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Encyclopedia > Cambrian

The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Proterozoic eon and ended about 488.3 ± 1.7 Ma with the beginning of the Ordovician period (ICS, 2004)[2]. It is the first period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon. The Cambrian takes its name from Cambria, the classical name for Wales, the area where rocks from this time period were first studied. Cambrian is a division of the geologic timescale at the end of the Proterozoic, named for Cambria, the Welsh name for Wales. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... In general usage, an eon (sometimes spelled aeon) is a very long period of time. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... During the Phanerozoic the biodiversity shows a steady but not monotonic increase from near zero to several thousands of genera. ... Cambria is a latinised form of Cymru, which is the Welsh name for Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


The Cambrian is the earliest period in whose rocks are found numerous large, distinctly fossilizable multicellular organisms that are more complex than sponges or medusoids. This sudden appearance of hard body fossils is referred to as the Cambrian explosion. Phyla Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented worms Tardigrada - Water bears Onychophora - Velvet worms Arthropoda - Insects, etc. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... In biology, a medusa (also known as a hydromedusa) is a form of cnidarian in which the body is shortened on its principal axis and broadened, sometimes greatly, in contrast with the hydroid or polyp. ... The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ...

Contents

Cambrian subdivisions

The Cambrian period follows after the Neoproterozoic and is followed by the Ordovician period. The Cambrian is divided into three epochs — the Early Cambrian (Caerfai or Waucoban), Middle Cambrian (St Davids or Albertian) and Furongian (also known as Late Cambrian, Merioneth or Croixan). Rocks of these epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower, Middle, or Upper Cambrian. The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... The Early Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... The Middle Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... The Furongian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ...


Each of the epochs are divided into two faunal stages. Only one, the Paibian, has been recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, and others are still unnamed. However, the Cambrian is divided into several regional faunal stages: Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ... In the geologic timescale, the Paibian is the age of the Furongian epoch of the Cambrian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 501. ... The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ...

Chinese North American Russian-Kazakhian Australian Regional
Furongian Ibexian (part) Ayusokkanian Idamean Dolgellian
Sunwaptan Sakian Mindyallan Festiniogian
Steptoan Aksayan Payntonian Maentwrogian
Marjuman Batyrbayan
Middle Cambrian Maozhangian Mayan Boomerangian
Zuzhuangian Delamaran Amgan Undillian
Zhungxian Florian
Templetonian
  Dyeran Ordian
Early Cambrian Longwangmioan Toyonian Lenian
Changlangpuan Montezuman Botomian
Qungzusian Atdabanian
Meishuchuan Tommotian
Nemakit-Daldynian

The Furongian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... The Ibexian is recognized as the youngest Cambrian and oldest Ordovician series in North America. ... The Middle Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... The Early Cambrian is an geological epoch that is part of the Cambrian Era. ... The Atdabanian period of the Early Cambrian epoch lasted from ca 530 to ca 524 Mya. ... The Tommotian Age is an early part of the Cambrian period. ...

Cambrian dating

The time range for the Cambrian has classically been thought to have been from about 500 mya to about 570 mya. The lower boundary of the Cambrian was traditionally set at the earliest appearance of early arthropods known as trilobites and of primitive reef-forming animals known as archeocyathids. Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... The Archeocyatha, also called Archaeocyathids, were sessile, reef-building marine organisms that lived during the Lower Cambrian period (500-600 million years ago). ...


The end of the period was eventually set at a fairly definite faunal change now identified as an extinction event. Fossil discoveries and radioactive dating in the last quarter of the 20th century have called these dates into question. Date inconsistencies as large as 20 Ma are common between authors. Framing dates of ca. () 545 to 490 mya were proposed by the International Subcommission on Global Stratigraphy as recently as 2002. An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ...


A radiometric date from New Brunswick puts the end of the first stage of the Cambrian around 511 mya. This leaves 21 Ma for the other two stages of the Cambrian. This article is about the Canadian province. ...


A more precise date of 542 ± 0.3 mya for the extinction event at the beginning of the Cambrian has recently been submitted.[1] The rationale for this precise dating is interesting in itself as an example of paleological deductive reasoning. Exactly at the Cambrian boundary there is a marked fall in the abundance of carbon-13, a "reverse spike" that paleontologists call an excursion. It is so widespread that it is the best indicator of the position of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in stratigraphic sequences of roughly this age. One of the places that this well-established carbon-13 excursion occurs is in Oman. Amthor (2003) describes evidence from Oman that indicates the carbon-isotope excursion relates to a mass extinction: the disappearance of distinctive fossils from the Precambrian coincides exactly with the carbon-13 anomaly. Fortunately, in the Oman sequence, so too does a volcanic ash horizon from which zircons provide a very precise age of 542 ± 0.3 Ma (calculated on the decay rate of uranium to lead). This new and precise date tallies with the less precise dates for the carbon-13 anomaly, derived from sequences in Siberia and Namibia. It is presented here as likely to become accepted as the definitive age for the start of the Phanerozoic eon, and thus the start of the Paleozoic era and the Cambrian period. Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated or implied by previously known premises. ... Carbon-13 is a stable isotope of carbon. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, is basically the study of rock layers and layering. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the metal. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Cambrian paleogeography

The continental distribution in the early Cambrian epoch, 514 million years ago.
The continental distribution in the early Cambrian epoch, 514 million years ago.

Cambrian continents are thought to have resulted from the breakup of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Pannotia. The waters of the Cambrian period appear to have been widespread and shallow. Gondwana remained the largest supercontinent after the breakup of Pannotia. It is thought that Cambrian climates were significantly warmer than those of preceding times that experienced extensive ice ages discussed as the Varanger glaciation. Also there was no glaciation at the poles. Continental drift rates in the Cambrian may have been anomalously high. Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia remained independent continents since the break-up of the supercontinent of Pannotia. Gondwana started to drift towards the South Pole. Panthalassa covered most of the southern hemisphere, and minor oceans included the Proto-Tethys Ocean, Iapetus Ocean, and Khanty Ocean, all of which expanded by this time. Image File history File links Cambrianmap. ... Image File history File links Cambrianmap. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Cryogenian Period (from Greek cryos ice and genesis birth) is the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era, followed by the Ediacaran Period. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... Siberia (Sometimes called Angara) is the craton located in the heart of the region of Siberia. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... Proto-Tethys Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed from the latest Ediacaran to the Carboniferous. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... Khanty Ocean was an ancient, small ocean that existed near the end of the Precambrian time to the Silurian. ...


Cambrian fauna

Fossil trilobite Redlichia chinensis from the Cambrian of China

Of those modern animal phyla that fossilize easily, all save the bryozoans appear to have representatives in the Cambrian, and of these most (except the considerably older sponges) seem to have originated near the start of the period. Many extinct phyla and odd animals that have unclear relationships to other animals also appear in the Cambrian. The apparent "sudden" appearance of very diverse faunas over a period of no more than a few tens of millions of years is referred to as the "Cambrian Explosion". Also, the first possible tracks on land, such as Protichnites and Climactichnites, dating to about 530 mya and found in Ontario, Canada, and northern United States, appeared at this time. The conodonts, small predatory primitive chordates known from their fossilised teeth, also appeared during the Furongian epoch of the Cambrian period. The conodonts thrived throughout the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic until they completely disappeared during the Late Triassic period when the first mammals were evolving. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1398x1024, 568 KB) Summary Photograph of a fossil trilobite Redlichia chinensis taken by Dlloyd. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1398x1024, 568 KB) Summary Photograph of a fossil trilobite Redlichia chinensis taken by Dlloyd. ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Fossilized Bryozoa, Ordovician limestone, Batavia, Ohio Bryozoans (moss animals) are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... A trace fossil consisting of the imprints made by the walking activity of an unknown arthropod. ... Climactichnites is a genus of trace fossil formed on sandy tidal flats in portions of Canada and northern United States around 510 Ma during late Cambrian time. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Conodonts are extinct worm-like forms with distinctive conical or multi-denticulate teeth made of apatite (calcium phosphate). ...


The best studied sites where the soft parts of organisms have fossilized are in the Burgess shale of British Columbia. They represent strata from the Middle Cambrian and provide us with a wealth of information on early animal diversity. Similar faunas have subsequently been found in a number of other places — most importantly in very early Cambrian shales in the People's Republic of China's Yunnan Province (see Maotianshan shales). Fairly extensive Precambrian Ediacaran faunas have been identified in the past 50 years, but their relationships to Cambrian forms are quite obscure. Hallucigenia sparsa, one of the organisms unique to the Burgess Shale. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The Maotianshan shale is a lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) rock formation, of ca 522 Mya, now lying exposed in the Yunnan Province of China in the villages of Ercaicun and Chengjiang near the city of Kunming. ... Dickinsonia costata, an Ediacaran organism of unknown affinity, with a quilted appearance. ...


Cambrian flora

Generally it is accepted that there were no land plants at this time although molecular dating suggests that land plant ancestors diverged from the algae much earlier, in the Neoproterozoic about 700 ma[citation needed], and that fungi diverged from the animals about 1 billion years ago[citation needed]. The land at this time was barren, mostly desert and badlands.[citation needed] Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ...


See also

List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ...

References

  1. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G., Smith, A.G., others (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press. 
  2. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Smith, A.G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge university press. 

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Hallucigenia sparsa, one of the organisms unique to the Burgess Shale. ... Cloudinids (Cloudinia) are an extinct animal phylum that formed small tubelike or conical fossils consisting of cup-in-cup segments of calcareous material. ... Namacalathus (name derives from the Nama group where it was described, and the Greek word kalathos, meaning basket in the shape of a lily, or wine goblet) is a problematic metazoan fossil occurring in the latest Proterozoic Nama Group of central and southern Namibia. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cambrian
Cambrian period
Early Cambrian Middle Cambrian Furongian
Stage 1 | Stage 2 Stage 3 | Stage 4 | Stage 5
Stage 6 | Stage 7
Paibian | Stage 9
Stage 10
Paleozoic era
Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Palaeos Paleozoic: Cambrian: The Cambrian Period - 1 (2818 words)
Laurentia stretched across the Cambrian equator, partly submerged by the Iapetus ocean, with a mostly mostly submerged Baltica and Siberia approaching from the South-East.
During the 53 million years that the Cambrian period lasted there was the sudden appearance and diversification of almost every major group (phylum) of animal life, as well as many types that later died out.
The most characteristic animals of the Cambrian period were the trilobites, a primitive form of arthropod remarkable for it's highly developed eyes (unusual in such an early organism).
Cambrian system - LoveToKnow 1911 (2844 words)
The Cambrian system is covered by his stages "B" and "C"; the former a barren series of conglomerates and quartzites, the latter a series of grey and green fissile shales 1200 ft. thick with sandstones, greywackes and conglomerates.
The Cambrian system is represented in the Salt Range of India by the Neobolus or Khussack beds, which may possibly belong to the middle subdivision.
No Cambrian rocks are such as would be formed in the abysses of the sea - although the absence of well-developed eyes in the trilobites has led some to assume that this condition was an indication that the creatures lived in abyssal depths.
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