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Encyclopedia > Camellia sinensis
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
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Tea Plant

Camellia sinensis foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Theaceae
Genus: Camellia
Species: C. sinensis
Binomial name
Camellia sinensis
(L.) Kuntze

Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. White tea, green tea, oolong and black tea are all harvested from this species, but are processed differently to attain different levels of oxidation. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1250 KB)Closeup of leaves of tea plant Camellia sinensis. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are the dominant and most familiar group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text. ... Genera Apterosperma Camellia Dankia Franklinia Gordonia Laplacea Pyrenaria Schima Stuartia Tutcheria The Theaceae is a family of flowering plants, composed of shrubs and trees recognizable by their serrated, usually glossy leaves. ... Species About 100–250 species, including: Camellia assimilis Camellia brevistyla Camellia caudata Camellia chekiangoleosa Camellia chrysantha – Golden Camellia Camellia connata Camellia crapnelliana Camellia cuspidata Camellia euphlebia Camellia euryoides Camellia forrestii Camellia fraterna Camellia furfuracea Camellia granthamiana Camellia grijsii Camellia hongkongensis - Hong Kong Camellia Camellia irrawadiensis Camellia japonica – Japanese Camellia Camellia... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Otto Carl Ernst Kuntze (June 23, 1843 - 1907) was a German botanist. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation, ranging from 10% to 70% oxidation. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


The name sinensis means Chinese in Latin. Older names for the tea plant include Thea bohea, Thea sinensis and Thea viridis. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Camellia sinensis is native to mainland South and Southeast Asia, but is today cultivated across the world, in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is usually trimmed to below two metres (six feet) when cultivated for its leaves. It has a strong taproot. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5–4 cm in diameter, with 7 to 8 petals. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... The dandelions taproot, quite apparent in this drawing, renders this plant very difficult to uproot – the plant itself gives way, but the root stays in the ground and may sprout again. ...


The seeds of Camellia sinensis and Camellia oleifera can be pressed to yield tea oil, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil, an essential oil that is used for medical and cosmetical purposes and originates from the leaves of a different plant. Binomial name Camellia oleifera C. Abel Camellia oleifera,which is originated in China, is named for being an important source of edible oil obtained from its seeds[1]. It is widely distributed in China as it is cultivated extensively in China. ... Tea oil (also known as camellia oil) is an edible, pale amber-green essential oil with an herbal aroma and a somewhat sweet flavor. ... Tea tree oil Tea tree oil is a yellowish green-tinged essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ...

Camellia sinensis plant, with cross-section of the flower (lower left) and seeds (lower right).
Camellia sinensis plant, with cross-section of the flower (lower left) and seeds (lower right).

The leaves are 4–15 cm long and 2–5 cm broad. Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine.[citation needed] The young, light green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short white hairs on the underside. Older leaves are deeper green. Different leaf ages produce differing tea qualities, since their chemical compositions are different. Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks. Image File history File links Koeh-025. ... Image File history File links Koeh-025. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...

Contents

Varieties

Several varieties of C. sinensis are used for tea production:


Assamese variety

The most volume comes from the Assam variety (sometimes called C. sinensis var. assamica or C. assamica), predominantly grown in the Assam region. It is a small tree (single stemmed) with large leaves. In the wild it reaches a height of 6 to 20 meters (20–65 feet) and is native to north-east India, Myanmar, Vietnam, and south China. In tea estates it is kept trimmed to just above waist level. A lowland plant, it requires a high rainfall but good drainage. It does not tolerate extreme temperatures. Discovered in 1823 (though used earlier by local people in their brews), it is one of the two original tea plants. All Assam teas and most Ceylon teas are from this plant. The Assam plant produces malty, earthy drinks, unlike the generally flowery yield of the China plant. Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about Black tea from Sri Lanka. ...

Seed bearing fruits of Camellia sinensis
Seed bearing fruits of Camellia sinensis

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 795 KB) 茶树的种子可以榨油。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Camellia sinensis Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 795 KB) 茶树的种子可以榨油。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Camellia sinensis Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ...

Chinese variety

The Chinese plant (sometimes called C. sinensis var. sinensis) is a small-leaved bush with multiple stems that reaches a height of some 3 meters. It is native to south-east China. The first tea plant to be discovered, recorded and used to produce tea three thousand years ago, it yields some of the most popular teas.


C. sinensis var. waldenae was considered a different species, Camellia waldenae by S.Y.Hu,[1] but it was later identified as a variety of C. sinensis[2]. This variety is commonly called Walden's Camellia. It is seen on Sunset Peak and Tai Mo Shan in Hong Kong. It is also distributed in Giangxi Province, China.[1] Sunset Peak or Tai Tung Shan (大東山) is third highest peak in Hong Kong. ... Tai Mo Shan Road, and Tai Mo Shan peak in distance Tai Mo Shan capped in the mist Tai Po, as seen from top of Tai Mo Shan. ...


Cambodian variety

The Cambodian plant is sometimes called C. sinensis var. parvifolia. Its leaves are in size between the Assam and Chinese varieties; it is a small tree with several stems. It is sometimes referred to as a hybrid of the Assam and China plants.


Diseases

Main article: List of tea diseases

This article is a list of diseases of tea (Camellia sinesis). ...

Ethnomedical uses

Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a disease in the large blood vessels of the arms, legs, and feet. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ...

See also

Tea tree oil Tea tree oil is a yellowish green-tinged essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... Species 236; see List of Melaleuca species Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... Tea tree or Ti Tree is a popular name that has been applied to a number of different, unrelated plants: Camellia sinensis, from which tea is obtained. ...

References

  1. ^ a b The International Camellia Society (ICS)
  2. ^ Ming, T. L. (1992) A revision of Camellia sect. Thea. Acta Botanica Yunnanica. 14(2), 115-132. In Chinese.

External links

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Camellia sinensis
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Camellia sinensis (5381 words)
Methanol-water (1:1) extract of Camellia sinensis root at 1/10th of its LD50 dose of100 mg/kg i.p inhibited arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema in rats indicating both cyclooxygenase & lypooxygenase pathways are affected and enhanced peritoneal cell count & macrophages number in normal mice.
Saponins from seeds from Camellia sinensis were found to exhibit an inhibitory effect on gastric emptying and an accelerating effect on gastrointestinal transit in mice, with position of acyl groups in the sapogenin moiety showing pharmacological importance.
Camellia sinensis decreased chromosome damage induced by arsenic to a significant extent, while the addition of ferrous sulphate did not alter the protective action of tea against arsenic in bone marrow cells of laboratory bred Swiss albino mice.
Camellia sinensis: Information from Answers.com (657 words)
Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.
Camellia sinensis is native to mainland South and Southeast Asia, but is today cultivated across the world, in tropical and subtropical regions.
The seeds of Camellia sinensis and Camellia oleifera can be pressed to yield tea oil, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil, an essential oil that is used for medical and cosmetical purposes and originates from the leaves of a different plant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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