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Encyclopedia > Campus Martius
Model of the ancient Campus Martius around 300 AD
Model of the ancient Campus Martius around 300 AD
The Pantheon, a landmark of the Campus Martius since ancient Rome.
The Pantheon, a landmark of the Campus Martius since ancient Rome.

The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars" where Roman heroes walked, Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 kmĀ² (600 acres) in extent. In the Middle Ages it was the most populated area of Rome. The IV rione of Rome, Campo Marzio, which covers a smaller section of the original area, bears the same name. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1110 pixel, file size: 398 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Model of part of the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (900 × 1110 pixel, file size: 398 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Model of part of the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2283 KB) An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2283 KB) An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A map of the center of Rome with its rioni The word rione (pl. ... Logo of the rione. ...

Contents

The Ancient Roman age

Before the founding of Rome, The Campus Martius was a low-lying plain enclosed on the west by a bend of the Tiber River near Tiber Island, on the east by the Quirinal Hill, and on the southeast by the Capitoline Hill. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tiber River in Rome. ... A view from the south on the Tiber Island. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ...


According to one legend, the Campus Martius was once a field of wheat owned by Tarquinius Superbus, last King of Rome, but was burnt during the revolution which established the Roman Republic. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius. ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


In the first centuries after the city's founding, the area was still outside the Servian Wall. The Campus was used for pasturing horses and sheep, and for military training activity of both the army and of private people who could use the training equipment the army had left. As such, it was dedicated to Mars, the Roman god of war, with an ancient altar and became closely linked to soldiers and the army. Initially, the field was often used by soldiers for purposes of training. Later, it was frequently the focus of Triumphs, the celebrations of successful military campaigns. Large section of the Servian Wall visible next to the railway station of Termini. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


Because at the time it was outside the city walls, the Campus Martius was a natural place for audience given to foreign ambassadors who could not enter the city, and foreign cults were housed in temples erected there.


In 221 BC, the Circus Flaminius was built on the southern side of the Campus Martius, near the Tiber. This large track for chariot racing was named after Gaius Flaminius Nepos, who also constructed the Via Flaminia. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... The Circus Flaminius was a race-track in Ancient Rome. ... Gaius Flaminius Nepos was a politician and consul of the Roman Republic in the 3rd century BC. He was the greatest popular leader to challenge the authority of the Senate before the Gracchi a century later. ... Route of Via Flaminia (in purple). ...


Starting in the time of Sulla, building lots were sold or granted to influential Romans, and insulae (apartment blocks) and villas encroached on the common land. It later became the place for comitia centuriata, civic meetings with weapons, and for the city's militia. Pompey built the first stone theater in Rome in the Campus Martius in 55 BC: this was the first real monument in the area. When the Curia Hostilia burnt down in 52 BC the theater was sometimes used as meeting place for the Senate. It was here that Julius Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. The area was also used as the meeting ground for elections. Julius Caesar planned for the Saepta (enclosures used for elections) to be placed there; they were later completed by his heir Augustus. In 33 BC Octavian dedicated the Porticus Octaviae, built from spoils of the Dalmatian War. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Remains of the top floors of an insula near the Capitolium and the Aracoeli in Rome. ... A Roman villa is a villa that was built or lived in during the Roman Empire. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... The Curia, inside the Forum The Curia Hostilia (Latin, Hostilian Court) was the favorite meeting place of the Roman Senate in the Forum Romanum at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, near the well of the Comitia. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Saepta Julia was a building in Ancient Rome where citizens would gather to cast votes. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC... The Porticus Octaviae was built ostensibly by Octavia, the sister of Augustus, but really by Augustus and dedicated in the name of Octavia at some time after 27 B.C. , in place of the Porticus Metelli around the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno. ...

Base of the Column of Antoninus Pius from the Campus Martius (Vatican Museums Garden)
Base of the Column of Antoninus Pius from the Campus Martius (Vatican Museums Garden)

During the Augustan period of the early Roman Empire, the area became officially part of the city: Rome was split up into 14 regions, and Campus Martius was divided into the VII Via Lata on the east and the IX Circus Flaminius nearer to the river. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 1. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Augustus in 7 B.C. administratively divided Rome into 14 regions (Latin, regiones). ...


The Campus Martius also held the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), built by the Senate to mark the establishment of peace by Augustus. It was intended to symbolize the successful completion of Augustus's efforts to stabilize the Empire. Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa had the original swampy ground made into a pool and baths in a setting of parkland and temples, the Laconicum Sudatorium or Baths of Agrippa, and he built the Porticus Argonautarum and, most notably, the Pantheon, which was later rebuilt by Hadrian as it still stands today. In 19 BC he additionally completed the Aqua Virgo to supply water to these new baths and fountains. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... The Baths of Agrippa (Thermae Agrippae) in ancient Rome, built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, were the first of the great thermae constructed in Rome. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... The Aqua Virgo (also known as the Acqua Vergine) was one of the 11 aqueducts that supplied the city of ancient Rome, Italy. ...


In the non-populated northern area there was the huge Mausoleum of Augustus. Other buildings were made: the Theater of Marcellus, the temple for Isis (from around the time of Caligula), the baths and bridge by Nero. The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... Theater of Marcellus, Italy The Theater of Marcellus is located in Rome, Italy. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


After the great fire of the 80, Domitianus rebuilt the burnt monuments plus a stadium (eventually to become today's Piazza Navona) and an Odeion (a small performance hall). Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Domitianus was a Roman military commander who declared himself emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire (the provinces of Gaul (France and the Rhineland) and Britain) for a short time in about 271. ... The new Wembley Stadium in London is the most expensive stadium ever built; it has a seating capacity of 90,000 This article is about the building type. ... Fountain of the four Rivers with Egyptian obelisk, in the middle of Piazza Navona Piazza Navona is a square in Rome. ...


Gradually, the Campus filled with temples and public buildings, circuses, theaters, porticoes, baths, monuments, columns and obelisks. Interestingly, even though the area was originally named for Mars, there was no monument dedicated solely to him in the later Roman period.


Although the region had been left outside the earlier walls, it was finally protected defensively when the Aurelian Walls were built around 270. South section of the walls The Aurelian Walls were city walls built between 270 and 273 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperor Aurelian. ... Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ...


The Middle Ages

After the barbarian invasions cut the aqueducts, the rapidly dwindling population abandoned the surrounding hills and concentrated in the Campus Martius, depending on the Tiber for water, but subject to its flooding. Since it was next to the river and next to the Vatican, the area became the most populated part of Rome in the Middle Ages. The river supported a thriving economy and a supply of water, and the continuous stream of pilgrims to the city brought wealth to the area. Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ...


The main road connecting Rome to the rest of Europe was the Via Cassia, entering Rome through the Porta del Popolo ("door of the people") in the northern part of the Campus Martius. Via Cassia became the most important road in medieval times, because it connected Rome with Viterbo, Siena and Florence. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Route of Via Cassia (in green). ... The Piazza del Popolo, looking west from the Pincio. ... Country Italy Region Lazio Province Viterbo (VT) Mayor Giampiero Gabbianelli Elevation 326 m Area 406,28 km² Population  - Total 60,537  - Density 148. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


The other main road to Rome, the Via Aurelia, became unsafe in medieval times with the spread of malaria, because it passed through the unhealthy marshes near several coastal lakes in the Maremma lowlands (as Orbetello lagoon, Capalbio lake and other Tombolos), and because its route by the sea made it more dangerous to attack from raiders. The coastal towns around around via Aurelia were areas subjected to women kidnapping and plunder made by muslim saracen pirates. Via Aurelia was the Roman road which passed out of ancient Rome through the Porta Aurelia in the Aurelian Walls and ran to the coast a little southeast of modern Palidoro and then followed a coastal route north to Vada Volaterrana. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... The Maremma Coast, seen from the Old Town of Castiglione della Pescaia The Maremma is an area in Italy, consisting of part of southern Tuscany (and partly coincident with province of Grosseto area) and some part of northern Latium (a bordering region of the province of Viterbo). ... Grosseto is a town and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Grosseto province. ... Capalbio is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Grosseto in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 150 km south of Florence and about 45 km southeast of Grosseto. ... Tombolo at Stockton Island, Ashland County (Wisconsin). ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ...


Because of the increasing importance of the area, several popes decided to improve the conditions of the area. In the period 1513-1521 Pope Leo X built a route connecting Porta del Popolo to the Vatican. This road was first called the Via Leonina after the pope, later the more famous Via di Ripetta after the name of the river port. To improve the hygiene of the area, several ancient Roman aqueducts were restored to operating condition. This is a list of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... The Piazza del Popolo, looking west from the Pincio. ...


As the population of Rome greatly increased in the Middle Ages, the Campus Martius became a crowded multi-cultural place where many foreigners settled. In 1555, Pope Paul IV designated part of the southern part of the Campus Martius as the ghetto to contain the city's Jewish population. Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Pope Paul IV (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559), né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death. ... The Roman Ghetto was located in the area surrounded by todays Via del Portico dOttavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto close to the Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus, in Rome, Italy. ...


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Modern Rome

After the Renaissance, like all the rest of Rome, Campus Martius did not change much; there were no other great building projects and the population decreased. This was reversed after Rome became capital of the new-born Kingdom of Italy in 1870. After this, the area became even more crowded, and protecting embankments were built to stop the flooding of the Tiber. This made the area much safer from threat of water, but the tall embankments effectively destroyed the traditional embarkation point called the Ripetta ("little bank"), the narrow streets leading down to the river, and the vernacular buildings along the river edge. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


See also

View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the cole Militaire to the southeast. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Campus Martius Park is a park in Detroit. ...

External links

  • Detailed topographical history of the Campus Martius

  Results from FactBites:
 
Campus Martius Park - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (243 words)
Campus Martius Park is a re-established park in downtown Detroit, Michigan.
In 1805, Campus Martius was the focal point of judge Augustus Woodward's plans to rebuild the city.
The new Campus Martius Park was dedicated on November 19, 2004, it includes two stages, sculptures, public spaces and a seasonal ice skating rink.
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