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Encyclopedia > Camera
Modern Single Lense Reflex Camera.
Modern Single Lense Reflex Camera.
Left to right: an Agfa box camera, a Polaroid Land camera, and a Yashica 35 mm SLR
Left to right: an Agfa box camera, a Polaroid Land camera, and a Yashica 35 mm SLR

A camera is a device used to capture images, either as still photographs or as sequences of moving images (movies or videos). The term comes from the Latin camera obscura for "dark chamber" for an early mechanism of projecting images where an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging system; the modern camera evolved from the camera obscura. Look up camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The camera obscura (Lat. ...


Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of an enclosed hollow with an opening (aperture) at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. Most cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture. Visible light redirects here. ... Although some radiations are marked as N for no in the diagram, some waves do in fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other radiations The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... A 35mm lens set to f/8; the diameter of the heptagonal diaphragm opening is 4. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the camera

The forerunner to the camera was the camera obscura. The camera obscura is an instrument consisting of a darkened chamber or box, into which light is admitted through a convex lens, forming an image of external objects on a surface of paper or glass, etc., placed at the focus of the lens.[1] The camera obscura was first invented by the Iraqi scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) as described in his Book of Optics (1015-1021).[2] English scientist Robert Boyle and his assistant Robert Hooke later developed a portable camera obscura in the 1660s.[3] Camera obscura The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 or 1827 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris. ... Camera obscura from the Encyclopédie File links The following pages link to this file: Camera obscura Categories: Public domain images | NowCommons ... Camera obscura from the Encyclopédie File links The following pages link to this file: Camera obscura Categories: Public domain images | NowCommons ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ...


The first camera that was small and portable enough to be practical for photography was built by Johann Zahn in 1685, though it would be almost 150 years before technology caught up to the point where this was practical. Early photographic cameras were essentially similar to Zahn's model, though usually with the addition of sliding boxes for focusing. Before each exposure, a sensitized plate would be inserted in front of the viewing screen to record the image. Jacques Daguerre's popular daguerreotype process utilized copper plates, while the calotype process invented by William Fox Talbot recorded images on paper. Johann Zahn (1631—1707) was the seventeenth century German author of Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus Sive Telescopium (Würzburg, 1685). ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787 - 1851) was the Basque artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The Calotype was an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Fox Talbot, using paper sheets covered with silver chloride. ... William Henry Fox Talbot William Henry Fox Talbot (February 11, 1800 – September 17, 1877) was an early photographer who made major contributions to the photographic process. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...

The first permanent colour photograph, taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861.
The first permanent colour photograph, taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861.

The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a sliding wooden box camera made by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris. Niépce built on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. However, while this was the birth of photography, the camera itself can be traced back much further. Before the invention of photography, there was no way to preserve the images produced by these cameras apart from manually tracing them. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (831x1011, 145 KB) Summary Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 Tartan Ribbon, photograph taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (831x1011, 145 KB) Summary Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 Tartan Ribbon, photograph taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Nicéphore Niépces earliest surviving photograph, circa 1826 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (March 7, 1765 – July 5, 1833) was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Johann Heinrich Schultz is credited with the discovery that certain silver salts, most notably silver chloride and silver nitrate, darken in the presence of light. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


The development of the collodion wet plate process by Frederick Scott Archer in 1850 cut exposure times dramatically, but required photographers to prepare and develop their glass plates on the spot, usually in a mobile darkroom. Despite their complexity, the wet-plate ambrotype and tintype processes were in widespread use in the latter half of the 19th century. Wet plate cameras were little different from previous designs, though there were some models, such as the sophisticated Dubroni of 1864, where the sensitizing and developing of the plates could be carried out inside the camera itself rather than in a separate darkroom. Other cameras were fitted with multiple lenses for making cartes de visite. It was during the wet plate era that the use of bellows for focusing became widespread. // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ... Frederick Scott Archer (1813-1857) invented the photographic collodion process which preceded the modern gelatin emulsion. ... This article is about the material. ... A darkroom is a workspace, usually a separate area in a building or a vehicle, made dark to allow photographers to use light-sensitive materials to develop film and photographic paper to make photographic prints. ... Many ambrotypes were made by unknown photographers, such as this American example of a small girl holding a flower, circa 1860. ... This is a ferrotype, circa 1870, possibly made in Philadelphia, of an African-American man leaning on a hitching post. ... Two examples of carte de visite photographs taken during the American Civil War. ... This medium-format twin-lens reflex camera has its accordion bellows extended for shooting a close-up shot. ...


The first colour photograph was made by James Clerk Maxwell, with the help of Thomas Sutton, in 1861[4] James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Thomas Sutton (1532-1611) was a British civil servant and businessman. ...


Mechanics

Image capture

19th century studio camera, with bellows for focusing.
19th century studio camera, with bellows for focusing.

Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film or photographic plate. Video and digital cameras use electronics, usually a charge coupled device (CCD) or sometimes a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in tape or computer memory inside the camera for later playback or processing. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 198 KB) Summary Altes studio Fotoaparat Quelle: eigene Aufnahme am 21. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 198 KB) Summary Altes studio Fotoaparat Quelle: eigene Aufnahme am 21. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... A charge-coupled device (CCD), is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ... RAM redirects here. ... Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. ...


Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; those designed for single images are still cameras. However these categories overlap, as still cameras are often used to capture moving images in special effects work and modern digital cameras are often able to trivially switch between still and motion recording modes. A video camera is a category of movie camera that captures images electronically (either using analogue or digital technology). The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A camera is a device used to take photographs. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ...


A Stereo camera can take photographs that appear "three-dimensional" by taking two different photographs that can be combined to create the illusion of depth in the composite image. Stereo cameras for making 3D prints or slides have two lenses side by side. Stereo cameras for making lenticular prints have 3, 4, 5, or even more lenses. Some film cameras feature date imprinting devices that can print a date on the negative itself. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Stereoscopy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lenticular. ... Some film cameras are able to record the date, shutter speed and aperture setting on the negative directly as the film is exposed. ...


Focus

Auto-focus systems can capture a subject a variety of ways; here, the focus is on the person's image in the mirror.
Auto-focus systems can capture a subject a variety of ways; here, the focus is on the person's image in the mirror.

Due to the optical properties of photographic lenses, only objects within an exact range of distances from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera's focus. There are various ways of focusing a camera accurately. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens, usually around 3 metres (10 ft) to infinity, is in reasonable focus. Fixed focus cameras are usually inexpensive types, such as single-use cameras. The camera can also have a limited focusing range or scale-focus that is indicated on the camera body. The user will guess or calculate the distance to the subject and adjust the focus accordingly. On some cameras this is indicated by symbols (head-and-shoulders; two people standing upright; one tree; mountains). Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... A focus free lens is a photographic lens whose focal point is fixed at its hyperfocal distance. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... Scale-focus or zone-focus is a type of focusing system used by many inexpensive cameras from the 1940s and 1950s. ...


Rangefinder cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured by means of a coupled parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Single-lens reflex cameras allow the photographer to determine the focus and composition visually using the objective lens and a moving mirror to project the image onto a ground glass or plastic micro-prism screen. Twin-lens reflex cameras use an objective lens and a focusing lens unit (usually identical to the objective lens) in a parallel body for composition and focusing. View cameras use a ground glass screen which is removed and replaced by either a photographic plate or a reusable holder containing sheet film before exposure. Modern cameras often offer autofocus systems to focus the camera automatically by a variety of methods.[5] A Foca camera of 1947 at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. ... This article is about SLR cameras in general. ... A sample ground glass showing the Academy 1. ... The front of a Kinaflex twin-lens reflex camera Sketch of an early 20th century twin-lens reflex camera 1957 Kodak Duaflex IV, an inexpensive fixed-focus TLR A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. ... Basic View Camera Terminology The view camera is a type of camera with a very long history (some modern examples are often mistaken for antiques), but they are still used today by professional and amateur photographers who want full control of their images. ... Sheet film is large format photographic film supplied on individual sheets of acetate or polyester film base rather than rolls. ... Autofocus (or AF) is a feature of some optical systems that allow them to maintain correct focus on a target. ...


Exposure control

The size of the aperture and the brightness of the scene controls the amount of light that enters the camera during a period of time, and the shutter controls the length of time that the light hits the recording surface. Equivalent exposures can be made with a larger aperture and a faster shutter speed or a corresponding smaller aperture and with the shutter speed slowed down. It has been suggested that Leaf shutter be merged into this article or section. ...


Image gallery

See also

Types

An example of a modern digital SLR (the Pentax K10D), without a lens installed. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... A Foca camera of 1947 at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. ... This article is about SLR cameras in general. ... Chinas Holga camera takes medium-format photographs on 120 film. ... The front of a Kinaflex twin-lens reflex camera Sketch of an early 20th century twin-lens reflex camera 1957 Kodak Duaflex IV, an inexpensive fixed-focus TLR A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ... Basic View Camera Terminology The view camera is a type of camera with a very long history (some modern examples are often mistaken for antiques), but they are still used today by professional and amateur photographers who want full control of their images. ...

Brands

Agfa was an European company which produced a range of photographic products including films, photographic papers and cameras. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and conform with our NPOV policy, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alpa was formerly a Swiss camera design company and manufacturer of 35mm cameras. ... Argus C3 Argus is an American maker of cameras and photographic products, founded in 1936 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ... Asahiflex IIb Model I Top view: Asahiflex #72734 The Asahiflex was a 35mm single-lens reflex camera built by the Asahi Optical Corporation (later to become Pentax). ... A Bolex H16 Reflex spring-wound clockwork16 mm camera Bolex is a Swiss company (Bolex International S.A. of Yverdon) that manufactures motion picture cameras and lenses, the most notable products of which are in the 16 mm and Super 16 mm formats. ... Braun in Kronberg   (German pronunciation brown, English pronunciation brawn) GmbH is a German consumer products company known for its clean industrial designs. ... Bronica is a Japanese brand of medium format cameras. ... Canon Inc. ... Casio Computer Co. ... CONTAX TVS Digital with Zeiss Vario-Sonnar 2. ... Diana camera branded Conforama. ... The Ducati Sogno was a half-frame 35mm Leica clone camera produced by Ducati Meccanica in the 1950s. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... The Ebony camera company was founded by Japanese photographer Hiromi Sakanashi in 1981. ... Edixa is a brand of camera manufacturer Wirgin Kamerawerk which was based in Wiesbaden, West Germany. ... The Exakta is a pioneer brand camera produced by the Ihagee Kamerawerk in Dresden, Germany, founded as the Industrie und Handels-Gesellschaft mbH in 1912. ... The FED is a Soviet rangefinder camera, mass produced from 1934 until around 1984, and also the name of the factory that made it. ... Graflex was a manufacturer, a brand name and several models of cameras. ... Fujica is the name given by Fujifilm of Japan to its line of still-photography and motion picture cameras. ... Fujifilm Holdings Corporation or Fujifilm ) is a Japanese company known for its photographic film and cameras. ... Gateway, Inc. ... Graflex was a manufacturer, a brand name and several models of cameras. ... This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... The Holga is an inexpensive, medium format 120 film toy camera, originating in China, that later came to be appreciated for its low-fidelity aesthetic. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... Ilford Photo is a maker of photographic films, paper, and chemicals, which was founded in 1879 by Alfred Hugh Harman as Britannia Works. ... Kiev-Arsenal is a Soviet brand of camera manufactured by the Arsenal Factory in Kiev, Ukraine. ... Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc. ... , Leica Camera AG is a German company that has been designing and producing cameras since 1913. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Lomo is an Italian cured meat made from a pork tenderloin. ... Lumix is Panasonics range of digital cameras, from pocket point and shoot models to digital SLRs. ... Mamiya Digital Imaging Co. ... Micro Precision Products Ltd (MPP) was a British optical company that between 1941 and 1982 produced cameras and related equipment. ... The Minox, the archetypal sub-miniature camera, was invented by Estonian engineer Walter Zapp of Riga, Latvia, in 1936. ... Miranda Sensorex The Miranda Camera Company, originally named the Orion Camera Company, manufactured cameras in Japan between 1955 and 1973. ... Newman & Guardia were a British manufacturer of cameras and other fine instruments including early aircraft instruments. ... For other uses, see Nikon (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a Japanese camera maker. ... Oregon Scientific is a manufacturer of electronic products including learning aids, entertainment systems, cameras, clocks, and PDAs. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Pentax Corporation ) is a Japanese company founded in 1919 as Asahi Optical Joint Stock Co. ... The Petri 7 came in many varieties. ... The Plaubel Makina was a series of medium format press cameras manufactured by Plaubel & Co. ... Polaroid Corporation was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land. ... Praktica, the successor of Zeiss Ikon, is mainly a camera brand name from Dresden, (eastern) Germany, long time the worlds largest camera production location. ... Ricoh Company, Ltd. ... Rolleiflex medium format camera Rollei is a German manufacturer of optical goods, and maker of the well-known Rolleiflex and Rolleicord series of cameras. ... The Samsung Group (Korean: 삼성그룹, Samseong Geurup) is South Koreas largest conglomerate (chaebol) and one of the largest super-multinationals in the world leading several major global industries. ... Shanghai Seagull Camera Ltd is a Chinese camera maker located in Shanghai, China. ... Sigma Corporation ) is a Japanese company manufacturing cameras, lenses, flashes and other photographic accessories. ... Silvestri srl is an Italian company producing medium and large format cameras. ... The Swiss photographer Carl Hans Koch invented the Sinar camera in 1947. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... The Tessina is a high-quality 35 mm subminiature camera made by Concava S.A. in Lugano, Switzerland. ... Topcon (トプコン) Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of optical equipment for ophthalmology and surveying. ... Vivitar Corporation is a manufacturer, distributor and marketer of photographic and optical equipment, based in Oxnard, Calif. ... Voigtländer is an optical company founded in 1756 by Johann Friedrich Voigtländer in Vienna and thus the oldest name in cameras. ... Wray - (Wray (Optical Works) Ltd. ... Yashica Electro 35 GSN Yashica was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras. ... Carl Zeiss in middle age. ... Zenit 12 Zenit is a Russian camera brand produced by KMZ factory (Krasnogorskiy Mekhanicheskiy Zavod) near Moscow since 1952 and by BelOMO in Belarus (since 1970s). ... Zorki S, 1955 Zorki (Russian: ) is the name of a series of 35mm rangefinder cameras manufactured in the Soviet Union between 1948 and 1978. ...

Other

Photography Portal
Film Portal

Image File history File links Large_format_camera_lens. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Running water frozen by flash. ... In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. ... A tripod, in the context of photography, is a three-legged stand for a camera, used to stabilize and elevate the camera. ... In photography a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus, the picture. ... There are many mobile phone features found in todays mobile phones that offer users many more capabilities than only voice calls or text messaging. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), p. 1157 – 1177.
  3. ^ Explanatory Notes (section) of David Constantine's 1994 translation of Goethe's Elective Affinities, Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Mahon, Basil (2003). The Man Who Changed Everything – the Life of James Clerk Maxwell. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN. 
  5. ^ Auto focus - How Stuff Works

Elective Affinities (in German, Die Wahlverwandtschaften) is an 1809 novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Camera
  • Camerapedia a free-content encyclopedia of camera information
  • How camera works at How stuff works.
  • Photographic Collectors Club
  • Internet Directory of Camera Collectors
Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... A cameras angle of view can be measured horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity space, also showing the chromaticities of black-body light sources of various temperatures, and lines of constant correlated color temperature Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... Depth of focus is a lens optics concept regarding the tolerance of placement of the plane of film in relation to the rear element of the lens. ... 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography is a form of photography that utilizes digital technology to make digital images of subjects. ... Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photo sharing is the publishing or transfer of a users digital photos online, thus enabling the user to share them with others (whether publicly or privately). ... While photographers debate over which of the two formats, digital or film, is superior, each format has advantages. ... A photograph with an exposure time of 25 seconds A photograph of a night-time sky with an exposure time of 8 seconds In photography, exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the photographic medium (photographic film or image sensor) during the process of taking a... A 35mm lens set to f/11, as indicated by the white dot above the f-stop scale on the aperture ring In photography the f-number (focal ratio) expresses the diameter of the diaphragm aperture in terms of the effective focal length of the lens. ... // Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm Polavision 9,5 mm film 17. ... Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light. ... A four hour long exposure on a Nikon D2h camera is made possible using multiple shorter exposures (using the C.E.M.E.N.T. algorithm). ... In photography and cinematography, perspective distortion describes the appearance of a part of the subject as abnormally large, relative to the rest of the scene. ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... Photographic printing is the process of producing a final image for viewing, usually on sensitized paper from a previously prepared photographic negative. ... This page list various photographic processes. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ... The red-eye effect The red-eye effect is seen in many animals as well. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shutter speed can have a dramatic impact on the appearance of moving objects. ... This article or section may be excessively or inappropriately using first or second person, contrary to the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based... Commercial photography is photography made or licensed for the purpose of selling a product, service or idea where fine-art photography is created as an end in itself. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photographer. ... History of erotic photography refers to the history of the art and process of taking pictures of unclothed subjects. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photographer. ... Fine art photography, sometimes simply called art photography, refers to high-quality archival photographic prints of pictures that are created to fulfill the creative vision of an individual professional. ... Forensic photography (sometimes referred to as forensic imaging or crime scene photography) is the art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime scene or an accident scene for the benefit of a court. ... Glamour photography is the photographing of a model (usually female), in a way that is intended to be erotic, yet not pornographic. ... The Tetons - Snake River (1942) by Ansel Adams Wildlife photography, such as this midflight shot of a male mallard duck, can be very challenging and require a high power telephoto lens A waterfall in Iron Horse State Park. ... Assault landing One of the first waves at Omaha Beach as photographed by Robert F. Sargent. ... Porn redirects here. ... An example of a late 19th century family portrait. ... A post-mortem photograph of a middle-aged man. ... Senior portraits are formal portraits taken of students at the beginning of their senior year of high school. ... Still life photography is the practice or products of depicting inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. ... Stock photography consists of existing photographs that can be licensed for specific uses. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Instant Photo Booth Strip Vernacular photography is the name given to everyday photographs, usually created by non-professionals. ... Pink Anemonefish hiding in tentacles Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while underwater. ... Wedding photography is a major commercial endeavor that supports the bulk of the efforts for many photography studios or independent photographers. ... Before a rain storm Coyote Photograph Wildlife photography is the act of taking photographs of wildlife. ... The astounding bokeh of a Helios-40 lens A photograph of jonquil flowers with background bokeh Compare a photograph of jonquil flowers with low background bokeh Bokeh (from the Japanese boke ぼけ, blur) is a photographic term describing the subjective aesthetic qualities of out-of-focus areas in an... Contre-jour is French for against daylight, referring to photographs taken when the camera is pointing towards the light source. ... Cross processing is a term which describes the procedure of processing photographic film in a wrong chemical solution. ... Cyanotype is an old monochrome photographic printing process that gives a cyan-blue print. ... Moon through telescopes eyepiece and digital cameras zoom objective Digiscoping is a method of obtaining photos using a digital camera through a telescope or, less often, binoculars. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with photographic developer. ... Example image demostrating the result of a photo made using the Harris Shutter technique The Harris Shutter is a bit of a misnomer, being a technique, rather than a piece of photographic equipment. ... Early kite photo from 1906 Kite aerial photography (KAP) is a hobby and a type of photography. ... detail macro 1:1 — a macro photograph. ... Rainbow Bridge viewed from Odaiba The lack of ambient light allowed the headlights of the automobile to expose the majority of this photograph. ... Panoramic photography is a style of photography that aims to create images with exceptionally wide fields of view, but has also come to refer to any photograph that is cropped to a relatively wide aspect ratio (see Panoramic format) While there is no formal definition for the point at which... A colour photogram of lemons and tomato stems. ... Kirlian photography refers to a form of contact print photography, theoretically associated with high-voltage. ... Toning is any chemical process used to modify the color of monochrome photographic prints. ... In photography, push printing and push developing refer to a process where a picture is printed as if it were a film speed higher than intended by the film manufacturer. ... Rephotography is the act of repeat photography of the same site, with a time lag between the two images; a then and now view of a particular area. ... Rollout photography, a type of peripheral photography, is a process used to create a two dimensional photographic image of a three dimensional object. ... As early as 1857 William L. Jackson noted that exposing a partially developed photographic plate to light, then continuing its development to completion, would sometimes cause a reversal of tones, rendering the whole or part of the negative image as a positive. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... Sun printing is a photographic process in which the final print is produced by conventional lithographic printing processes. ... Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. ... Ultraviolet photography is a photographic process of recording images by using light from the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum only. ... The flower of a geranium opening over a period of about two hours. ... Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. ... A good example of framing; the dark plants surround the subject of the picture, the water and huts. ... This photograph of a sunset taken in the Thousand Islands region demonstrates the principles of the rule of thirds The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in photography. ... An example of simplicity; focus is on the flowers, without any background clutter In photography, the technique of simplicity is used to achieve the effect of singling out an item or items from their surrounding. ... A camera is a device used to take photographs. ... Chinas Holga camera takes medium-format photographs on 120 film. ... Basic View Camera Terminology The view camera is a type of camera with a very long history (some modern examples are often mistaken for antiques), but they are still used today by professional and amateur photographers who want full control of their images. ... Dry boxes are used to keep material dry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... // Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm Polavision 9,5 mm film 17. ... A film holder is a device which holds one or more pieces of photographic film, for insertion into a camera. ... A film scanner is a specialized device made for scanning photographic film, either in standard 35mm format, slides, or medium format. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. ... Running water frozen by flash. ... // List of camera manufacturers Alpa ARCA Swiss Cambo Canham Canon Contax Cosina Ebony (camera maker) Fotoman Fujifilm Gandolfi Gowland Graflex Hasselblad Holga Horseman Kiev-Arsenal (photo camera) Kodak Konica Minolta Kyocera Leica Leningradskoye Optiko Mechanichesckoye Obyedinenie(LOMO) Linhof Littman Mamiya Minox Nikon Olympus Panasonic Pentacon (Praktica) Pentax Polaroid Ricoh Rollei... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... [carousel slide projector, the most common form of projector] A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device to view photographic slides. ... A tripod, in the context of photography, is a three-legged stand for a camera, used to stabilize and elevate the camera. ... Binary zone plate: The areas of each ring, both light and dark, are equal. ... Nicéphore Niépces earliest surviving photograph, circa 1826 Modern photography began in the 1820s with the first permanent photographs. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... Timeline of photography technology 1825 - Nicéphore Niépce takes the first permanent photograph, an image of a boy leading a horse. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... The Gelatin-silver process is the photographic process used with currently available black and white films and printing papers. ... Gum printing is a way of making photographic reproductions without the use of silver halides. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ... A 1988 LOMO LC-A camera Lomography Fisheye Camera photo of Wakayama Castle Lomography is the commercial trademark of Lomographische AG, Austria for products and services related to photography. ... Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs. ... An example of vignetting in a photograph Vignetting is a common feature of photographs produced by toy cameras such as this shot taken with a Holga In photography and optics, vignetting is a reduction in image brightness in the image periphery compared to the image center. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... This is a list of notable photographers who already have articles. ... Diane Arbus Identical Twins #10 on the list of most expensive photographs. ...

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