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Encyclopedia > Campylobacter
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Campylobacter
SEM micrograph of C. fetus
SEM micrograph of C. fetus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilon Proteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Campylobacteraceae
Genus: Campylobacter
Sebald and Véron 1963
Species

C. coli
C. concisus
C. curvus
C. fetus
C. gracilis
C. helveticus
C. hominis
C. hyointestinalis
C. insulaenigrae
C. jejuni
C. lanienae
C. lari
C. mucosalis
C. rectus
C. showae
C. sputorum
C. upsaliensis Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1020, 837 KB)Scanning electron micrograph of Campylobacter fetus bacteria. ... Low temperature SEM magnification series for a snow crystal. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Families & Genera Campylobacteraceae    Campylobacter    Arcobacter    Sulfurospirillum    Thiovulvum Helicobacteraceae    Helicobacter    Wolinella The Campylobacterales are an order of proteobacteria. ... Families & Genera Campylobacteraceae    Campylobacter    Arcobacter    Sulfurospirillum    Thiovulvum Helicobacteraceae    Helicobacter    Wolinella The Campylobacterales are an order of proteobacteria. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter jejuni is a species of curved, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found in animal faeces. ...

Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Motile, with either uni- or bi-polar flagella, the organisms have a somewhat curved, rod-like appearance, and are oxidase-positive.[1] At least a dozen species of Campylobacter have been implicated in human disease, with C. jejuni and C. coli the most common.[1] C. fetus is a cause of spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, as well as an opportunisitic pathogen in humans.[2] For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Motile A term to describe Intelligent Mobile Applications. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... An oxidase is any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation/reduction reaction involving molecular oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. ... Binomial name Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter jejuni is a species of curved, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found in animal faeces. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Species See text. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


The genomes of several Campylobacter species have been sequenced, providing insights into their mechanisms of pathogenesis.[3] In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...

Contents

Pathogenesis

Infection with a Campylobacter species is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis.[4] In the United States, 15 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported, up to 0.5% of the general population may unknowingly harbor Campylobacter in their gut annually. Diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and fever develop within 2–5 days of pathogenic Campylobacter infection, and in most people, the illness lasts for 7–10 days. Infection can sometimes be fatal, and some (less than 1 in 1000 cases) individuals develop Guillain-Barré syndrome, in which the nerves that join the spinal cord and brain to the rest of the body are damaged, sometimes permanently. Gastroenteritis involves diarrhea or vomiting, with noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel, or inflammatory infection of the colon, both part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... Hurting redirects here. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system, usually triggered by an acute infectious process. ...


Campylobacteriosis is usually caused by C. jejuni, a spiral-shaped bacterium normally found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is non-pathogenic. But the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds) C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular). Disease-causing bacteria generally get into people via contaminated food, often undercooked or poorly handled poultry, although contact with contaminated drinking water, livestock, or household pets can also cause disease.[5] Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial infections of humans. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ...


Campylobacter species contain two flagellin genes in tandem for motility, flaA and flaB. These genes undergo intergenic recombination, further contributing to their virulence.[6] Non-motile mutants do not colonize. Flagellin is a protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in bacterial flagellum. ...


Treatment

Human infections by Campylobacter are usually treated symptomatically by maintaining hydration, and fluid and electrolyte replacement.[1] Erythromycin can be used in children, and tetracycline in adults. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin are ineffective against Campylobacter. Antibiotic treatment has only a marginal benefit (1.32 days) on the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely.[7] An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ...


Poultry infections were treated by enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin, many times by mass administration to flocks for single instances of infection. According to the FDA study banning this practice, this generally did not eliminate all Campylobacter bacteria, and promoted populations of bacteria resistant to fluoroquinolone drugs (like the human drug ciprofloxacin).[8] Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic sold by the Bayer Corporation under the trade name Baytril. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro and Ciproxin (and other brand names in other markets, e. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, pp. 378–80. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Sauerwein R, Bisseling J, Horrevorts A (1993). "Septic abortion associated with Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infection: case report and review of the literature". Infection 21 (5): 331-3. PMID 8300253. 
  3. ^ Fouts DE et al. (2005). "Major structural differences and novel potential virulence mechanisms from the genomes of multiple Campylobacter species". PLoS Biol 3 (1): e15. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030015. PMID 15660156. 
  4. ^ Moore JE, et al. (2005). "Campylobacter". Vet Res 36 (3): 351-82. PMID 15845230. 
  5. ^ Saenz Y, Zarazaga M, Lantero M, Gastanares MJ, Baquero F, Torres C (2000). "Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from animals, foods, and humans in Spain in 1997-1998". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44 (2): 267-71. PMID 10639348 fulltext. 
  6. ^ Grant C, Konkel M, Cieplak W, Tompkins L (1993). "Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of Campylobacter jejuni in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cell cultures". Infect Immun 61 (5): 1764-71. PMID 8478066. 
  7. ^ Ternhag A, Asikainen T, Giesecke J, Ekdahl K (2007). "A meta-analysis on the effects of antibiotic treatment on duration of symptoms caused by infection with Campylobacter species". Clin Infect Dis 44: 696–700. 
  8. ^ McDermott P, Bodeis S, English L, White D, Walker R, Zhao S, Simjee S, Wagner D (2002). "Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones". J Infect Dis 185 (6): 837-40. PMID 11920303. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Campylobacter info from the CDC

  Results from FactBites:
 
Disease Listing, Campylobacter, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases (1420 words)
Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter.
Campylobacter is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal illness in the United States.
Campylobacter jejuni grows best at the body temperature of a bird, and seems to be well adapted to birds, who carry it without becoming ill. The bacterium is fragile.
Campylobacter - DrGreene.com (591 words)
Campylobacter are bacteria that are a common cause of food poisoning and gastroenteritis.
Antibiotics are often useful in Campylobacter infections, to decrease the length and severity of the illness.
Campylobacter is best prevented by proper food handling and cooking, maintaining sanitary water supplies, and good hand washing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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