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Encyclopedia > Camp David Accords
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat.
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat.

The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Al Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... The Prime Minister of Israel is the elected head of the Israeli government. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ...

Contents

Background

Upon assuming office on January 20, 1977, President Carter moved to rejuvenate the Middle Eastern peace process that had stalled throughout the 1976 presidential campaign in the United States. Following the advice of a Brookings Institution report, Carter opted to replace the incremental, bilateral peace talks which had characterized Henry Kissinger's shuttle diplomacy following the 1973 Yom Kippur War with a comprehensive, multilateral approach. This new approach called for the reconvening of the 1973 Geneva Conference, this time with a Palestinian delegation, in hopes of negotiating a final settlement, however this never materialized. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Carter also wasted no time in visiting the heads-of-state on whom he would have to rely to make any peace agreement feasible. By the end of his first year in office, he had already met with Anwar Al Sadat of Egypt, King Hussein of Jordan, Hafez al-Assad of Syria, and Yitzhak Rabin of Israel. Carter's and Vance's exploratory meetings gave him a basic plan for reinvigorating the peace process based on the Geneva Conference and Israeli withdrawal on all fronts, including the West Bank. The political situation in Israel underwent a dramatic upheaval with a devastating electoral loss of the long-ruling Alignment (the forerunner of the Israeli Labour Party) to Menachem Begin's Likud in May of 1977. While Begin officially favored the reconvention of the conference, perhaps even more vocally than Rabin, and even accepted the Palestinian presence, in actuality Israel and Sadat were secretly formulating a framework for bilateral talks. Even earlier, Begin had not been opposed to returning the Sinai, but a major future obstacle was his firm refusal to consider relinquishing control over the West Bank. “Sadat” redirects here. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May, 1977. ... The Alignment (Hebrew: המערך, HaMaarakh), originally called the Labour Alignment (Hebrew: המערך העבודה, HaMaarakh HaAvoda) was the dominant left-wing political party in Israel from its founding in 1965 until its transformation into the Labour Party in 1992. ... The Israeli Labor Party (‎, Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit), generally known in Israel as Avoda (‎) is a center-left political party in Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


The Sadat Peace Initiative

President Anwar Al Sadat came to feel that the Geneva track peace process was more show than substance, and was not progressing, partly due to disagreements with Syria. He also lacked confidence in the United States to pressure Israel after a meeting with Carter. His frustration boiled over, and after clandestine preparatory meetings between Egyptian and Israeli officials, unknown even to the Americans, in November 1977 Anwar Al Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel, thereby implicitly recognizing Israel. In Sadat's Knesset speech he talked about his views on peace, the status of Israel's occupied territories, and the Palestinian refugee problem. This tactic went against the intentions of both the United States and the Soviet Union, which were to revive the Geneva Conference. “Sadat” redirects here. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Golan Heights plateau, formerly known as the Syrian Heights, overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in 1967 and held afterward. ... The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. ...


The gesture stemmed from an eagerness to enlist the help of the United States in improving the ailing Egyptian economy, a belief that Egypt should begin to focus more on its own interests than on the interests of the collective Arab world, and a hope that an agreement with Israel would catalyze similar agreements between Israel and her other Arab neighbors and help solve the Palestinian problem. Prime Minister Begin's response to Sadat's initiative, though not what Sadat or Carter had hoped, demonstrated a willingness to engage the Egyptian leader. Like Sadat, Begin also saw many reasons why bilateral talks would be in his country's best interests. It would afford Israel the opportunity to negotiate only with Egypt instead of with a larger Arab delegation that might try to use its size to make unwelcome or unacceptable demands. In addition, the commencement of direct negotiations between leaders – summit diplomacy – would distinguish Egypt from her Arab neighbors. The basic message of Sadat's speech at the Knesset were the request for the implementation of Resolutions 242 and 338. Sadat’s visit was the first step to negotiations such as the preliminary Cairo Conference in December 1977 and ultimately the Camp David Accords. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ...


The talks

Accompanied by their capable negotiating teams and with their respective interests in mind, both leaders converged on Camp David for thirteen days of tense and dramatic negotiations from September 5-17, 1978. By all accounts, Carter's relentless drive to achieve peace and his reluctance to allow the two men to leave without reaching an agreement are what played the decisive role in the success of the talks. Numerous times both the Egyptian and Israeli leaders wanted to scrap negotiations, only to be lured back into the process by personal appeals from Carter. Begin and Sadat had such mutual antipathy toward one another that they only seldom had direct contact; thus Carter had to conduct his own microcosmic form of shuttle diplomacy by holding one-on-one meetings with either Sadat or Begin in one cabin, then returning to the cabin of the third party to relay the substance of his discussions.

Begin and Brzezinski playing chess at Camp David.
Begin and Brzezinski playing chess at Camp David.

A particularly difficult situation arose on the tenth stalemated day of the talks. The issues of Israeli settlement withdrawal from the Sinai and the status of the West Bank created what seemed to be an impasse. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the Western board game. ...

President Carter, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance at Camp David.
President Carter, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance at Camp David.

Begin and Sadat were “literally not on speaking terms,” and “claustrophobia was setting in." In response, Carter had the choice of trying to salvage the agreement by conceding the issue of the West Bank to Begin, while advocating Sadat’s less controversial position on the removal of all settlements from the Sinai Peninsula. Or he could have refused to continue the talks, reported the reasons for their failure, and allowed Begin to bear the brunt of the blame. Carter chose to continue and for three more days negotiated. President Carter, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Cyrus Vance at Camp David in 1977 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... President Carter, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Cyrus Vance at Camp David in 1977 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Terms of the agreements

There were two 1978 Camp David agreements A Framework for Peace in the Middle East and A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel, the second leading towards the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed in March, 1979. The agreements and the peace treaty were both accompanied by "side-letters" of understanding between Egypt and the U.S. and Israel and the U.S.[1] The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ...


The first agreement had three parts. The first part was a framework for negotiations to establish an autonomous self-governing authority in the West Bank and the Gaza strip and to fully implement SC 242. It was less clear than the agreements concerning the Sinai, and was later interpreted differently by Israel, Egypt, and the U.S. United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ...


The second part dealt with Egyptian-Israeli relations, the real content being in the second agreement. The third part "Associated Principles" declared principles that should apply to relations between Israel and all of its Arab neighbors.


The second agreement outlined a basis for the peace treaty six months later, in particular deciding the future of the Sinai peninsula. Israel agreed to withdraw its armed forces from the Sinai, evacuate its 4,500 civilian inhabitants, and restore it to Egypt in return for normal diplomatic relations with Egypt, guarantees of freedom of passage through the Suez Canal and other nearby waterways (such as the Straits of Tiran), and a restriction on the forces Egypt could place on the Sinai peninsula, especially within 20-40 km from Israel. Israel also agreed to limit its forces a smaller distance (3 km) from the Egyptian border, and to guarantee free passage between Egypt and Jordan. With the withdrawal Israel also lost the Abu-Rudeis oil fields in western Sinai, which contained Israel's only long term commercially productive wells to date. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ...


The agreement also resulted in the United States committing to several billion dollars worth of annual subsidies to the governments of both Israel and Egypt, subsidies which continue to this day, and are given as a mixture of grants and aid packages committed to purchasing U.S. materiel. From 1979 (the year of the peace agreement) to 1997, Egypt received $1.3 billion annually, which also helped modernize the Egyptian military, turning it into the largest in the Middle East. Soviet-supplied until 1979, Egypt now received American weaponry such as the M1A1 Abrams Tank, AH-64 Apache gunship and the F-16 fighter jet. In comparison, Israel has received $3 billion annually since 1985 in grants and military aid packages [2] [3]. Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... The armed forces of Egypt are the largest on the African continent and one of the biggest in the world (ranked 11th), consisting of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian Air Force and Egyptian Air Defense Command. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army. ... The AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ...


Consequences

According to The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East:

"The normalization of relations [between Israel and Egypt] went into effect in January 1980. Ambassadors were exchanged in February. The boycott laws were repealed by Egypt's National Assembly the same month, and some trade began to develop, albeit less than Israel had hoped for. In March 1980 regular airline flights were inaugurated. Egypt also began supplying Israel with crude oil" (Sela, 100).

The time that has elapsed since the Camp David Accords has left no doubt as to their enormous ramifications on Middle Eastern politics. Most notably, the perception of Egypt within the Arab world changed. With the most powerful of the Arab militaries and a history of leadership in Arab world under Nasser, Egypt had more leverage than any of the other Arab states to advance Arab interests. Sadat's alacrity at concluding a peace treaty without demanding greater concessions for Israeli recognition of the Palestinians' right to self-determination incited enough hatred in the Arab world to bring about Sadat's assassination in 1981. Egypt was also suspended from the Arab League from 1979 until 1989. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041...


The Camp David Accords also prompted the disintegration of a united Arab front in opposition to Israel. Egypt's realignment created a power vacuum that Saddam Hussein of Iraq, at one time only a secondary power, hoped to fill. Because of the vague language concerning the implementation of Resolution 242, the Palestinian problem became the primary issue in the Arab-Israeli conflict immediately following the Camp David Accords (and arguably, until today). Many of the Arab nations blamed Egypt for not putting enough pressure on Israel to deal with the Palestinian problem in a way that would be satisfactory to them. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the...


Lastly, the biggest consequence of all may be in the psychology of the participants of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The success of Begin, Sadat, and Carter at Camp David demonstrated to other Arab states and entities that negotiations with Israel were possible — that progress results only from sustained efforts at communication and cooperation. Despite the disappointing conclusion of the 1993 Oslo Accords between the PLO and Israel, and even though the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace has not fully normalized relations with Israel, both of these significant developments had little chance of occurring without the precedent set by Camp David. Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ...


Criticism of the Accords

For Israel, perhaps the most evident tangible benefit of the agreement with Egypt (other than the subsequent U.S. aid, which Egypt also received) was the peace along the mutual border, enabling the Israel Defense Forces to reduce their levels of alert on Israel's southwestern frontier. Although both sides generally abided by the agreements since 1978, in the following years a common belief emerged in Israel that the peace with Egypt is a "cold peace." There is widespread disappointment with Egypt, which is seen as adhering only to letter and not the spirit of the agreement, particularly with the clauses concerning normalization of relations between the two countries. An additional view is that the Peace agreement was between the Israeli people and Egypt's charismatic President Anwar Al Sadat, rather than with the Egyptian people, who were not given the opportunity to accept or reject the agreement with a free vote or a representative majority. While the treaty was approved by a parliament majority in Israel, which has a multi-candidate, Multi-party electoral system, Egypt has had a semi-presidential system with a single candidate government since 1953. Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Charismatic is an umbrella term used to describe those Christians who believe that the manifestations of the Holy Spirit seen in the first century Christian Church, such as healing, miracles and glossolalia, are available to contemporary Christians and ought to be experienced and practiced today. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ...


Further supporting this claim is the fact that although Israeli tourists flocked to Egypt, only few Egyptians return the gesture: in the peak year 1999, 415,000 Israelis visited Egypt. The highest number of Egyptians visiting Israel was 28,000 in 1995. (While this is undoubtedly attributable to the average Egyptian income being lower, it is also worth noting that Israel's population is 6 Million while Egypt has 71 Million citizens).


Despite Israel's acceptance of Egypt's territorial demands, notable figures in Egyptian society who visit Israel or publicly defend the Peace agreement (such as the late writer and Nobel Prize Laureate Naguib Mahfouz) are rare and do so at their peril; they often suffer sanctions and outright bans by professional and cultural Egyptian associations and sometimes receive death threats. Anti-Semitic themes and cartoons still appear in the Egyptian media [4] [5]. Egypt is also seen as not doing enough to halt the flow of arms smuggling from Sinai into the Gaza strip, where they are used by Palestinian extremist groups for terrorism attacks on Israeli civilians. (On the other hand, Egypt has mediated several unofficial cease fire understandings between Israel and the Palestinians). There have been many popular protests in Egypt against peace with Israel (from all levels of society, up to and including intellectuals, students and Democratization movements such as Kifaya). These typically intensify following Israeli actions in its conflicts with the Palestinians and Lebanon, which Israel views as self defence, but are seen in Egypt as harsh repression of Arabs. This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... Kifayas logo. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


According to an Egyptian Government 2006 poll of 1000 Egyptians (taken at the time of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict) 92% of Egyptians view Israel as an enemy nation [6], [7]. In Israel, there is lasting support of the Camp David Peace Accords, which have become a national consensus, supported by 85% of Israelis according to a 2001 poll taken by the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies (Israel based) [8]. Nevertheless, a minority of Israelis believe the price Israel paid for the peace agreement was too high for its present gains, i.e. having relinquished the entire Sinai Peninsula, with the trauma of evacuating thousands of its Israeli inhabitants (many resisted, as in the town of Yamit and had to be forcefully evacuated). Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... Yamit (ימית) was an Israeli settlement in the Sinai Peninsula established during Israels occupation of the peninsula from the end of the 1967 Six Day War until that part of the Sinai was handed over to Egypt in 1982 as part of the terms of the Egypt–Israel peace treaty. ...


External links

See also

Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... (Redirected from 1956 Suez War) The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... (Redirected from 1967 Six Day War) The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... (Redirected from 1970 War of Attrition) This is about the Israeli-Egyptian War of Attrition For the military strategy, see war of attrition. ... (Redirected from 1973 Yom Kippur War) The Yom Kippur War (also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the October War and Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 22/24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

Paris 1919 redirects here. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

References

  • Bregman, Ahron Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America.
  • Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.
  • Meital, Yoram. Egypt’s Struggle for Peace: Continuity and Change, 1967-1977.
  • Sela, Avraham. "Arab-Israeli Conflict." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.

Ahron Bregman is a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Camp David Accords - MSN Encarta (550 words)
The accords sought to address the conflict between Jews and Arabs over the control of the historic region of Palestine.
For Egypt the connection between the two accords was crucial; it feared that fellow Arab states would view a separate Egypt-Israel peace agreement as a betrayal of the Palestinians.
Negotiations between Egypt and Israel to implement the accords led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty signed at the White House on March 26, 1979.
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The Camp David negotiations are rich with lessons for students of diplomacy, and they are worth revisiting as a case study.
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Begin confronted this scenario at Camp David, and he was able to force Sadat to agree to a settlement that many considered a loss for Egypt.
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