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Encyclopedia > Campus radio

Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. Programming may be exclusively by students, or may include programmers from the wider community in which the station is based. Sometimes campus stations are operated for the purpose of training professional radio personnel, sometimes with the aim of broadcasting educational programming, while other stations exist to provide an alternative to commercial or government broadcasters. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ...


Campus radio stations are generally licensed and regulated by national governments, and so have very different characteristics from one country to the next. One commonality between many stations regardless of their physical location is a willingness to broadcast musical selections that are not categorized as commercial hits. Because of this, campus radio has come to be associated with emerging musical trends (c.f. alternative rock in the latter portion of the 20th century in the United States and elsewhere). Despite this, many campus radio stations carry a variety of programming including news (often local), sports (often relating to the campus), and spoken word programming as well as general music. Often the format is best described as a freeform radio format, with a lot of creativity and individualism among the disc jockeys and show hosts. A number of these stations have gained critical acclaim for their programming and are considered by the community in which they are embedded to be an essential media outlet. Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ... The terms alternative rock and alternative music[1] were coined in the 1980s to describe punk rock-inspired bands which didnt fit into the mainstream genres of the time. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freeform radio. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ...


Although the term campus radio implies full-power AM or FM transmission over the air, many stations experiment with low-power broadcasting or carrier current systems often to on-campus listeners only. Some stations are distributed through the cable television network on cable FM or the second audio program of a TV station. Some universities and colleges broadcast one or more Internet radio feeds — either instead of, or in addition to a campus radio station — which may differ in format significantly from licensed traditional campus radio. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... Carrier current is a method of low-power broadcasting that uses the electrical system of a building to distribute an AM radio signal. ... Cable radio or cable FM is a complementary concept to that of cable television, bringing radio transmissions into homes and businesses via coaxial cable. ... Second[ary] audio program[ming] (SAP) is an auxiliary audio channel for television that can be broadcast or transmitted both over the air and by cable TV. It is often used for an alternate language (hence giving the facetious Spanish audio program expansion to the acronym), or for the Descriptive... Internet radio is a broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ...

Contents


Campus radio around the world

Canada

In Canada, radio stations are regulated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) which provides that "a campus radio station is a station owned or controlled by a not-for-profit organization associated with a post-secondary educational institution" (see the Campus Radio Policy). The CRTC distinguishes two types of campus radio: instructional (for training of professional broadcasters) and community-based campus (programming provided by volunteers who are not training to be professionals). The community-based format is the predominant one. Campus radio stations broadcasting at full power are assigned a permanent frequency and call letters and aside from a requirement not to compete directly with commercial stations are full players in the Canadian broadcasting spectrum. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ...


The first licensed community-based campus radio station was CKCU-FM (based at Carleton University in Ottawa) which first broadcast on November 14, 1975. Prior to this date, some developmental university radio projects had previously produced and aired programs on commercial radio stations. CKCU is a Canadian campus radio station, broadcasting at 93. ... Carleton University is a non-denominational, co-educational, international university in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location City Information Established: 1850 as Bytown Area: 2,778. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


The CRTC places responsibilities upon campus radio stations in Canada through the use of conditions of license that stations must follow in order to keep broadcasting. Campus stations, for example, are expected to be leaders in the Canadian content system which mandates a minimum number of Canadian musical selections throughout the day. (In early 2005, Humber College's radio station CKHC-FM became the first broadcast station in Canada to air 100% Canadian content.) Other requirements generally made of campus stations include quotas of non-hit, folk and ethnic musical selections as well as spoken word programming. Canadian content (cancon or can-con) refers to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission requirements that radio and television broadcasters (including cable/satellite specialty channels) must air a certain percentage of content that was at least partly written, produced, presented, or otherwise contributed to by persons from Canada. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Humber College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning (generally referred to as Humber College) is a college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... CKHC is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 90. ...


Most campus radio stations in Canada are members of the National Campus and Community Radio Association. The National Campus and Community Radio Association/LAssociation nationale des radios étudiantes et communautaires (NCRA/ANREC) is a non-profit organization of campus radio and community radio stations in Canada. ...


See also Category:Campus radio stations in Canada.


India

It has been suggested that Campus radio in India be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)

India's first campus radio station, Anna FM at Anna University in Chennai, was launched in 2004. The campus station Gyanvaani is also operating. Several other stations have been licensed. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into College radio. ... Anna University is one of Indias premier universities. ... Chennai (Tamil: சென்னை, formerly known as Madras , is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest metropolitan city. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Israel

Campus radio also exists in Israel, where several colleges, universities and high schools have successful programs. One of the most famous is Kol HaCampus (Voice of the Campus/Campus Voice), broadcast out of Tel Aviv on 106MHz. More information can be found with the Israel Broadcast Authority. Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


United Kingdom

In the UK it is generally referred to as student radio. University Radio York was not only the first student radio station in the country, but also the first independent radio station (ie non-BBC) in the UK, being founded in 1967. The Student Radio Association works to further UK student radio. URY redirects here; for other meanings, see URY (disambiguation). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world. ... The Student Radio Association (SRA) is a national organisation set up to support student radio stations in the UK. It receives support from the Radio Academy. ...


Some student radio stations operate for short periods (days) at a time on FM restricted-service licences (RSLs) provided variously over the years by the Independent Broadcasting Authority (until 1990), the Radio Authority (until 2003), and currently OFCOM (the Office of Communications). FM broadcasts are typically restricted in power with a reception radius of approximately four miles. The Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television (ITV and Channel 4 - cable and satellite television were the responsibility of the Cable Authority) and radio broadcasts. ... This article is about the year. ... The Office of Communications, usually known as Ofcom, is the UKs communications regulator. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Communications, usually known as Ofcom, is the UKs communications regulator. ...


Others stations choose to have a Low Power AM (LPAM) licence, which allows for full time radio broadcasting. Stations such as 1449AM URB at the University of Bath broadcast all year round on a fixed AM frequency (and indeed by webcast). LPAM licences are restricted in terms of broadcast power (in comparison to the available FM licenses) and tend to limit such ventures to a specified radius which is generally under a kilometre. 1449AM URB is the student radio station for the University of Bath, England. ...


Many student radio stations avoid the FM broadcast restrictions and low quality associated with AM by also streaming online as Internet radio stations. Internet radio is a broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ...


The Student Radio Association annually holds an Awards Ceremony in conjunction with BBC Radio 1, with the current holders of the prestigious 'Student Radio Station of the Year' award being University of York based station URY. The Student Radio Association (SRA) is a national organisation set up to support student radio stations in the UK. It receives support from the Radio Academy. ... BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station, specialising in popular music aimed at the 16-24 age bracket. ... This article is about the British university. ... University Radio York (commonly known as URY) is a student radio station covering the campus of the University of York. ...


United States

College radio (as it is generally known in that country) began in the 1960s when the FCC began issuing class D licenses for ten-watt stations to further the development of the then-new FM band. Some colleges had already been broadcasting for decades on the AM band, often originating in physics experiments in the early 20th century. Most of the FM stations received higher-class licenses, typically a few hundred watts. A few got several kilowatts, and a small handful got licenses in the range of tens of thousands sometimes reaching up to full-power 100 kilowatt outlets. Still, due to strict class D regulations, some stations were prohibited from a wattage upgrade for possible signal interference with adjacent stations, such as KWUR 90.3 FM interfering with KWMU 90.7 FM in St. Louis, Missouri. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency, created, directed, and empowered by Congressional statute. ... It has been suggested that Licensing (strategic alliance) be merged into this article or section. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power. ... Development has meaning in several contexts: // Science and Engineering Biological development of embryos in the context of developmental biology Child development (physical emphasis) or post-natal human development (pediatrics, etc) Software engineering, the methodology and process of development of computer software Technology development in industry, as in Software development New... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... A band is a small section of the spectrum of radio communication frequencies, in which channels are usually used or set aside for the same purpose. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world, which deals with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results of these forces. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This is the list of broadcast station classes. ... KWUR is a radio station in St. ...


The earliest college radio stations carried news, sports, and music along with educational shows and sometimes distance learning courses. In the latter portion of the 20th century, many U.S. stations played what came to be known as "college rock" (later known as alternative rock), a type of rock music that had not yet hit the mainstream. Most stations have now diversified, with many following a very commercial-like music rotation during the weekdays, and having specialty shows on evenings and weekends. A few stations really go out on a limb, occasionally being described as a cacophony of randomness. College stations are typically considered to be public radio stations. News is new information or current events. ... Music is a form of expression in the medium of time using the structures of tones and silence. ... Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... In the USA, college rock was a term used to describe 1980s alternative rock before the term alternative came into common usage. ... The terms alternative rock and alternative music[1] were coined in the 1980s to describe punk rock-inspired bands which didnt fit into the mainstream genres of the time. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, a bass guitar, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as keyboards (organ, piano synthesizers) and horns (saxophone, trumpet, trombone) are common in some styles, however, horns have been omitted from newer subgenres... Mainstream is, generally, the common current of thought of the majority. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... Music Rotation is a practice under the juristiction of the Music Director at a college radio station. ... Weekdays are the days of the week which are not part of the weekend, i. ... Specialty shows are generally hosted by more senior members of a college radio station. ... Informally, the evening is the period in which the daylight is decreasing, between the late afternoon and night; it extends from the latter portion of the daylight (before sunset) until dark (after sunset). ... The weekend is a part of the week lasting one or two days in which most paid workers do not work. ... The band Cacophony Cacophony - Sounding badly, antonym to harmony. ... In ordinary language, the word random is used to express apparent lack of purpose or cause. ... Public broadcasting (also known as public service broadcasting or PSB) is the dominant form of broadcasting around the world, where radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive funding from the public. ...


By the late 1970s, FM had taken off, and competition for channels for new stations was intensifying. The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) and the newly-founded National Public Radio (NPR) convinced the FCC that the low-power stations were somehow a "detriment" to broadcasting, and class D licenses were no longer issued for applications made after 1979. Making matters worse, the stations were demoted to a second-class status, meaning that they would be forced off the air if any full-power station wanted their space. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1971 to 1980, inclusive. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is the industry group representing the commercial radio stations and television stations of the United States. ... NPR logo NPR redirects here. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


Many stations were forced to upgrade their facilities at considerable expense to the students. Many other stations were eventually (and still continue to be) forced off the air, because they could not afford the upgrades at all, or not in time to avoid being locked-in by other expanding stations. Look up Upgrade on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Upgrading is the process of replacing an older thing with a newer thing. ...


Many college stations in the U.S. have been folded into National Public Radio and affiliated regional networks. At WRUR-FM in Rochester, New York, officials from local public radio station WXXI met with University of Rochester administration in 2004. WRUR-FM formerly carried only student & local community volunteer DJ shows. Now WRUR-FM simulcasts some of WXXI-AM's content, including National Public Radio (NPR). Further reductions were made in student & volunteer DJ programming when automated "random radio" broadcasting was introduced, filling in a good share of airtime that was hosted by live DJ's. Nickname: The Flour City, The Flower City, The Worlds Image Center Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Official website: www. ... WXXI is the callsign of 3 broadcasting stations in New York: WXXI AM WXXI FM WXXI-TV This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The University of Rochester is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research institution located in Rochester, New York. ... NPR logo NPR redirects here. ...


A very few stations have been added to the airwaves in very isolated cities with the return of the LPFM license to the U.S. The restrictions that U.S. Congress placed on LPFM stations as a result of the NAB's lobbying have seriously limited the effectiveness of this however. Low-power broadcasting is the concept of broadcasting at very low power and low cost, to a small community area. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Lobbying is the professional practice of public affairs advocacy, with the goal of influencing a governing body by promoting a point of view. ...


One of the first college radio stations in the country is WRUC from Union College in Schenectady, New York. Their first experimental broadcasts under the call sign 2ADD were in 1920. The architectural centerpiece of the Union campus, the Nott Memorial, is named after the colleges president from 1804-1866, Eliphalet Nott. ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city located in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ...


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