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Encyclopedia > Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Seal
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°22′30″N 71°06′22″W / 42.375, -71.10611
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1630
Incorporated 1636
Government
 - Type Mayor-City Council
 - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D)
Area
 - Total 7.1 sq mi (18.5 km²)
 - Land 6.4 sq mi (16.7 km²)
 - Water 0.7 sq mi (1.8 km²)
Elevation 40 ft (12 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 101,354
 - Density 15,766.1/sq mi (6,087.3/km²)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142
Area code(s) 617 / 857 / 351 / 339 / 774 / 508 / 978
FIPS code 25-11000
GNIS feature ID 0617365
Website: http://www.cambridgema.gov/

Cambridge, Massachusetts is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England. Cambridge is most famous for the two prominent universities that call it home: Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 101,355. It is the fifth most populous city in the state. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Sealofcambridgema. ... Image File history File links Cambridge_ma_highlight. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Massachusetts counties This is a list of Massachusetts counties, consisting of the 14 Massachusetts counties currently in existence. ... Middlesex County is a county located in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Ken Reeves is the mayor of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Area code 617 once covered the entire Greater Boston (Eastern Massachusetts) area, reaching beyond the I-495 loop. ... Area code 857 is an overlay of parts of area code 617. ... Area codes 351 and 978 are Commonwealth of Massachusetts area codes serving the communities of Fitchburg and Peabody as well as northeastern Massachusetts. ... Area code 339 is an overlay of parts of area code 781. ... Area code 774 is an overlay of parts of area code 508. ... Area code 508 was split from area code 617 on July 16, 1988. ... Area code 978 is a Commonwealth of Massachusetts area code serving the communities of Lawrence, Lowell and Peabody as well as northeastern Massachusetts. ... Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... GNIS (The Geographic Names Information System) contains name and locative information about almost two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its Territories. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Greater Boston is the area of the U.S. state of Massachusetts closely surrounding the city of Boston. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... “MIT” redirects here. ...


Cambridge is a county seat of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, along with Lowell. Though the county government was abolished in 1997, the county still exists as a geographical and political region. The employees of Middlesex County courts, jails, registries, and other county agencies now work directly for the state. Middlesex County is a county located in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ...

Contents

History

Cambridge was established in 1630 as the town of Newetowne (written in some accounts as Newe Towne). Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newetowne was one of a number of towns (including Boston, Dorchester, Watertown, and Weymouth) founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under governor John Winthrop. The original village site is in the heart of today's Harvard Square. The marketplace where farmers brought in crops to sell from surrounding towns survives today as the small park at the corner of J.F.K. and Winthrop Streets, then at the edge of a salt marsh, since filled. The town included a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Newton (originally Cambridge Village, then Newtown) in 1688,[1] Lexington (Cambridge Farms) in 1712, and both Arlington (originally Menotomy) and Brighton (Little Cambridge) in 1807. Brighton was later annexed by Boston. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Boston redirects here. ... 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk Settled 1630 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Sue Kay (D) Area  - Total 21. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Chess players in Harvard Square in August of 2005 Harvard Square is a large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and John F. Kennedy Street. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1807 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town Manager Brian Sullivan  - Board of    Selectmen Kevin F. Greeley Annie LaCourt Diane Mahon Clarissa Rowe John W. Hurd Area  - Town  5. ... Brighton is a section of the City of Boston in the US Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...


In 1636 Harvard College was founded by the colony to train ministers and Newetowne was chosen for its site by Thomas Dudley. In May 1638[2] the name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England.[3] Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Legislature. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, or Elder. ... Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ...


Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles (13 km) by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Most of the inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was also a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, who made their livings from estates, investments, and trade, and lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown" (today's Brattle Street, still known as Tory Row). In 1775, George Washington came up from Virginia to take command of fledgling volunteer American soldiers camped on the Cambridge Common — today called the birthplace of the U.S. Army. (The name of today's nearby Sheraton Commander Hotel refers to that event.) Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Not to be confused with capitol. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson...

A map of Cambridge from 1873.
A map of Cambridge from 1873.

Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge began to grow rapidly, with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792, that connected Cambridge directly to Boston, making it no longer necessary to travel eight miles (13 km) through the Boston Neck, Roxbury, and Brookline to cross the Charles River. A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the Middlesex Turnpike (Hampshire St. and Massachusetts Ave. northwest of Porter Square), and what are today's Cambridge, Main, and Harvard Streets were roads to connect various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, railroads crisscrossed the town during the same era, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring town Somerville from the formerly rural parts of Charlestown. Image File history File links Cambridge_1873_WardMap. ... Image File history File links Cambridge_1873_WardMap. ... Taken late on a February 2002 afternoon, the MBTAs Red Line trains crossing at rush hour with the Beacon Hill and the Boston skyline in the distance. ... The trajectory of the Boston Neck along todays Washington Street. ... Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts USA. It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became a city in 1846 until it was annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1638 Incorporated 1705 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  6. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... The Middlesex Canal was built in the late 18th century to connect the Merrimack River with the port of Boston. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... The Cambridge and Concord Turnpike was an early turnpike between Cambridge and Concord, Massachusetts. ... The Middlesex Turnpike was an early turnpike between Cambridge and Tyngsborough, Massachusetts and the New Hampshire border, where it connected with the Amherst Turnpike and thence Nashua and Claremont, New Hampshire. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ...


Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846. Its commercial center also began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city. Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character — streetcar suburban development along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing being built on old estates in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills of the city. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge then led to three major changes in the city: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave. and Alewife Brook; the ice-cutting industry launched by Frederic Tudor on Fresh Pond; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to provide housing to the thousands of immigrants that moved to work in the new industries. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ... A streetcar suburb is a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Brickwork is produced when a bricklayer uses bricks and mortar to build up structures such as walls, bridges and chimneys. ... Alewife Brook Reservation is a Massachusetts state park located in Cambridge, Arlington, and Somerville. ... Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 - February 6, 1864) was Bostons Ice King, the founder of the Tudor Ice Company, and a merchant who made a fortune shipping ice to the Caribbean, Europe, and even as far away as India from sources of fresh water in New England. ... General plan for Fresh Pond Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the Olmsted Brothers landscape design firm, 1897. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...


For many years, the city's largest employer was the New England Glass Company, founded in 1818. By the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world. In 1888, all production was moved, by Edmund Drummond Libbey, to Toledo, Ohio, where it continues today under the name Owens Illinois. Flint glassware with heavy lead content, produced by that company, is prized by antique glass collectors. There is none on public display in Cambridge, but there is a large collection in the Toledo Museum of Art.


By 1920, Cambridge was one of the main industrial cities of New England, with nearly 120,000 residents. As industry in New England began to decline during the Great Depression and after World War II, Cambridge lost much of its industrial base. It also began the transition to being an intellectual, rather than an industrial, center. Harvard University had always been important in the city (both as a landowner and as an institution), but it began to play a more dominant role in the city's life and culture. Also, the move of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from Boston in 1912 ensured Cambridge's status as an intellectual center of the United States. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “MIT” redirects here. ...


After the 1950s, the city population began to decline slowly, as families tended to be replaced by single people and young couples, and by the end of the twentieth century, Cambridge had one of the most expensive housing markets in the Northeastern United States. The 1980s brought a wave of high technology start-ups, creating software such as Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3, and advanced computers, but many of these companies fell into decline with the fall of the minicomputer and DOS-based systems. VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet program available for personal computers. ... Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ...


While maintaining much diversity in class, race, and age, it became harder and harder for those who grew up in the city to be able to afford to stay. As of 2006, its mix of amenities and proximity to Boston have kept housing prices relatively stable. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 101,355 people, 42,615 households, and 17,599 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,086.1/km² (15,766.1/mi²), making Cambridge the 5th most densely populated city in the U.S.[4] There were 44,725 housing units at an average density of 2,685.6/km² (6,957.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 68.10% White, 11.92% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 11.88% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.19% from other races, and 4.56% from two or more races. 7.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This rather closely parallels the average racial demographics of the United States as a whole, although Cambridge has significantly more Asians than the average, and fewer Hispanics and Caucasians. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify themselves with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... Most common ancestries in the United States (as of 2000) The United States is a diverse country racially. ...


There were 42,615 households out of which 17.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.1% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.7% were non-families. 41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.83. Matrimony redirects here. ...


In the city the population was spread out with 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59,423. Males had a median income of $43,825 versus $38,489 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,156. About 8.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Cambridge was ranked as one of the most liberal cities in America.[5] Its FY 2007 residential property tax rate, $7.48 per $1000 of assessed valuation, is one of the lowest in Massachusetts. Cambridge enjoys the highest possible bond credit rating, AAA, with all three Wall Street rating agencies.[6] Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... In investment, the credit rating assesses the credit worthiness of a corporation. ...


Cambridge is noted for its diverse population, both racially and economically. Residents, known as Cantabrigians, range from affluent MIT and Harvard professors to working-class families to immigrants. The first legal applications in America for same-sex marriage licenses were issued at Cambridge's City Hall.[7] Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


The city and its universities, particularly Harvard, have strong leftist traditions, with some (typically outside the city) even referring to the city as the PRC, or the "People's Republic of Cambridge" and Harvard as the "Kremlin on the Charles".[citation needed] Cambridge is also known as "Boston's Left Bank" (although it is not part of the city of Boston). In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Squares

Harvard Square

Cambridge has also been called the "City of Squares" by some, as most of its commercial districts are major street intersections known as squares. Each of the squares acts as something of a neighborhood center. These include: Harvard Sq. ... Harvard Sq. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ...

  • Kendall Square, formed by the junction of Broadway, Main Street, and Third Street. Just over the Longfellow Bridge from Boston, at the eastern end of the MIT campus. It is served by an MBTA Red Line station. Most of Cambridge's large office towers are located here, giving the area somewhat of an office park feel. A flourishing biotech industry has grown up around here. The "One Kendall Square" complex is nearby, but—confusingly—not actually in Kendall Square.
  • Central Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. This is perhaps the closest thing Cambridge has to a downtown, and is well-known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants. Even as recently as the late 1990s it was rather run-down; it underwent a controversial gentrification in recent years (in conjunction with the development of the nearby University Park at MIT), and continues to grow more expensive. It is served by a Red Line station. Lafayette Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, and Main Street, is considered a part of the Central Square area. Cambridgeport is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street.
  • Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Mass. Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the site of Harvard University, the oldest university in the United States and is a major Cambridge shopping area (although not as exclusively so as in years past). It is served by a Red Line station. Harvard Square was originally the northwestern terminus of the Red Line and a major transfer point to streetcars that also operated in a short tunnel – which is still a major bus terminal, although the area under the Square was reconfigured dramatically in the 1980s when the Red Line was extended. The Harvard Square area includes Brattle Square and Eliot Square. A short distance away from the square lies the Cambridge Common, while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Mass. Ave. is known as Agassiz in honor of the famed scientist Louis Agassiz.
  • Porter Square, about a mile north on Mass. Ave from Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Mass. Ave and Somerville Ave, and including part of the city of Somerville. It is served by the Porter Square station which includes a Red Line stop and a Fitchburg Line commuter rail stop in the same building.
  • Inman Square, at the junction of Cambridge and Hampshire streets in Mid-Cambridge. Inman Square is home to comedy club ImprovBoston, as well as many diverse restaurants, bars and boutiques. Ryles Jazz Club and the S&S restaurant are two legends of Inman Square. The funky street scene still holds some urban flair but was dressed up recently with Victorian streetlights, benches and bus stops. A new community park was installed and is a favorite place to enjoy some takeout food from the nearby restaurants and ice cream parlor.
  • Lechmere Square, at the junction of Cambridge and First streets, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria shopping mall. Perhaps best known as the northern terminus of the MBTA Green Line subway.

Kendall Square is a neighborhood in Cambridge, Massachusetts, located at the intersection of Main Street, Broadway, Wadsworth Street, and Third Street (known as Kendall Square). It may also refer to the broad business district that is west of Portland Street, east of Charles River, north of MIT and south of... Taken late on a February 2002 afternoon, the MBTAs Red Line trains cross at rush hour with the Beacon Hill and the Boston skyline in the distance. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [2] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. ... Kendall/MIT Station, Fall 2004 Kendall/MIT is a station on the rapid transit Red Line in Kendall Square at the intersection of Broadway and Main Street, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Biotechnology is technology based on agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Central Square August, 2005 Central Square is an area in Cambridge, Massachusetts centered around the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. ... Massachusetts Avenue is the name shared by several prominent streets in the United States, located in Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; and Lawrence, Kansas. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... The large wire spool in the University Park Common is a reminder of the propertys former use as home to the Simplex Wire & Cable Company. ... Central Station is located at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Western Avenue, Prospect Street, and Magazine Street (Central Square), in Cambridge, MA. Its facilities include: a station on the Boston subways Red Line a street-level bus terminal for local routes // Attractions MIT, about a 12-minute walk... Cambridgeport is one of the neighborhoods of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Chess players in Harvard Square in August of 2005 Harvard Square is a large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and John F. Kennedy Street. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Harvard Station, September 2004 Harvard is a station on the Red Line subway at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Brattle Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Harvard Station, September 2004 Harvard is a station on the Red Line subway at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and JFK Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Cambridge Common is a large public park in Cambridge, MA. It is located right by Harvard Square and Harvard University. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... Porter Square is a neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts, located around the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Somerville Avenue, between Harvard and Davis Squares. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Porter Station, Inbound Platform, January 2005 Porter Station is a railroad station in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Red Line train of #1 Red Line stock crossing the Charles River on the Longfellow Bridge, towards Boston View of Boston from the Red Line The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston, Massachusetts into neighboring communities. ... The Fitchburg Railroad (AAR reporting mark FBRG) was a railroad across northern Massachusetts, USA, leading to and through the Hoosac Tunnel. ... The MBTA Commuter Rail is the regional rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ImprovBoston is a nonprofit improvisational theater, based in Cambridge, MA. They offer shows 6 nights per week at their theatre in Inman Square, as well as workshops and training programs in improvisation and, more recently, sketchwriting. ... Lechmere Square (pronounced leech-meer) is located at the intersection of Cambridge St. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts [2] formed in 1964 to finance and operate most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. ... Two trains at Park Street. ...

Neighborhoods

The residential neighborhoods (map) in Cambridge border, but are not defined by the squares. These include:

  • East Cambridge (Area 1) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the east by the Charles River, on the south by Broadway and Main Street, then on the west by railroad tracks.
  • MIT Campus (Area 2) is bordered on the north by Broadway and on the south and east by the Charles River, then on the west by railroad tracks.
  • Wellington-Harrington (Area 3) bordered on the north by the Somerville border and on the south and west by Hampshire Street, then on the east by railroad tracks.
  • Area 4 is bordered on the north by Hampshire Street and on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, then on the west by Prospect Street and on the east by railroad tracks. Residents of Area 4 often refer to their neighborhood as simply "Port", and refer to the area of Cambridgeport and riverside as "Coast". "Port" is often associated with the number 44 and the slogan "Port Life 44" refers to the area's number.
  • Cambridgeport (Area 5) is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue and on the south by the Charles River, then on the west by River Street and on the east by railroad tracks.
  • Mid Cambridge (Area 6) is bordered on the north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and the Somerville border and on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, then on the west by Peabody Street and on the east by Prospect Street.
  • Riverside (Area 7) this area, sometimes referred to as "Coast" is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue and on the south by the Charles River, then on the west by JFK Street and on the east by River Street.
  • Agassiz (Harvard North) (Area 8) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border and on the south and east by Kirkland Street, then on the west by Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Radcliffe/Avon Hill/Neighborhood 9 (Area 9) is bordered on the north by railroad tracks and on the south by Concord Avenue, then on the west by railroad tracks and on the east by Massachusetts Avenue. The Avon Hill sub-neighborhood consists of the higher elevations bounded by Upland Road, Raymond Street, Linnaean Street and Mass Ave.
  • Brattle area/West Cambridge (Area 10) is bordered on the north by Concord Avenue and Garden Street and on the south by the Charles River and the Watertown border, then on the west by the eastern shore of Fresh Pond and the Collins Branch Library and on the east by JFK Street. It includes the sub-neignborhoods of Brattle Street and Huron Village.
  • North Cambridge (Area 11) is bordered on the north by the Arlington border and partially the Somerville border and on the south by the railroad tracks, then on the west by the Belmont border and on the east by the Somerville border.
  • Cambridge Highlands (Area 12) is bordered on the north and east by railroad tracks and on the south by the north shore of the Fresh Pond, then on the west by the Belmont border.
  • Strawberry Hill, also known as West Cambridge (Area 13), is bordered on the north by the south shore of Fresh Pond and on the south by the Watertown border, then on the west by the Belmont border and on the east by railroad tracks.

At the western edge of Cambridge, Mount Auburn Cemetery is well known as the first garden cemetery, for its distinguished inhabitants, for its superb landscaping (the oldest planned landscape in the country), and as a first-rate arboretum. East Cambridge is a neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Area 4 is one of the neighborhoods of Cambridge, Massachusetts, roughly between Central Square, Inman Square, and MIT. It is bounded on the south by Massachusetts Avenue and Main Street, on the west by Prospect Street, on the north by Hampshire Street, and on the east by the Boston & Albany... Cambridgeport is one of the neighborhoods of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1807 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town Manager Brian Sullivan  - Board of    Selectmen Kevin F. Greeley Annie LaCourt Diane Mahon Clarissa Rowe John W. Hurd Area  - Town  5. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1636 Incorporated 1859 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1636 Incorporated 1859 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  4. ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1636 Incorporated 1859 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  4. ... Mount Auburn Cemetery Mount Auburn Cemetery Hunnewell family obelisk Civil War memorial Founded in 1831 as Americas first garden cemetery, Mount Auburn Cemetery is an Elysium where, traditionally, chaste classical monuments were set in rolling landscaped terrain. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ...


Although one often sees references to the "Boston/Cambridge area" in print, Cambridge prefers to retain its own unique and legally-separate identity.


Geography

Cambridge is located at 42°22′25″N, 71°6′38″W.GR1


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.5 km² (7.1 mi²). 16.7 km² (6.4 mi²) of it is land and 1.8 km² (0.7 mi²) of it (9.82%) is water. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Adjacent towns

Cambridge is located in Eastern Massachusetts, bordered by:

The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of Somerville passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the MBTA Red Line. Some of the main squares, Inman, Porter, and to a lesser extent, Harvard, are very close to the city line, as are Somerville's Union and Davis Squares. Boston redirects here. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1807 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town Manager Brian Sullivan  - Board of    Selectmen Kevin F. Greeley Annie LaCourt Diane Mahon Clarissa Rowe John W. Hurd Area  - Town  5. ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1636 Incorporated 1859 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  4. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Joseph A. Curtatone Area  - Total 4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Porter Square is a neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts, located around the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Somerville Avenue, between Harvard and Davis Squares. ... Chess players in Harvard Square in August of 2005 Harvard Square is a large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and John F. Kennedy Street. ... The Prospect Hill Monument in Union Square, Somerville, MA Union Square is a neighborhood of Somerville, Massachusetts, located around the intersection of Washington Street and Somerville Avenue, not far from Cambridges Inman Square. ... Davis Square, Somerville, Massachusetts Davis Square is a neighborhood of Somerville, Massachusetts, located around the intersection of Holland Street, Dover Street, Elm Street, Highland Avenue, and College Avenue. ...


The end of rent control in the late 1990s prompted many Cambridge renters to move to housing that was more affordable, in Somerville and other communities.


The two cities, in addition to proximity, have a number of other similarities:

  • Densely populated urban/commercial/residential - they are two of the top ten highest population density cities in the country.
  • Rapid turnover - in each city, people who have been living there for less than ten years make up a solid majority of total residents.
  • Both primarily served by the MBTA Red Line subway. A planned extension of the Green Line from its current terminus at the eastern edge of Cambridge into east Somerville will further link the two cities.
  • College students and recent graduates make up a remarkably high percentage of the residents (owing at least partially to the presence of Harvard, MIT and Tufts), even for the Boston area.
  • Politically liberal, even by Massachusetts standards
  • Both cities have also joined together in forming the Cambridge Somerville Alliance

The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls the subway, bus, commuter rail, and ferry systems in the Boston, Massachusetts area. ... Red Line train of #1 Red Line stock crossing the Charles River on the Longfellow Bridge, towards Boston View of Boston from the Red Line The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston, Massachusetts into neighboring communities. ... Two trains at Park Street. ... Tufts University is a university located in Medford, Massachusetts (near Boston). ...

Area code structure

It is notable that the city has no less than seven area codes due to its placement on multiple exchanges: 617 / 857 / 351 / 339 / 774 / 508 / 978. This has resulted in Cambridge having the highest per capita number of area codes for a city its size. Attempts to simplify the area code structure have failed.[citation needed]


Government

See also: List of mayors of Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge has a 9-member City Council, and a 6-member School Committee. The councillors and school committee members are elected every two years using the single transferable vote (STV) system.[8] Since the disbanding of the New York City Community School Boards in 2002, Cambridge's Council is now unusual in being the only governing body in the United States to still use STV.[9] Once a laborious process that took several days to complete by hand, vote counting is now done by computer. This is a list of mayors of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x880, 78 KB) Summary City Hall in Cambridge, MA, USA. (shot by User:Ummit 2005-09-05) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x880, 78 KB) Summary City Hall in Cambridge, MA, USA. (shot by User:Ummit 2005-09-05) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cambridge, Massachusetts City Hall. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ...


The mayor is elected by the city councillors from amongst themselves, and serves as the chair of City Council meetings. The mayor also sits on the School Committee. However, the Mayor is not the Chief Executive of the City. Rather, the City Manager, who is appointed by the City Council, serves in that capacity.


Currently, Robert W. Healy is the City Manager; he has served in the position since 1981. The mayor is Kenneth Reeves. The city council consists of: Robert W. Healy is the city manager of Cambridge, Massachusetts and currently the longest-serving serving city manager in the history of the city of Cambridge since a change in law went into effect with the 1941 election. ... Ken Reeves is the mayor of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

City Council
  • Kenneth Reeves, the current mayor
  • Timothy J. Toomey, Jr.
  • Henrietta Davis
  • Marjorie C. Decker
  • Anthony D. Galluccio
  • Craig A. Kelley
  • Brian Murphy
  • E. Denise Simmons
  • David Maher

Timothy J. Toomey, Jr. ... Anthony D. Galluccio (born 1969) is a Massachusetts State Senator, having won the seat vacated by Jarrett T. Barrios. ...

Fire Department

Chief of Department Gerald R. Reardon


Chief of Operations John J. Gelinas


The Cambridge Fire Department is rated as a class 1 fire department by the Insurance Services Office (ISO). Of the more than 37,000 fire departments subject to ISO survey in this country, only 32 are rated as Class 1. In the 6 state New England region only two fire departments, Hartford, CT and Cambridge, MA, are rated as Class 1.


The latest revision of the ISO’s Fire Suppression Rating Schedule classifies fire protection into 10 categories, Class 1 recognizing the highest level of fire protection and Class 10 recognizing the lowest or no level of fire protection. The Fire Suppression Rating Schedule includes three major sections: Fire Alarm; Fire Department; and Water System. The Fire Alarm section includes the means for the public to report a fire, how the fire department receives the alarm of fire, and how firefighters and companies are alerted and dispatched to the fire. The Fire Department section considers apparatus, equipment, staffing, automatic and mutual aid, prefire planning, and training. The interrelationship of engines, trucks, rescues, and other companies is also considered. The Water System section considers the supply works, main capacity to deliver fire flow, distribution of hydrants, hydrant size, type, and installation, hydrant inspection and condition, and alternative water supplies. Per the 1980 revision of the Fire Suppression Rating Schedule, fire alarm is weighted as 10%, water supply as 40%, and the fire department as 50% of the total survey rating evaluation.


Education

Higher education

A view from Boston of Harvard's Weld Boathouse and Cambridge. The Charles River is in the foreground.
A view from Boston of Harvard's Weld Boathouse and Cambridge. The Charles River is in the foreground.

At least 129 of the world's total 780 Nobel Prize winners have been, at some point in their careers, affiliated with universities in Cambridge. Download high resolution version (576x768, 81 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (576x768, 81 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Cambridge College is a university in Cambridge, Massachusetts specializing in adult education. ... Episcopal Divinity School, or EDS, is an Episcopal seminary in Cambridge, Massachusetts, offering Master of Divinity, Master of Arts in Theological Studies, and Doctor of Ministry degrees. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Lesley University is a private university with campuses at Boston and Cambridge, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... The Longy School of Music, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Category: ... The following list provides information on nobel laureates and their affiliation to academic institutions. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...


Schools

Cambridge is host to many public and private schools serving the children of Cambridge.


Cambridge's public schools are operated by Cambridge Public Schools.[10] The public high schools in Cambridge are Cambridge Rindge and Latin (also known as CRLS) and Prospect Hill Academy Charter School whose middle and high schools are in Central Square. Name Cambridge Rindge and Latin Address 459 Broadway Town Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 Established See Article Community Urban Type Public Secondary Religion Secular Students Coeducational Grades 9 to 12 Accreditation New England Association of Schools and Colleges (Barely) District Cambridge Public School District Nickname CRLS or Rindge Mascot Falcon Colors Black... Central Square is an area in Cambridge, Massachusetts centered around the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. ...


There are many private schools in the city, serving a variety of needs of both parents and students, including:

Cambridge is also home to the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. The Boston Archdiocesan Choir School (BACS) is a fully-accredited choir school for boys in grades 5-8 and is affiliated with St. ... Address 80 Gerrys Landing Road Town Cambridge, Massachusetts Country U.S. Browne & Nichols established 1883, by George H. Browne & Edgar H. Nichols[1] The Buckingham School established 1889 Buckingham Browne & Nichols merger 1974 Conference Independent School League Type Private Coeducational Religious Affiliation Secular Grades Pre-K to 12 (on... The Montessori method is a methodology for nursery and elementary school education, first developed by Dr. Maria Montessori. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Name German International School Boston Address 54 Essex Street Town Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Established 2001 Type Private Religion Secular Students Coeducational Grades Pre-K to 6 Nickname GISBOS Colors Black, Red and Gold Motto Excellent bilingual education for every child Website Link Email Link The German International School Boston Boston... The International School of Boston/Ecole Internationale de Boston is a bilingual co-educational preK-12 private school in Cambridge, MA. The Maternelle Campus (preK, MidK, and K)is located in the adjacent town of Arlington, MA. With over 500 students from over 40 different countries, ISB is one of... Matignon High School is a co-ed Catholic school in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston. ... The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy is an American Non-profit organization educational institution established in 1974 to improve public knowledge and debate in regards to land policy and land-related taxation. ...


Economy

Although manufacturing was an important part of the late 19th and early 20th-century Cambridge economy, today long-established educational institutions are its biggest employers; Harvard employs over 10,000 people and MIT over 9,500. As a famous cradle of technological innovation, Cambridge is also home to legendary technology firms, including Analog Devices, VMware, Akamai, BBN, Lotus Development Corporation (now part of IBM), Polaroid, Thinking Machines, and Google. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Analog Devices (NYSE: ADI) is an American multinational producer of semiconductor devices. ... VMware Inc. ... Akamai Technologies, Inc. ... BBN might refer to: Bolt, Beranek and Newman, (now known as BBN Technologies), a technology company in Cambridge, Massachusetts, best known for its work on packet switching technology Bible Broadcasting Network, a global Christian radio network headquartered in Charlotte, NC Big Bang nucleosynthesis Big Brother Nigeria, a reality show which... Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Polaroid Corporation was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land. ... Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982 by W. Daniel Hillis and Sheryl Handler to turn Hilliss doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product called the Connection Machine. ... This article is about the corporation. ...


Over the years, as companies have grown, prospered, and then either moved away or gone out of business (see this list of employers for more information), Cambridge's large-scale employment has shifted tremendously. In 1996, Polaroid, Arthur D. Little, and Lotus were all top employers with over 1,000 people in Cambridge, and all declined or disappeared a few years later. As of 2005, alongside Harvard and MIT, health care and biotechnology dominate the Cambridge economy, with Genzyme, Biogen Idec, and Novartis the biggest players. Biotech's geographical locus is Kendall Square and East Cambridge, the center of much of the city's manufacturing a century before. A number of biotechnology companies are also located in University Park at MIT, a new development in another former manufacturing area. None of the computer-industry firms that once dominated the Cambridge economy are top-20 employers as of 2005. However, many smaller start-ups and entrepreneurial companies remain an important part of the Cambridge employment scene. Polaroid Corporation was founded in 1937 by Edwin H. Land. ... Arthur D. Little, Inc. ... Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Genzyme Corporation (NASDAQ: GENZ) is a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Biogen Idec, Inc. ... Novartis Suffern Yes plant is the Swiss companys sole pharmaceutical production facility in the U.S. Novartis International AG is a multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland that manufactures mainstream products such as Benefiber (a fiber supplement) and Lamisil (a foot fungus medicine). ... East Cambridge is a neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The large wire spool in the University Park Common is a reminder of the propertys former use as home to the Simplex Wire & Cable Company. ...


Transportation

See also: Boston transportation

A Boston, Massachusetts above-ground Green Line subway train rumbles by, while a taxicab, a privately owned vehicle, and person walking demonstrate some of the other ways of getting around the city. ...

Road

Several major roads lead to Cambridge, including Route 2, Route 16 and the McGrath Highway (Route 28). The Massachusetts Turnpike does not pass through Cambridge, but provides access by an exit in nearby Allston. Route 2A runs the length of the city, chiefly along Massachusetts Avenue. The Charles River forms the southern border of Cambridge and is crossed by eleven bridges connecting Cambridge to Boston, eight of which are open to motorized road traffic. Massachusetts State Highway 2, always referred to simply as Route 2, is a major East-West state highway in Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Route 16, often referred to simply as Route 16, is a East-West state highway in Massachusetts. ... Massachusetts Route 28 // MA Route 28 Northern Terminus: NH 28, New Hampshire State Line, Methuen, Massachusetts Southern Terminus: US 6, Orleans, Massachusetts Cities along the route Lawrence Boston Brockton Middleborough Falmouth Hyannis Chatham Spur/Alternate Routes West Falmouth - Pocasset: Route 28A (originally part of Route 28 before freeway bypass) About... View of the Turnpike from an overpass by Boston University, facing east (towards central Boston). ... Allston is a diverse neighborhood in the city of Boston, Massachusetts with a population which includes Boston natives, students from neighboring Boston University, Boston College, MIT and Harvard and various ethnic groups such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Irish. ... Massachusetts Route 2A exists in several sections of Massachusetts, mainly as parts of former Route 2 that have been moved or upgraded. ... Massachusetts Avenue is the name shared by several prominent streets in the United States, located in Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; and Lawrence, Kansas. ...


Cambridge has an irregular street network because many of the roads date from the colonial era. Contrary to popular belief, the road system did not evolve from longstanding cow-paths. Roads connected various village settlements with each other and nearby towns, and were shaped by geographic features, most notably streams, hills, and swampy areas. Today, the major "squares" are typically connected by long, mostly straight roads, such as Massachusetts Avenue between Harvard Square and Central Square, or Hampshire Street between Kendall Square and Inman Square. Chess players in Harvard Square in August of 2005 Harvard Square is a large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and John F. Kennedy Street. ... Central Square August, 2005 Central Square is an area in Cambridge, Massachusetts centered around the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. ... Kendall Square is a neighborhood in Cambridge, Massachusetts, located at the intersection of Main Street, Broadway, Wadsworth Street, and Third Street (known as Kendall Square). It may also refer to the broad business district that is west of Portland Street, east of Charles River, north of MIT and south of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It can be hard to find a place to park in Cambridge. Main streets have metered parking. Parking on most other streets is restricted to residents with a sticker, even in areas without a parking shortage. Nonresidents cannot park in these spaces for any length of time, except on Sundays or with a visitor permit lent by a resident; even with a visitor permit or in a non-sticker zone, nonresidents cannot park for more than 24 hours. Streets are cleaned once a month (over two days, one day per side of the street), except January through March; cars parked on the wrong side of the street on that street's cleaning day are towed. City policy discourages public off-street parking, in favor of reserved parking for residential and commercial tenants, so paid off-street parking is very expensive, and is nonexistent in many areas.


Mass transit

Cambridge has one stop on the regional Commuter Rail, one on the Green Line, and five stops on the Red Line. Alewife Station, the current terminus of the Red Line, has a large multi-story parking garage (at a rate of $5 per day as of November 2005). The parking garage is an ideal place for visitors (coming to the area from the northwest) to leave their cars if their final destination is near a T station, although like many other Boston-area commuter lots, Alewife tends to fill up on workday mornings, and there can be some major delays driving out of the garage during the evening rush. There are also several bus routes throughout the city, with the major local bus terminals at Alewife, Harvard Square, Central Square, and Lechmere Square and four trolleybus routes that originate at Harvard Square. The Harvard Bus Tunnel, under the Square, reduces traffic congestion on the surface, and connects to the Red Line underground. This tunnel was originally opened for streetcars in 1912, and served trackless trolleys and buses as the routes were converted. The tunnel was partially reconfigured when the Red Line was extended to Alewife in the early 1980s. The MBTA Commuter Rail is the regional rail arm of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. ... Two trains at Park Street. ... Red Line train of #1 Red Line stock crossing the Charles River on the Longfellow Bridge, towards Boston View of Boston from the Red Line The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston, Massachusetts into neighboring communities. ... T sign and top of glass pyramid from roof-level parking deck of Alewife Station, September 2004 Alewife Station, located at the intersection of Fresh Pond Parkway and Rindge Avenue, in Cambridge, Massachusetts is a local transportation hub. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Harvard Station, September 2004 Harvard is a station on the Red Line subway at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and JFK Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


Cycling

Cambridge has several bike paths, including one along the Charles River,[11] the Minuteman Bikeway and the Linear Park connecting Alewife and the Somerville Community Path. Bike parking is common and there are bike lanes on many streets, although concerns have been expressed regarding the suitability of many of the lanes. From time to time, police target their traffic enforcement efforts towards bicyclists who do not follow the Rules of the Road for vehicles, especially going through red lights, failure to stop for pedestrians at unsignalized crosswalks, riding on the wrong side of the street or the wrong way on a one-way street, and riding without a headlight at night. [citation needed] In addition, Cambridge bans cycling on certain sections of sidewalk where pedestrian traffic is heavy.[12][13] This article or section should include material from Cycle path debate Segregated cycle facilities may consist of a separate road, track, path or lane that is designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... The Minuteman Commuter Bikeway in Bedford, near Wiggins Avenue The Minuteman Bikeway is a 10 mile (16 km) paved mixed-use path/rail trail in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. ... The Linear Park is a mixed-use path, about 1 mile long, running through Cambridge and Somerville (Massachusetts), and connecting the Minuteman Bikeway and the Fitchburg Cutoff Path near Alewife with the Somerville Community Path at Davis Square. ... The Somerville Community Path is an ambitious project to connect the Minuteman Bikeway and Cambridge Linear Park to the Charles river and downtown Boston. ...


While Bicycling Magazine has rated Boston as one of the worst cities in the nation for bicycling (In their words, for "lousy roads, scarce and unconnected bike lanes and bike-friendly gestures from City Hall that go nowhere – such as hiring a bike coordinator in 2001, only to cut the position two years later.")[14], it has listed Cambridge as an honorable mention as one of the best[15] and was called by the magazine "Boston's Great Hope." Cambridge has an active, official bicycle committee.


Walking

Cambridge has the highest percentage of commuters who walk to work in the country[1]. Cambridge's major historic squares have been recently adapted into a modern walking landscape which has sparked a traffic calming program based on pedestrian rather than motorist needs.


Intercity

Intercity buses and Amtrak stop at South Station in Boston, which is a short ride on the Red Line from Cambridge. Logan International Airport is easy to get to by car or taxi. It can also be reached via mass transit either by taking the Red Line to South Station and transferring to the Silver Line SL1 bus (which serves the terminals directly), or by taking the Green Line to Government Center and transferring to the Blue Line and going to the Airport stop (and then taking a Massport shuttle bus to the terminals). The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... South Station front entrance. ... For the Logan airport in Billings, Montana, see Billings Logan International Airport. ... Red Line train of #1 Red Line stock crossing the Charles River on the Longfellow Bridge, towards Boston View of Boston from the Red Line The Red Line is a rapid transit line operated by the MBTA running roughly north-south through Boston, Massachusetts into neighboring communities. ... Map The Silver Line is the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authoritys (MBTAs) sole Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) line, running in two, unconnected sections, from Dudley Square in Roxbury to downtown Boston, Massachusetts and from South Station to several points in South Boston and to Logan Airport in East Boston. ... Two trains at Park Street. ... Government Center Station of the MBTA, located at the intersection of Tremont, Court and Cambridge Streets in the Government Center neighborhood of Boston, is the main transfer point between the Green Line and the Blue Line. ... The Blue Line is one of the four subway lines of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. ... Massachusetts Port Authority, or Massport, is an independent agency of the state of Massachusetts. ...


Points of interest

Cambridge Public Library, funded by Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1887.
Cambridge Public Library, funded by Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1887.
The Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1066 KB) Cambridge Public Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1066 KB) Cambridge Public Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Frederick Hastings Rindge (1857-1905) was a Californian businessman, philanthropist, and writer, and major benefactor to his home town of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1066 KB) Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1066 KB) Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Buildings

Cambridge, Massachusetts City Hall. ... The Cooper-Frost-Austin House is a historic Colonial American house, currently estimated to have been constructed circa 1681-1682. ... Elmwood, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Asa Gray House. ... The Hooper-Lee-Nichols House, front facade. ... The Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts at Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts is the only building actually built by Le Corbusier in the United States, one of only two in the Americas. ...

Museums

Adolphus Busch Hall is the former home of the Busch-Reisinger Museum (originally called the Germanic Museum). ... The Fogg Art Museum is the oldest of Harvard Universitys art museums. ... Harvard Museum of Natural History complex The Harvard Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... MIT Museum, founded in 1971, is the museum of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is a museum affiliated with Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Nature and outdoors

Alewife Brook Reservation is a wildlife park which occupies 120 acres in urban Boston. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... Cambridge Common is a large public park in Cambridge, MA. It is located right by Harvard Square and Harvard University. ... General plan for Fresh Pond Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the Olmsted Brothers landscape design firm, 1897. ... The Harvard Bridge (also known locally as the MIT bridge or the Mass Ave bridge) is the longest bridge over the Charles River. ... Taken late on a February 2002 afternoon, the MBTAs Red Line trains cross at rush hour with the Beacon Hill and the Boston skyline in the distance. ... Mount Auburn Cemetery Mount Auburn Cemetery Hunnewell family obelisk Civil War memorial Founded in 1831 as Americas first garden cemetery, Mount Auburn Cemetery is an Elysium where, traditionally, chaste classical monuments were set in rolling landscaped terrain. ...

Churches

Christ Church in 1792. ... Harvard-Epworth United Methodist Church The Harvard-Epworth United Methodist Church is a church located beside Harvard Law School near the Cambridge, Massachusetts common. ... The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical movement that began in Dublin, London, Plymouth, and the continent of Europe in the late 1820s. ...

Other

  • Café Pamplona
  • Harvard Book Store
  • List of Registered Historic Places in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Café Pamplona, August 2005 Café Pamplona, located at 12 Bow St. ... Harvard Book Store is an independently owned and locally run seller of used, new, and remaindered books in Cambridges Harvard Square. ... List of Registered Historic Places in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as transferred on September 2, 2007, from List of Registered Historic Places in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Longfellow National Historic Site Asa Gray House. ...

Sister cities

Cambridge has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI): Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Location    - Country  Portugal  - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... The roof terrace of Palacio de Valle in southern Cienfuegos at night. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... San Jose Las Flores is a city in El Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Tsukuba (Japanese: つくば市 Tsukuba-shi) is a planned city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ...

Zip codes

  • 02138 -- Harvard Square/West Cambridge
  • 02139 -- Central Square/Inman Square/MIT
  • 02140 -- Porter Square/North Cambridge
  • 02141 -- East Cambridge
  • 02142 -- Kendall Square

References and notes

  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Mid Cambridge, 1967, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. [ISBN needed]
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Cambridgeport, 1971 ISBN 0-262-53013-9, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Old Cambridge, 1973 ISBN 0-262-53014-7, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Northwest Cambridge, 1977 ISBN 0-262-53032-5, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: East Cambridge, 1988 (revised) ISBN 0-262-53078-3, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  1. ^ Ritter, Priscilla R.; Thelma Fleishman (1982). Newton, Massachusetts 1679-1779: A Biographical Directory. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 
  2. ^ Harvard Gazette historical calendar giving May 12, 1638 as date of name change; certain other sources say May 2, 1638 or late 1637
  3. ^ Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R. (1907). Historic Guide to Cambridge, Second Edition, Cambridge, Mass.: Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R., pages 20-21. “On October 15, 1637, the Great and General Court passed a vote that: "The college is ordered to bee at Newetowne." In this same year the name of Newetowne was changed to Cambridge, ("It is ordered that Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge") in honor of the university in Cambridge, England, where many of the early settlers were educated.” 
  4. ^ County and City Data Book: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Table C-1.
  5. ^ http://www.govpro.com/News/Article/31439/
  6. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/Understanding_Your_Taxes_2007.pdf
  7. ^ Free to Marry, The Boston Globe. Accessed November 25, 2006.
  8. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/election/Proportional_Representation.cfm
  9. ^ http://ccrc.wustl.edu/~lorracks/projects/techreport/subsection3_4_4.html
  10. ^ http://www.cpsd.us/
  11. ^ http://www.mass.gov/dcr/parks/metroboston/maps/bikepaths_dudley.gif
  12. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_ban.html
  13. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_reg.html
  14. ^ http://www.bicycling.com/article/1,6610,s1-2-16-14593-11,00.html
  15. ^ http://www.bicycling.com/article/1,6610,s1-2-16-14593-9,00.html

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Maps

Coordinates: 42.373746° N 71.110554° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cambridge, Massachusetts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2684 words)
Cambridge was established as the town of "Newtowne" in 1630.
Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony.
Cambridge is bordered by the city of Boston on its south and east (across the Charles River), by the city of Somerville and the town of Arlington to its north, and by the city of Watertown and town of Belmont to its west.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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