) to a life of servitude (a possible pun on the Hebrew word "Can" meaning serviteur). He is to serve his brothers (who were not cursed either due to the respect they exhibited towards their inebriated father) and also his uncles Shem and Japheth (Genesis 9:20–27). Noah's curse is typically interpreted to apply to the descendants of the mentioned figures. "Shem" includes the Israelites, Moabites, and Ammonites, who dominated the Canaanite inland areas around the Jordan Valley. Agriculture refers to the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other meanings of Ararat, see Ararat (disambiguation) Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı; Armenian Արարատ; Persian آرارات; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂrārāṭ), the tallest peak in modern Turkey, is a snow_capped dormant volcanic cone, located in the far northeast of Turkey, 16 km west of Iran and 32... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini, depicting Ham (center) laughing at his father, while Shem and Japheth cover him. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moab (מוֹאָב Seed of father/leader, Standard Hebrew Moʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Môʾāḇ) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ...


The Canaanites (Hebrew: כנענים, Standard Knaanim Tiberian Kəna‘anîm) are said to have been one of seven regional ethnic divisions or "nations" driven out before the Israelites following the Exodus. Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites (Deuteronomy 7:1). Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Hittites, Hethites or Children of Heth are English terms used for a people mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament, Tanakh), who some believe lived in or near Canaan from the time of Abraham (presumably between 2000 BC and 1500 BC) to the time of Ezra after the... The Girgashites The Girgashites were descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Hivites were one of the sons of Canaan according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. ... Jebus redirects here. ...


According to the Book of Jubilees, the Israelite conquest of Canaan, and the curse, are attributed to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile, and instead "squatting" on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, within the inheritance delineated for Shem. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ...


The Bible describes God cautioning the Israelites against the sexual idolatry of the Canaanites and their fertility cult (Leviticus 18:27). Thus the Land of the Canaanites, defined as including these seven groups, was deemed suitable for conquest by the Israelites partly on moral grounds (Deuteronomy 20:16–17). One of the 613 mitzvot (precisely n. 596) prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites, were to be left alive. Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ...

By the time of the Second Temple, "Canaanite" in Hebrew had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for "merchant", as it is interpreted in, for example, Zechariah 14:21. This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Elam (עֵילָם) in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9;) is said to be the oldest son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... Ashurism (Hebrew: ‎; Akkadian: ), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... Aram (אֲרָם or ʾĂrām) was a son of Shem, according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible, as well as the father of Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. ... Arpachshad or Arphaxad or Arphacsad (אַרְפַּכְשַׁד / אַרְפַּכְשָׁד healer; releaser, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew / ) was one of the five sons of Shem, the son of Noah (Genesis 10:22,24;11:12,13; 1 Chronicles 1:17,18). ... Lud was a Shemite grandson of Noah. ... Ham (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: , IPA: , hot), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... Hamitic is an obsolete ethno-linguistic classification of some ethnic groups within the Afroasiatic (previously termed Semito-Hamitic) language family. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mizraim (Hebrew מצרים Mitzráyim or Miá¹£rāyim/Miá¹£ráyim; cf. ... Phut (cf. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Japhetic is a term that refers to the supposed descendants of Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah in the Bible. ... In medical slang, a true gomer is a patient who, in spite of old age and multiple diseases, just never seems to die. ... Magog was one of the seven sons of Japheth mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible. ... Madai was a Japhethic grandson of Noah in the Biblical tradition. ... The Biblical character Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noahs son Japheth. ... Tubals (Tabals, Tibarenoi in Greek) were Luwian tribes of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC. Some modern Georgians claim descent from the Tubals and Meshechs commonly identified as Phrygians. ... Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs/Mushki, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC, said to be the offspring of Meshech, son of Japheth. ... Tiras was, according to Genesis 10, a son of Japheth. ...


Historical context

It has been argued that the Israelites were themselves Canaanites, and that "historical Israel", as distinct from "literary" or "Biblical Israel" was a subset of Canaanite culture [23]. "Canaan" when used in this sense refers to the entire Ancient Near Eastern Levant down to about 100 AD, including the kingdoms of Israel and Judah[24]. For example, Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the 'Canaanites' and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and 'Canaanites' in the Iron I period (ca. 1200-1000). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from 'Canaanite' culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp6-7[25]. Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Unlike Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt, where documentation exists that is rich and varied, the documentation about Canaan is very sparse. The only sources that come from inside the region are from Syria - with Bronze Age cuneiform archives of Ebla, Mari, Alalakh and Ugarit. Iron Age materials are even more scarce, as writing then was mostly on papyrus, of which, unlike Egypt, none of which has survived the humid climates of the most populous parts of the region. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


The material of the Bible cannot be ignored historically, but ever since the ground-breaking publication of Thomas L. Thompson's 1974 monumental and painstaking study "Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives"[26], has established a backbone for epigraphers, archaeologists and Old Testament scholars that cannot be ignored[27], any debate on the historicity of the Canaanites as presented in Genesis has to take into account that the Biblical narratives represent a compilation of many individual sources of information, and according to Biblical minimalism, the process of editing these sources into a coherent narrative cannot have occurred at the earliest before the 7th or possibly the 6th century BC.[28][29][30][31] (this assertion is widely disputed by conservative and fundamentalist Christians who adopt a Biblical inerrant point of view). The writers or editors of these Biblical texts had access to a very wide variety of source materials [32][33], most of which were contemporary or near contemporary with the time of writing. These included religious and literary texts, songs, geographic and topographical information, traditional folk legends, propaganda and annalistic and chronological information of specific events. This material had an unknown and generally variable credibility [34][35]. The intention of the writers was not to produce an objective modern historical account[36][37][38], but instead to present a rationalisation for the theological and genealogical emergence of the monotheistic entity called Israel, bound in a specific covenant with a single divinity. Genesis was never intended to be a manual for archaeological excavation, as the anachronisms were of no concern to its contemporary audience, for whom the texts had meaning[39]. Thomas L. Thompson is a Baháí[1] American biblical theologian, born Jan 7, 1939 in Detroit Michigan. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible; i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy...


Names of Canaanite kings or other figures mentioned in historiography or known through archaeology

Confirmed archaeologically

Biblical Characters Ibrium (c. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Ibbi-Sipish (c. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Idrimi was the king of Alalakh in the first half of the 15th century BC. Idrimi was a son of the king of Aleppo who had been deposed by the new regional master, Barattarna, king of the Mitanni. ... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Ammittamru I was the first ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit who ruled before 1349 BC. Categories: | | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Niqmaddu II was the second ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit from 1349 BC - 1315 BC Categories: | | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Arhalba was the third ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit from 1315 BC - 1313 BC Categories: | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Niqmepa was the fourth and longest serving ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit from 1312 BC - 1260 BC Categories: | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Ammittamru II was a ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit from 1260 BC - 1235 BC Categories: | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Ibiranu was a ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit from 1235 BC - 1220 BC Categories: | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Ammurapi was the last Bronze Age ruler and king of the Ancient Syrian city of Ugarit who ruled 1215 BC-1185 BC. Ammurapi, was a contemporary of the Hittite King Suppiluliuma II. Categories: | | ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Libayu) was a Canaanite warlord who lived about contemporaneously with Pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century BCE). ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was king of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC). ... Å uwardata, also Å uardatu, (Shuwardata) was the mayor of Qiltu, (Keilah?, or Qiiltu) during the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence. ...

  • Canaan, son of Ham (Gen. 10:6)
  • Sidon, son of Canaan (Gen. 10:15)
  • Heth, firstborn son of Canaan (Gen. 10:15)
  • Cronos (Ilus), founder of Byblos according to Sanchuniathon
  • Mamre, an Amorite chieftain (Gen. 13:18)
  • Makamaron, king of Canaan (Jubilees 46:6)
  • Sihon, king of Amorites (Deut 1:4)
  • Og, king of Bashan (Deut 1:4)
  • Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem (Josh. 10:1)
  • Debir, king of Eglon (Josh. 10:3)
  • Jabin, name of two kings of Hazor (Josh. 11:1; Judges 5:6)

Rulers of Tyre View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... For the letter Heth in the Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, see Heth (letter). ... Rhea tricking Cronus with a wrapped stone. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... Mamre, full Hebrew name Elonei Mamre (Oaks of Mamre), is where Abraham built an altar (Genesis 13:18). ... The Bible describes that as the Israelites in their Exodus came to the country east of the Jordan, king Sihon of the Amorites refused to let them pass through his country. ... According to several books of the Old Testament, Og (pronounced , , or ; meaning gigantic) was an ancient Amorite king of Bashan who, along with his sons and army, was slain by Moses and his men at the battle of Edrei (probably modern day Dara, Syria). ... Bashan (meaning light soil) is a biblical place first mentioned in Genesis 14:5, where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth, where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. ... Adonizedek (variously transliterated as Adoni-zedec or Adoni-Zedek (in Hebrew, Adoni-Tzedek) was, according to the Book of Joshua, king of Jerusalem at the time of the Israelite invasion of Canaan (Josh. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A Biblical name, Debir may refer to: The most inner and sacred part of Solomons Temple, most commonly known as Sanctum Santorum. A Canaanite king of Eglon, slain by Joshua. ... A Biblical name, Eglon refers to either: A Canaanite city, whose king Debir joined a confederacy against Gibeon when that city made peace with Israel. ... Jabin (ja-bin) may refer to A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Joshua 11:1-14), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ...

  • Abibaal 990 - 978 BC
  • Hiram I 978 - 944 BC
  • Baal-Eser I (Balbazer I) 944 - 927 BC
  • Abdastratus 927 - 918 BC
  • Methusastartus 918 - 906 BC
  • Astarymus 906 - 897 BC
  • Phelles 897 - 896 BC
  • Eshbaal I 896 - 863 BC
  • Baal-Eser II (Balbazer II) 863 - 829 BC
  • Mattan I 829 - 820 BC
  • Pygmalion 820 - 774 BC
  • Eshbaal II 750 - 739 BC
  • Hiram II 739 - 730 BC
  • Mattan II 730 - 729 BC
  • Elulaios 729 - 694 BC
  • Abd Melqart 694 - 680 BC
  • Baal I 680 - 660 BC
  • Tyre may have been under control of Assyria and/or Egypt for 70 years
  • Eshbaal III 591 - 573 BC — Carthage became independent of Tyre in 574 BCE
  • Baal II 573 - 564 BC (under Babylonian overlords)
  • Yakinbaal 564 BC
  • Chelbes 564 - 563 BC
  • Abbar 563 - 562 BC
  • Mattan III and Ger Ashthari 562 - 556 BC
  • Baal-Eser III 556 - 555 BC
  • Mahar-Baal 555 - 551 BC
  • Hiram III 551 - 532 BC
  • Mattan III (under Persian Control)
  • Boulomenus
  • Abdemon c.420 - 411 BC

Hiram I or Ahiram (Hebrew: חִירָם, high-born; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām) was the Phoenician king of Tyre and Byblos from 969 BC to 936 BC, succeeding his father, Abibaal. ... Ithobaal I (or Ethbaal) (reigned 887 - 856 BC) was a king of Tyre who founded a new dynasty. ... Baal-Eser II (Balbazer II) (863 - 829 BCE) was king at the height of Tyrian influence in thge affairs of the Levant. ... Mattan I (or Matan I or Mittin) ruled Tyre from 829 to 821 BC, succeeding Baal-Eser II (Balbazer II) of Tyre/Sidon. ... Pygmalion (also known as Pumayyaton) was king of Tyre from 820 to 774 BC and a son of King Mattan I (829-821 BC). ... Luli or Elulaios was king of the Phoenician city of Tyre (729 - 694 BC). ... Baal I was the king of Tyre (680 - 660 BC). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ...

Phoenician Canaanites

See also: Phoenicians

Early on the Canaanites acquired fame as traders across a wide area beyond the Near East. There are occasional instances in the Hebrew Bible where "Canaanite" is used as a synonym for "merchant" — presumably indicating the aspect of Canaanite culture that the authors found most familiar. The term was derived from the place name, because so many merchants described themselves as Canaanites. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ...


One of Canaan's most famous exports was a much sought-after purple dye, derived from two species of Murex sea snails found along the east Mediterranean coast and worn proudly by figures from ancient kings to modern popes. This article or section should include material from Murex trunculus Binomial name Hexaplex trunculus Linnaeus, 1758 The Trunculus Murex (Hexaplex trunculus), is a broadly conical shell with a length of about 4 to 10 cm. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Between ca. 12001100 BC, most of southern Canaan was settled, and according to the Bible conquered, by the Israelites, while the northern areas were taken over by Arameans. The remaining area still under clear Canaanite control, is referred to by its Greek name, "Phoenicia" (meaning "purple", in reference to the land's famous dye). (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation formed around 1021BC from the descendants of Jacob, son of Isaac, who was given the name Israel, meaning Struggles With God. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, seminomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Much later, in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus affirms that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name that Philo of Byblos subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix". Quoting fragments attributed to Sanchuniathon, he relates that Byblos, Berytus and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronus, and credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuiding and writing. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Hecataeus (c. ... Philo of Byblos (Herennios Philon), (ca 64 - 141 CE) was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical works in Greek, whose name Herennius makes it appear that he was a client of the Consul suffectus Herennius Severus, through whom Philo could have achieved the status of a Roman citizen. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , BayrÅ«t) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Cronus is not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ...


St. Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was "Canaan." This is further confirmed by coins of the city of Laodicea by the Lebanon, that bear the legend, "Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan"; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175164 BC) and his successors. Augustinus redirects here. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Antiochus IV was made king of Kommagene by Caligula, who even enlarged his territory but then deposed him almost immediately. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174 BC 173 BC 172... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161...


The first of many Canaanites who emigrated seaward finally settled in Carthage, and St. Augustine adds that the country people near Hippo, presumably Punic in origin, still called themselves Chanani in his day. For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ...


See also

Canaanite religion was the group of Ancient Semitic religions, belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... This is a list of the Amarna letters –Text corpus, categorized by: Amarna letters-localities and their rulers. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz Yiśrāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant. ... The Qemant are a small, ethnic group in Ethiopia, which, despite their close historical and ethnic relationship, should not be confused with the Beta Israel. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rainey, Anson F., 1996, Who Is a Canaanite? Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, vol. 304, pp. 1–15 [1] quote: "The geopolitical and cultural evidence of the Late Bronze epigraphic witnesses strongly support the assumption that the biblically described border was a reality in the Late Bronze Age [...] Lemche's appeal to modern anthropological studies of peoples in Africa or Asia is no valid substitute for a truly professional analysis of the original documents under discussion."
  2. ^ Na'aman, Nadav, "Four Notes on the Size of the Late Bronze Age Canaan." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 313, Feb., 1999, 31-37 quote: "In sum, Canaan was the political-territorial name for the Egyptian province in Asia in the Late Bronze Age. Some of the texts mention Canaan without specifying an exact location because their authors did not consider it necessary to specify something that was so well known. But there are enough texts that give accurate details on the size of the land and the identity of its inhabitants, while there is not a single text that defines the size of Canaan differently. The phantom of the "Greater Canaan" should disappear from the scholarly literature, along with the erroneous arguments that were brought to support it."
  3. ^ Lewis '93, quote:
    [p.16] "Until we can dig for history in Arabia, as we have dug in Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia, the early centuries of Arabia will remain obscure, and the searcher in the
    [p.17] field will have to pick his way warily among the debris of half-erected and half-demolished hypotheses which the historian, with the scanty equipment of fact that he now possesses, can neither complete nor raze to the ground.
    Perhaps the best known of these is Winckler-Caetani theory, so named after its two most distinguished proponents. According to this, Arabia was originally a land of great fertility and the first home of the Semitic peoples. Through the millennia it has been undergoing a process of steady dessication, a drying up of wealth and waterways and spread of the desert at the expenses of the cultivable land. The declining productivity of the peninsula, together with the increase in the number of the inhabitants, led to a series of crises of overpopulation and consequently to a recurring cycle of invasions of the neighbouring countries by the semitic peoples of the peninsula. It was these crises that carried the Assyrians, the Aramaeans, Canaanites (including the Phoenicians and Hebrews), and finally the Arabs themselves into the Fertile Crescent. The Arabs of history would thus be the undifferentiated residue after the great invasion of ancient history had taken place.
    "
  4. ^ http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=201334
  5. ^ Canaan article in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia online
  6. ^ The Land of Israel: National Home Or Land of Destiny, By Eliezer Schweid, Translated by Deborah Greniman, Published 1985 Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, ISBN 0838632343
  7. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998), "Canaanites" (The British Museum Peoples of the Past)
  8. ^ Asimov, Isaac, Asimov's Guide to the Bible, Volume I, Page 44, Avon 1971
  9. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (!998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.15
  10. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (!998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past)
  11. ^ Killebrew Ann E. "Biblical Jerusalem: An Archaeological Assessment" in Andrew G. Vaughn and Ann E. Killebrew, eds., "Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period" (SBL Symposium Series 18; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003)
  12. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.16
  13. ^ See [2]
  14. ^ http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/html/urseals.htm
  15. ^ Bright, John (2000) "A History of Israel" (John Knox Press Westminster)
  16. ^ Albright, William F. "From Abraham to Ezra"
  17. ^ El Amarna letter, EA 189.
  18. ^ Who Were the Early Israelites?, William G. Dever. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003, pp. 128, 236.
  19. ^ Neil A. Silberman and Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  20. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliot (1997), "Who Wrote the Bible" (Eerdmans)
  21. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliot (2005), "The Bible with Sources Revealed" (Eerdmans)
  22. ^ http://www.savoreachglass.com/articles.php/13
  23. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.16
  24. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.16
  25. ^ )Smith Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  26. ^ Thompson, Thomas L. (1974) "Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives"
  27. ^ Van Seters, John "Abraham in History and Tradition"
  28. ^ "But now, all the thinking about the historicity of the Patriarchs is being radically reexamined. The somewhat facile assumptions of the past are under fierce scrutiny" (p.25) Magnusson, Magnus ((1977) "The archaeology of the Bible Lands" (Bodley Head BBC)
  29. ^ Thompason, Thomas L.(2000), "The Bible in History: How writers create a past" (Pimlico)
  30. ^ Mitchell, T.C. "The Bible in the British Museum: Interpreting the Evidence" (British Museum Press) p. 75
  31. ^ Jagersma, H. A (1985) "History of Israel to Bar Kochba" (SCM Press) pp.14-33
  32. ^ Redford Donald B> "Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times"(Princeton Uni Press) pp.137ff
  33. ^ "First the narratives represent a compilation of very many individual sources" (p.17) Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past)
  34. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.17
  35. ^ Soggin, J. Alberto (1985), "A History of Israel: from the beginnings to the Bar Kochba revolt" (SCM Press) pp.90-108
  36. ^ Whitelam, Keith W. (1996), "The Invention of Ancient Israel: the silencing of Palestinian history" (Routledge) pp.52-57
  37. ^ Anderson, G.W. (1966), "The History and Religion of Israel" (Oxford Uni Press) pp.15-21
  38. ^ "Unfortnately there are serious problems with this [Genesis Patriarchs] Scheme. First it accepts impossibly long lifespans assigned to the patriarchs. Second it is internally inconsistent. Moses and Aaron were the fourth generation descendents of Jacobs son Levi... The 430 years assigned to slavery in Egypt is too much for the three generations from Levi to Moses, an average of 143 years" pp.2-3 ,McCarter, P. Kyle The Patriarchal Age: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob" in Shanks, Hershel (Ed)(1989), "Ancient Israel: A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple" (SPCK)
  39. ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past)

The American Schools of Oriental Research, (commonly abbreviated as ASOR) founded in 1900, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Niels Peter Lemche is a biblical scholar at the University of Copenhagen. ... This is about the social science. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The American Schools of Oriental Research, (commonly abbreviated as ASOR) founded in 1900, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. ... Hugo Winckler (July 4, 1863, Gräfenhainchen, Saxony — April 19, 1913, Berlin) was a German archaeologist and historian who uncovered the capital of the Hittite Empire at Bogazkoy, Turkey. ... Leone Caetani (September 12, 1869 - December 25, 1935) was an Italian. ... The Winckler-Caetani theory , named after its two most distinguished proponents, Hugo Winckler and Leone Caetani, which claims that Arabia was originally a land of great fertility and the first home of the semitic peoples. ... Semitic is an adjective which in common parlance mistakenly refers specifically to Jewish things, while the term actually refers to things originating among speakers of Semitic languages or people descended from them, and in a linguistic context to the northeastern subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the Hebrew people. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Asimovs Guide to the Bible, 1967 and 1969. ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. - this article needs updating with modern research results.
  • Bernard W Lewis The Arabs in History [1993] Oxford University Press ISBN 0192803107
  • Peter Briggs Testing the Factuality of the Conquest of Ai Narrative in the Book of Joshua (2001) (This paper is derived from the doctoral dissertation Briggs 2001; A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society)

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Jonathan N. Tubb, Canaanites, Norman (Oklahoma) 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X

External links


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