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Encyclopedia > Camille Desmoulins
Portrait of Camille Desmoulins
Portrait of Camille Desmoulins

Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist Desmoulins (March 2, 1760April 5, 1794) was a French journalist and politician who played an important part in the French Revolution. He was closely associated with Georges Danton. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents


Early life

Desmoulins was born at Guise, in Picardy. His father was lieutenant-general of the bailliage of Guise, and through the efforts of a friend obtained a scholarship for his son, who at the age of fourteen left home for Paris, and entered the Collège Louis-le-Grand. In this school, which Maximilien Robespierre and Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron also attended at the time, Desmoulins was an accomplished student. Destined by his father for the law, at the completion of his legal studies he was admitted a lawyer of the parlement of Paris in 1785. However, he had little success, as his approach was judged violent, and his speech was impaired by a serious stammer. This prompted him to turn towards writing and his interest for public affairs, and he gradually prepared himself to become a political orator. Guise is a commune of the Aisne département in northern France. ... wazzup Categories: | ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). ... The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre c. ... Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron (August 17, 1754 – 1802), was a French politician of the French Revolution. ... British barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... Orator is a Latin word for speaker (from the Latin verb oro, meaning I speak or I pray). In ancient Rome, the art of speaking in public (Ars Oratoria) was a professional competence especially cultivated by politicians and lawyers. ...


In March 1789 Desmoulins began his political career. Having been nominated deputy from the bailliage of Guise, he arrived in Laon as one of the commissioners for the election of deputies to the States-General summoned by royal edict of January 24. Camille heralded its meeting by his Ode to the States-General. It is, moreover, highly probable that he was the author of a radical pamphlet entitled La Philosophie au peuple français, published in 1788, the text of which is not known. Laon is a city and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Aisne département. ... The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (French: Etats-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


July 1789

His chances for professional success were by then minimal, and he was living in Paris in extreme poverty; however, he showed enthusiasm for the political changes announced by the meeting of the States-General. As appears from his letters to his father, he watched with excitement the procession of deputies at the Palace of Versailles, and with indignation the events of the latter part of June which followed the closing of the Salle des Menus to the deputies who had named themselves the National Assembly - leading to the Tennis Court Oath. The episode shows the first signs of Desmoulins' siding with the sans-culottes. Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Monument of Louis XIV in the cour dhonneur Gardens, general view from behind the palace The Château de Versailles —or simply Versailles— is a royal ch... During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a transitional body between the Estates-General and the National Constituent Assembly that existed from June 17 to July 9 of 1789. ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ... Painted rendition of a sans-culottes. ...


The sudden dismissal of Jacques Necker by King Louis XVI was the event which brought Desmoulins to fame. On July 12, 1789 he leapt on a table outside one of the cafés in the garden of the Palais Royal, and announced to the crowd the dismissal of the reformer. Apparently losing his stammer due to the excitement, he addressed the passions of the public, calling "To arms!" and adding: Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Early life Necker was Geneva, Switzerland. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Louis XVI (born August 23, 1754 in Versailles; died January 21, 1793 in Paris) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Coffeehouse in Bentonville This article is about an establishment where coffee is sold and consumed. ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ...

"This dismissal is the tocsin of the St. Bartholomew of the patriots" (meaning that a massacre of the partisans of reform was under preparation).

Finally, Desmoulins drew two pistols from under his coat, he declared that he would not fall alive into the hands of the police who were watching his movements. He descended embraced by the crowd. A tocsin consists of a signal of alarm given by the ringing of a bell, and hence any warning or danger signal. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ...


This scene was the beginning of the actual events of the Revolution. Following Desmoulins, they started rioting throughout Paris, procuring arms by force, and, on July 13, it was partly organized as the Parisian militia - which was afterwards to be the National Guard. On July 14, the major event remembered as the storming of the Bastille occurred. July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... [[Template:French Revolution]] The Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 was an important symbolic development in the French Revolution. ...


The following day, Desmoulins begun the most publicised phase of his writing career. In May and June 1789 he had written La France libre, which his publisher had refused to print. The taking of the Bastille, however, and the events preceding it, were a sign of changing times, and, on July 18, Desmoulins's work was issued. Considerably in advance of public opinion, it already pronounced in favour of a republic, and—through its elaborate examination of the rights of king, of nobles, of Roman Catholic clergy and of people—it became instantly popular, securing Desmoulins a partnership with Honoré Mirabeau, as well as a slander campaign carried out by Royalist pamphleteers. The Bastille The Bastille was a prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine which became well-known for the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholicism. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ...


Journalism

Arguably exhilarated, he appealed to the lower orders by printing his Discours de ici lanterne aux Parisiens which he headed by a quotation from the Gospel of John, Qui male agit odit lucem ("he that doth evil hateth light" John 3:20), used to argue that violence was justified; consequently, Desmoulins was dubbed "Procureur-général de la lanterne" ("The Lanterne Prosecutor"). The Gospel according to John is a gospel document in the canon of the New Testament. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In November 1789, he began his career as a journalist by the issue of the first number of a weekly publication, Histoire des Révolutions de France et de Brabant, which ceased to appear at the end of July 1791. The publication was extremely popular from its first to its last number - Camille became famous and was no longer poor. The Histoire des Révolutions is a measure of what ideas were in circulation in the revolutionary milieu of Paris, but it has since drawn criticism for its extremely violent tone.


Desmoulins was influenced by the theorists of the Revolution - for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had begun his collaboration with Georges Danton (his associate for the rest of their lives). In July 1791, he appeared before the Parisian Commune as head of a deputation of petitioners for the deposition of the monarch, at the moment when such a request was dangerous; the gesture enhanced agitation in the city, and the frequent assaults attacks to which Desmoulins had often been subject were followed by a warrant for the arrest of himself and Danton. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a government entity in the name of the sovereign power. ...


Danton briefly left Paris, while Desmoulins chose to remain, and even made occasional appearances at the Jacobin Club. Upon the failure of this attempt of his opponents, Desmoulins published a pamphlet, Jean Pierre Brissot démasqué, which contained violent attacks. It had its origins in a conflict between the two, and was followed in 1793 by a Fragment de l'histoire secrète de la Révolution (or Histoire des Brissotins), in which the party of the Gironde, and especially Brissot, were subject to a populist attack. The Jacobin Club was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. ... In French history, Jacques Pierre Brissot (January 15, 1754 - October 31, 1793), who assumed the name of de Warville, was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the...


National Convention and clash with Robespierre

Desmoulins took an active part on insurrection of the 10th of August that marked the attack of Parisians on the Tuileries Palace, and became secretary to Danton when the latter became Justice Minister. On September 8 he was elected one of the deputies for Paris to the National Convention - where he nonetheless was much less successful than as a journalist, and never occupied the foreground. He affiliated with The Mountain, and voted for the Republic and the execution of the king. Camille Desmoulins became close to Robespierre, and the Fragment de l'histoire secrète de la Révolution was very likely inspired by the latter. The success of the pamphlet—which did a lot to help install the Reign of Terror and condemn the Gironde leaders to the guillotine—proved alarming for both Danton and its author. On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... This page is a list of French justice ministers. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ...


In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux Cordelier, which was at first directed against the Hébertists (and approved of by Robespierre), but which soon formulated Danton's idea of a Committee of clemency. This caused Robespierre to turn against Desmoulins, and to take advantage of the popular indignation roused against the Hébertists to send them to death. He and Louis de Saint-Just then turned their attention to both the Enragés (Jacques Roux's faction) and the Indulgents (—the name given by Robespierre to the Cordeliers). The Cordeliers, also known as the Club of the Cordeliers and formally as the Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen comprised a populist society during the French Revolution. ... Jacques René Hébert Jacques René Hébert (November 15, 1757 - March 24, 1794) was editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just (August 25, 1767 - July 28, 1794), usually referred to simply as Saint-Just, was a French revolutionary leader. ... Les Enragés (literally The Angry Ones) were a radical group active during the French Revolution (1789) opposed to the Jacobins. ... Jacques Roux (1752-1794) was the leader of the Enragés faction in time of the French Revolution. ...


On January 7, 1794, Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin Club did not recommend the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier. Desmoulins replied using a quote from Jean-Jacques Rousseau (who was widely perceived as the intellectual authority for all revolutionary gestures): "burning is not answering". The implied insult led to a bitter conflict. By the end of March, the Hébertists had been guillotined, while the other side - Danton, Desmoulins and other leaders of the moderates - were placed under arrest. January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Swiss philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ...


Trial and execution

On March 31, the warrant of arrest was signed and executed, and on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of April the trial took place before the Revolutionary Tribunal, and was marked by impressive scenes. On being asked his age, Desmoulins replied: March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ...

"I am thirty-three, the age of the "sans-culotte" Jesus, a critical age for every patriot" (this was false; he was in fact thirty-four).

The accused were prevented from defending themselves; a decree of the Convention denied them the right of speech. This, together with the false report of a spy (who charged Desmoulins' wife with conspiring for the escape of her husband and the "ruin of the Republic"), Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville obtained a death sentence after threatening the jury. The verdict was passed in absence of the accused, and their execution was appointed for the same day. A portrait of a typical sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly Observers used the term sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches), originally during the early years of the French Revolution to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army, and later generally to... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE– 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville (1746 - May 7, 1795), a French revolutionist, was born at Hérouel, a village in the département of the Aisne. ... A jury is a sworn body of persons convened to render a rational, impartial verdict and a finding of fact on a legal question officially submitted to them, or to set a penalty or judgment in a jury trial of a court of law. ...

The Desmoulins family
The Desmoulins family

Desmoulins struggled before his death, allegedly tearing his clothes to shreds. Of the group of fifteen guillotined together (also including Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles, François Joseph Westermann, and Pierre Philippeaux), Desmoulins died third, and Danton last. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1118, 110 KB) Summary fr: Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoist Desmoulins est né à Guise le 2 mars 1760 et mort à Paris le 5 avril 1794. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1118, 110 KB) Summary fr: Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoist Desmoulins est né à Guise le 2 mars 1760 et mort à Paris le 5 avril 1794. ... Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles (September 20, 1759 - April 5, 1794), was a French politician of the revolutionary period. ... François Joseph Westermann (d. ...


Family

On December 29, 1790 Camille had married Lucile Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed the names of Brissot, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve and Robespierre. The only child of the marriage, Horace Camille, was born on July 6, 1792. Two days afterwards Desmoulins brought it into notice by appearing with it before the Commune to demand "the formal statement of the civil estate of his son". Horace was pensioned by the French government, and died in Haiti in 1825. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Lucile Duplessis Lucile Duplessis (1770 - April 13, 1794) was the daughter of Annette Duplessis and Claude Duplessis, a Treasury official. ... Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Lucile was arrested a few days after her husband, and condemned to the guillotine on the basis of false charges. She displayed coolness and courage on the day of her death (April 13, 1794). April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Camille Desmoulins

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Britannica gives the following references: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • J. Charette, Œuvres de Camille Desmoulins avec une étude biographique ... etc. (Paris, 1874), and Camille Desmoulins, Lucile Desmoulins, étude sur les Dantonistes (Paris, 1875; Eng. trans., London, 1876)
  • François Victor Alphonse Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Legislative et de la Convention (Paris, 1905, 2nd ed.)
  • G. Lemâitre, "La Maison de Camille Desmoulins" (Le Temps, March 25, 1899).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Camille Desmoulins (1643 words)
Desmoulins was powerfully swayed by the influence of more vigorous minds; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had begun to be led by Georges Jacques Danton, with whom he remained associated during the rest of his life.
Armed with this and the false report of a spy, who charged the wife of Desmoulins with conspiring for the escape of her husband and the ruin of the republic, Fouquier-Tinville by threats and entreaties obtained from the jury a sentence of death.
Two days afterwards Desmoulins brought it into notice by appearing with it before the municipality of Paris to demand "the formal statement of the civil estate of his son." The boy was afterwards pensioned by the French government, and died in Haiti in 1825.
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