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Encyclopedia > Calvin Coolidge
John Calvin Coolidge Jr.
Calvin Coolidge

In office
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
Vice President None (1923–1925)
Charles G. Dawes, (1925–1929)
Preceded by Warren G. Harding
Succeeded by Herbert Hoover

In office
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
President Warren G. Harding
Preceded by Thomas R. Marshall
Succeeded by Charles G. Dawes

In office
January 2, 1919 – January 6, 1921
Lieutenant Channing H. Cox
Preceded by Samuel W. McCall
Succeeded by Channing H. Cox

In office
January 6, 1916 – January 2, 1919
Governor Samuel W. McCall
Preceded by Grafton D. Cushing
Succeeded by Channing H. Cox

Born July 4, 1872(1872-07-04)
Plymouth, Vermont
Died January 5, 1933 (aged 60)
Northampton, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Grace Goodhue Coolidge
Alma mater Amherst College
Religion Congregationalist
Signature Calvin Coolidge's signature

John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. (July 4, 1872January 5, 1933) was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His actions during the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight. Soon after, he was elected as the twenty-ninth Vice President in 1920 and succeeded to the Presidency upon the death of Warren G. Harding. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small-government conservative. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (909x1185, 94 KB) Description Calvin Coolidge, 30th President of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... John Hancock, first Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 _ August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... Samuel Walker McCall (February 28, 1851 - November 4, 1923) was Governor of Massachusetts. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 _ August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... John Hancock, first Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Samuel Walker McCall (February 28, 1851 - November 4, 1923) was Governor of Massachusetts. ... Grafton D. Cushing was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1915 to 1916. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 _ August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Plymouth, Vermont Plymouth is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled and Charter granted 1654 Incorporated as a city 1884 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins Area  - City  35. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... GOP redirects here. ... Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (January 3, 1879 – July 8, 1957) was wife of Calvin Coolidge and First Lady of the United States from 1923 to 1929. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1047x552, 322 KB) I created this image and am releasing it into the public domain. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Current BPD Uniform Patch The Boston Police Department (BPD) has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


In many ways Coolidge's style of governance was a throwback to the passive presidency of the nineteenth century.[1] He restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity.[2] As his biographer later put it, "he embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength."[3] Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Many later criticized Coolidge as part of a general criticism of laissez-faire government.[4] His reputation underwent a renaissance during the Reagan administration,[5] but the ultimate assessment of his presidency is still divided between those who approve of his reduction of the size of government and those who believe the federal government should be more involved in regulating the economy.[6] Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Reagan redirects here. ...

Contents

Family and early life

Birth and family history

John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. was born in Plymouth, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only U.S. President to be born on the fourth of July. He was the elder of two children of John Calvin Sr. and Victoria Coolidge. The Coolidge family had deep roots in New England. His earliest American ancestor, John Coolidge, emigrated from Cambridge, England, around 1630 and settled in Watertown, Massachusetts.[7] Coolidge's great-great-grandfather, also named John Coolidge, was an American army officer in the American Revolution, and was one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth Notch.[8] Most of Coolidge's ancestors were farmers. The more well-known Coolidges, such as architect Charles Allerton Coolidge, and diplomat Archibald Cary Coolidge, were descended from other branches of the family that had stayed in Massachusetts.[7] Coolidge's grandmother Sarah Almeda Brewer had two famous first cousins: Arthur Brown, a United States Senator, and Olympia Brown, a women's suffragist. Plymouth, Vermont Plymouth is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ... Windsor County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Town of Watertown is a city[1] in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The Board of Selectmen is commonly the executive arm of town government in New England. ... Charles Allerton Coolidge (born 1858, died Locust Valley, New York, Jan. ... Archibald Cary Coolidge (March 6, 1866–January 14, 1928) was an American educator. ... Arthur Brown (March 8, 1843 - December 12, 1906) was a United States Senator from Utah. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Olympia Brown (January 5, 1835 – October 23, 1926) was a famous Womens suffragist. ...

Coolidge as an Amherst undergraduate
Coolidge as an Amherst undergraduate

Coolidge's grandfather, Calvin Coolidge, held some local government offices in Plymouth and was best remembered as a man with "a fondness for practical jokes".[9] His grandmother, Sarah Brewer, was also of New England. It is through this ancestor that Coolidge claimed to be descended in part from American Indians.[10] Coolidge's father was a farmer, but spent some time as a schoolteacher and justice of the peace.[11] His mother, Victoria Josephine Moor Coolidge, was the daughter of another Plymouth Notch farmer.[12] Coolidge's mother was chronically ill, possibly suffering from tuberculosis, and died young in 1884, but Coolidge's father lived to see him become President.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, about 1908 Native Americans â€“ also Indians, American Indians, First Nations, First Peoples, Indigenous Peoples of America, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerind, Native Canadians (or of other nations) â€“ are those peoples indigenous to the Americas, living there prior to European colonization and... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Education

Coolidge graduated from Black River Academy, Vermont, but failed his initial entrance exam to Amherst College.[14] He spent one term at St. Johnsbury Academy, Vermont before entering Amherst.[15] He dropped John from his name upon graduating from college. At Amherst, Coolidge became a member of the Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta and joined the College Republicans in 1892.[16] While there, Coolidge met Dwight Morrow, who would become a life-long friend.[17] Coolidge would later credit Charles E. Garman, a professor of philosophy and ethics, with having a significant influence on his education.[18] He graduated cum laude in 1895.[19] At graduation, Coolidge was selected by his classmates to compose and read the Grove Oration, a humorous speech traditionally given during the graduation ceremony.[19] Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... St. ... Phi Gamma Delta (also known as FIJI) is a collegiate social fraternity with 107 chapters and 9 colonies across the United States and Canada. ... Time Magazine, October 12, 1925 Dwight Whitney Morrow (January 11, 1873–October 5, 1931) was an American businessman, politician, and diplomat. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


Early career and marriage

Western Massachusetts lawyer

After graduating from Amherst, at his father's urging, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to take up the practice of law. Avoiding the costly alternative of attending a law school, Coolidge followed the more common practice at the time of apprenticing with a local firm, Hammond & Field. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates themselves, introduced Coolidge to the law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County. In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge was able to open his own law office in Northampton in 1898, where he practiced transactional law, believing that he served his clients best by staying out of court. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services.[20] Nickname: Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled and Charter granted 1654 Incorporated as a city 1884 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins Area  - City  35. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Hampshire County is a county located in the state of Massachusetts. ...


Marriage and family

In 1905 Coolidge met and married Grace Anna Goodhue, a local schoolteacher and fellow Vermonter. They were opposites in personality: she was talkative and fun-loving, while Coolidge was quiet and serious.[21] Not long after their marriage, Coolidge handed her a bag with fifty-two pairs of socks in it, all of them full of holes. Grace's reply was "Did you marry me to darn your socks?" Without cracking a smile and with his usual seriousness, Calvin answered, "No, but I find it mighty handy."[22] They had two sons; John Coolidge, born in 1906, and Calvin Jr., born in 1908.[23] The marriage was, by most accounts, a happy one.[24] As Coolidge wrote in his Autobiography, "We thought we were made for each other. For almost a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities, and I have rejoiced in her graces."[25] Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (January 3, 1879 – July 8, 1957) was wife of Calvin Coolidge and First Lady of the United States from 1923 to 1929. ... John Coolidge (September 6, 1906 — May 31, 2000) was the first son of Calvin Coolidge and Grace Coolidge. ...


Local political office

City offices

The Republican Party was dominant in New England in Coolidge's time, and he followed Hammond's and Field's example by becoming active in local politics.[26] Coolidge campaigned locally for Republican presidential candidate William McKinley in 1896, and the next year he was selected to be a member of the Republican City Committee.[27] In 1898, he won election to the City Council of Northampton, placing second in a ward where the top three candidates were elected.[27] The position offered no salary, but gave Coolidge experience in the political world.[28] In 1899, he declined renomination, running instead for City Solicitor, a position elected by the City Council. He was elected for a one-year term in 1900, and reelected in 1901.[29] This position gave Coolidge more experience as a lawyer, and paid a salary of $600.[29] In 1902, the city council selected a Democrat for city solicitor, and Coolidge returned to an exclusively private practice.[30] Soon thereafter, however, the clerk of courts for the county died, and Coolidge was chosen to replace him. The position paid well, but barred him from practicing law, so he only remained at the job for one year.[30] The next year, 1904, Coolidge met with his only defeat before the voters, losing an election to the Northampton school board. When told that some of his neighbors voted against him because he had no children in the schools he would govern, Coolidge replied "Might give me time!"[30] GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... A court clerk or clerk of the court is an occupation whose responsibilities include maintaining the records of a court. ... A board of education or a school board or school committee is the title of the board of directors of a school, local school district or higher administrative level. ...


State legislator and mayor

Calvin and Grace Coolidge, about 1918.

In 1906 the local Republican committee nominated Coolidge for election to the state House of Representatives. He won a close victory over the incumbent Democrat, and reported to Boston for the 1907 session of the Massachusetts General Court.[31] In his freshman term, Coolidge served on minor committees and, although he usually voted with the party, was known as a Progressive Republican, voting in favor of such measures as women's suffrage and the direct election of Senators.[32] Throughout his time in Boston, Coolidge found himself allied primarily with the western Winthrop Murray Crane faction of the state Republican Party, as against the Henry Cabot Lodge-dominated eastern faction.[33] In 1907, he was elected to a second term. In the 1908 session, Coolidge was more outspoken, but was still not one of the leaders in the legislature.[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (797 × 1104 pixel, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 433 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (797 × 1104 pixel, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Boston redirects here. ... The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Amendment XVII in the National Archives Amendment XVII (the Seventeenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the Senate on June 12, 1911 and by the House on May 13, 1912. ... Winthrop Murray Crane (1853 - 1920) was a U.S. political figure. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ...


Instead of vying for another term in the state house, Coolidge returned home to his growing family and ran for mayor of Northampton when the incumbent Democrat retired. He was well-liked in the town, and defeated his challenger by a vote of 1,597 to 1,409.[35] During his first term (1910 to 1911), he increased teachers' salaries and retired some of the city's debt while still managing to effect a slight tax decrease.[36] He was renominated in 1911, and defeated the same opponent by a slightly larger margin.[37] A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...

Calvin Coolidge as a young legislator
Calvin Coolidge as a young legislator

In 1911 the State Senator for the Hampshire County area retired and encouraged Coolidge to run for his seat for the 1912 session. He defeated his Democratic opponent by a large margin.[38] At the start of that term, Coolidge was selected to be chairman of a committee to arbitrate the "Bread and Roses" strike by the workers of the American Woolen Company in Lawrence, Massachusetts.[39] After two tense months, the company agreed to the workers' demands in a settlement the committee proposed.[40] The other major issue for Republicans that year was the party split between the progressive wing, which favored Theodore Roosevelt, and the conservative wing, which favored William Howard Taft. Although he favored some progressive measures, Coolidge refused to bolt the party.[41] When the new Progressive Party declined to run a candidate in his state senate district, Coolidge won reelection against his Democratic opponent by an increased margin.[41] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3392 × 4576 pixel, file size: 936 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Calvin Coolidge ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3392 × 4576 pixel, file size: 936 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Calvin Coolidge ... The Massachusetts Senate is the upper house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... For the band, see Bread and Roses (band). ... The American Woolen Company was established in 1899 under the leadership of William M. Wood and his father-in-law Frederick Ayer through the consolidation of eight financially troubled New England woolen mills. ...   Settled: 1655 â€“ Incorporated: 1847 Zip Code(s): 01840 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ...


The 1913 session was less eventful, and Coolidge's time was mostly spent on the railroad committee, of which he was the chairman.[42] Coolidge intended to retire after the 1913 session, as two terms were the norm, but when the President of the State Senate, Levi H. Greenwood, considered running for Lieutenant Governor, Coolidge decided to run again for the Senate in the hopes of being elected as its presiding officer.[43] Although Greenwood later decided to run for reelection to the Senate, he was defeated and Coolidge was elected, with Crane's help, as the President of a closely divided Senate.[44] After his election in January 1914, Coolidge delivered a speech entitled Have Faith in Massachusetts, which was later republished as a book.[45] His speech, later much-quoted, summarized Coolidge's philosophy of government. The President of the Massachusetts Senate is the presiding officer. ... Levi H. Greenwood was a Republican politician from Massachusetts in the early twentieth century. ...

"Do the day's work. If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it. If it is to help a powerful corporation, do that. Expect to be called a stand-patter, but do not be a stand-patter. Expect to be called a demagogue, but do not be a demagogue. Do not hesitate to be called as revolutionary as science. Do not hesitate to be as reactionary as the multiplication table. Do not expect to build up the weak by pulling down the strong. Do not hurry to legislate. Give administration a chance to catch up with legislation."
Have Faith in Massachusetts as delivered by Calvin Coolidge to the Massachusetts State Senate, 1914.[46]

Coolidge's speech was well-received and he attracted some admirers on its account.[47] Towards the end of the term, many of them were proposing his name for nomination to lieutenant governor. After winning reelection to the Senate by an increased margin in the 1914 elections, Coolidge was reelected unanimously to be President of the Senate.[48] As the 1915 session drew to a close, Coolidge's supporters, led by fellow Amherst alumnus Frank Stearns, encouraged him once again to run for lieutenant governor. This time, he accepted their advice.[49] A demagogue (sometimes spelled demagog) is a leader who obtains power by appealing to the gut feelings of the public, usually by powerful use of rhetoric and propaganda. ... Frank W. Stearns was a close friend of Former President Coolidge, joining them as honored guests at the Republican National Convention in California when Coolidge was Vice President Category: ...


Lieutenant Governor

Coolidge entered the primary election for lieutenant governor and was nominated to run alongside gubernatorial candidate Samuel W. McCall. Coolidge was the leading vote-getter in the Republican primary, and balanced the Republican ticket by adding a western presence to McCall's eastern base of support.[50] McCall and Coolidge won the 1915 election, with Coolidge defeating his opponent by more than 50,000 votes.[51] For other uses, see Primary. ... Samuel Walker McCall (February 28, 1851 - November 4, 1923) was Governor of Massachusetts. ... Ticket balance is a political term used when a political candidate chooses a running mate with the goal of bringing more widespread appeal to the campaign. ...


Coolidge's duties as lieutenant governor were few; in Massachusetts, the lieutenant governor does not preside over the state Senate, although Coolidge did become an ex officio member of the governor's cabinet.[52] As a full-time elected official, Coolidge no longer practiced law after 1916, though his family continued to live in Northampton.[53] McCall and Coolidge were both reelected in 1916 and again in 1917 (both offices were one-year terms in those days). When McCall decided that he would not stand for a fourth term, Coolidge announced his own intention to run for governor.[54]


Governor of Massachusetts

1918 election

Coolidge was unopposed for the Republican nomination for Governor of Massachusetts in 1918. He and his running mate, Channing Cox, a Boston lawyer and Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, ran on the previous administration's record: fiscal conservatism, a vague opposition to Prohibition, support for women's suffrage, and support for American involvement in the First World War.[55] The issue of the war proved divisive, especially among Irish- and German-Americans.[56] Coolidge was elected by a margin of 16,773 votes over his opponent, Richard H. Long, in the smallest margin of victory of any of his state-wide campaigns.[57] This is a complete list of the governors of Massachusetts, including: governors of the Plymouth Colony, governors of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, presidents of the Dominion of New England, colonial governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and governors of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 – August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the bicameral state legislature of Massachusetts. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... German Americans (German Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of the U.S. population. ...


Boston Police Strike

Main article: Boston Police Strike

In 1919 in response to rumors that policemen of the Boston Police Department planned to form a trade union, Police Commissioner Edwin U. Curtis issued a statement saying that such a move would not be countenanced. In August of that year, the American Federation of Labor issued a charter to the Boston Police Union.[58] Curtis said the union's leaders were insubordinate and planned to relieve them of duty, but said that he would suspend the sentence if the union was dissolved by September 4.[59] The mayor of Boston, Andrew Peters, convinced Curtis to delay his action for a few days, but Curtis ultimately suspended the union leaders after a brief delay, on September 8.[60] Current BPD Uniform Patch The Boston Police Department (BPD) has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Current BPD Uniform Patch The Boston Police Department (BPD) has the primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Edwin U. Curtis was the commissioner of the Boston Police Department during the Boston Police Strike of 1919. ... The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew James Peters was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Massachusettss 11th congressional district from 1907 to 1914, and was Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1918 to 1922. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Your assertion that the Commissioner was wrong cannot justify the wrong of leaving the city unguarded. That furnished the opportunity; the criminal element furnished the action. There is no right to strike against the public safety by anyone, anywhere, any time.  ... I am equally determined to defend the sovereignty of Massachusetts and to maintain the authority and jurisdiction over her public officers where it has been placed by the Constitution and laws of her people."
Telegram from Governor Calvin Coolidge to Samuel Gompers September 15, 1919.[61]

The following day about three-quarters of the policemen in Boston went on strike.[62] Coolidge had observed the situation throughout the conflict, but had not yet intervened. That night and the next, there was sporadic violence and rioting in the lawless city.[63] Peters, concerned about sympathy strikes, had called up some units of the Massachusetts National Guard stationed in the Boston area and relieved Curtis of duty.[64] Coolidge, furious that the mayor had called out state guard units, finally acted.[65] He called up more units of the National Guard, restored Curtis to office, and took personal control of the police force.[66] Curtis proclaimed that none of the strikers would be allowed back to their former jobs, and Coolidge issued calls for a new police force to be recruited.[67] is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... A sympathy strike is a labour strike that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry. ... Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard Seal of the National Guard Missile Defense The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...

Samuel Gompers.
Samuel Gompers.

That night Coolidge received a telegram from AFL leader Samuel Gompers. "Whatever disorder has occurred", Gompers wrote, "is due to Curtis's order in which the right of the policemen has been denied …"[68] Coolidge publicly answered Gompers's telegram with the response that would launch him into the national consciousness (quoted, above left).[68] Newspapers across the nation picked up on Coolidge's statement and he became the newest hero to defenders of American capitalism. In the midst of the First Red Scare, many Americans were terrified of the spread of communist revolution, like those that had taken place in Russia, Hungary, and Germany. While Coolidge had lost some friends among organized labor, conservatives across the nation had seen a rising star. Download high resolution version (472x640, 19 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Samuel Gompers Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (472x640, 19 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Samuel Gompers Categories: U.S. history images ... Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ... Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... “November Revolution” redirects here. ...


1919 election

Coolidge and Cox were renominated for their respective offices in 1919. By this time Coolidge's supporters (especially Stearns) had publicized his actions in the Police Strike around the state and the nation and some of Coolidge's speeches were reissued as a book.[45] He was faced with the same opponent as in 1918, Richard Long, but this time Coolidge defeated him by 125,101 votes, many times more than his margin of victory from a year earlier.[69] His actions in the police strike, combined with the massive electoral victory, led to suggestions that Coolidge should run for President in 1920.[70]


Legislation and vetoes as governor

By the time Coolidge was inaugurated on January 1, 1919 the First World War had ended, and Coolidge pushed the legislature to give a $100 bonus to Massachusetts veterans. He also signed a bill reducing the work week for women and children from fifty-four hours to forty-eight, saying "we must humanize the industry, or the system will break down."[71] He signed into law a budget that kept the tax rates the same, while trimming four million dollars from expenditures, thus allowing the state to retire some of its debt.[72] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ...


Coolidge also wielded the veto pen as governor. His most publicized veto was of a bill that would have increased legislators' pay by 50%.[73] In May 1920, he vetoed a bill that would have allowed the sale of beer or wine of 2.75% alcohol or less, in contravention of the Eighteenth Amendment. Although Coolidge himself was opposed to Prohibition, he felt constrained to veto the bill. "Opinions and instructions do not outmatch the Constitution," he said in his veto message, "Against it, they are void."[74] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Near beer was originally a term for malt beverages with little or no alcohol (one half of one percent or less) mass-marketed during Prohibition in the United States. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ...


Vice Presidency

1920 election

At the 1920 Republican Convention most of the delegates were selected by state party conventions, not primaries. As such, the field was divided among many local favorites.[75] Coolidge was one such candidate, and while he placed as high as sixth in the voting, the powerful party bosses never considered him a serious candidate. After ten ballots, the delegates settled on Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio as their nominee for President.[76] When the time came to select a Vice Presidential nominee, the party bosses had also made a decision on who they would nominate: Senator Irvine Lenroot of Wisconsin.[77] A delegate from Oregon, Wallace McCamant, having read Have Faith in Massachusetts, proposed Coolidge for Vice President instead.[77] The suggestion caught on quickly, and Coolidge found himself unexpectedly nominated.[78] The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president. ... The 1920 Republican National Convention nominated Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding for United States President and Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge for United States Vice President. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Irvine Luther Lenroot (January 31, 1869 - January 26, 1949) was a member of the United States Republican Party who served in the House of Representatives from 1909 - 1918, and in United States Senate from 1918 - 1927, for the state of Wisconsin. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Wallace McCamant (September 22, 1867- December 17 1944) was the 46th Associate Justice of the state’s highest court. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...

President Harding and Vice President Coolidge and their wives.
President Harding and Vice President Coolidge and their wives.

The Democrats nominated another Ohioan, James M. Cox, for President and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, for Vice President. The question of the United States joining the League of Nations was a major issue in the campaign, as was the unfinished legacy of Progressivism.[79] Harding ran a "front-porch" campaign from his home in Marion, Ohio, but Coolidge took to the campaign trail in the Upper South, New York, and New England.[80] On November 2, 1920, Harding and Coolidge were victorious in a landslide, winning every state outside the South.[81] They also won in Tennessee, the first time a Republican ticket had won a Southern state since Reconstruction.[81] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920. ... FDR redirects here. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Marion is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Marion County[4]. The city is located in northern Ohio, approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of Columbus. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


"Silent Cal"

The Vice Presidency did not carry many official duties, but Coolidge was invited by President Harding to attend cabinet meetings, making him the first Vice President to do so.[82] He gave speeches around the country, but none were especially noteworthy.[83]


As Vice President, Coolidge and his vivacious wife Grace were invited to quite a few parties, where the legend of "Silent Cal" was born. It was from this time most of the jokes and anecdotes at his expense originate. Although Coolidge was known to be a skilled and effective public speaker, in private he was a man of few words and was therefore commonly referred to as "Silent Cal." A possibly apocryphal story has it that Dorothy Parker, seated next to him at a dinner, said to him, "Mr. Coolidge, I've made a bet against a fellow who said it was impossible to get more than two words out of you." His famous reply: "You lose."[84] It was also Parker who, upon learning that Coolidge had died, reportedly remarked, "How can they tell?"[85] Coolidge often seemed uncomfortable among fashionable Washington society; when asked why he continued to attend so many of their dinner parties, he replied "Got to eat somewhere."[86] Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (January 3, 1879 – July 8, 1957) was wife of Calvin Coolidge and First Lady of the United States from 1923 to 1929. ... Dorothy Parker (August 22, 1893 – June 7, 1967) was an American writer and poet, best known for her caustic wit, wisecracks, and sharp eye for 20th century urban foibles. ...


As President, Coolidge's reputation as a quiet man continued. "The words of a President have an enormous weight," he would later write, "and ought not to be used indiscriminately."[87] Coolidge was aware of his stiff reputation; indeed, he cultivated it. "I think the American people want a solemn ass as a President," he once told Ethel Barrymore, "and I think I will go along with them."[88] Ethel Barrymore (August 15, 1879 – June 18, 1959) was an Academy Award-winning American actress and a member of the famous Barrymore family. ...


Presidency 1923–1929

Coolidge's father, John Calvin Coolidge, Sr.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 894 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (694 × 894 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ...

Succession to the Presidency

On August 2, 1923, President Harding died while on a speaking tour in California.[89] Vice President Coolidge was visiting his family home, which did not have electricity or a telephone, in Vermont when he received word by messenger of Harding's death.[90] Coolidge dressed, said a prayer, and came downstairs to greet the reporters who had assembled.[90] His father, a notary public, administered the oath of office in the family's parlor by the light of a kerosene lamp at 2:47 a.m. on August 3, 1923; Coolidge then went back to bed. Coolidge returned to Washington the next day, and was re-sworn by Justice A. A. Hoehling of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, as there was some confusion over whether a state notary public had the authority to administer the presidential oath.[91] is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Coolidge Homestead, 1976. ... A US Embossed Notary Seal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ...


Finishing Harding's term

Coolidge signing the Immigration Act and some appropriation bills. General John J. Pershing looks on.
Coolidge signing the Immigration Act and some appropriation bills. General John J. Pershing looks on.

The nation did not know what to make of its new President; Coolidge had not stood out in the Harding administration and many had expected him to be replaced on the ballot in 1924.[92] He chose C. Bascom Slemp, a Virginia Congressman and experienced federal politician, as his secretary (a position equivalent to the modern White House Chief of Staff).[93] Although many of Harding's cabinet appointees were scandal-tarred, Coolidge announced that he would not demand any of their resignations, believing that since the people had elected Harding, he should carry on Harding's presidency, at least until the next election.[93] Image File history File links CalvinCoolidgeimmigration3. ... Image File history File links CalvinCoolidgeimmigration3. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... SLEMP, Campbell Bascom (1870—1943), (son of Virginia Congressman Campbell Slemp), a Representative from Virginia; born at Turkey Cove, Lee County, Va. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ...


He addressed Congress when it reconvened on December 6, 1923, giving a speech that echoed many of Harding's themes, including immigration restriction and the need for the government to arbitrate the coal strikes then ongoing in Pennsylvania.[94] The Washington Naval Treaty was proclaimed just one month into Coolidge's term, and was generally well received in the country.[93] In May 1924, the World War I veterans' Bonus Bill was passed over his veto.[95] Coolidge signed the Immigration Act later that year, though he appended a signing statement expressing his unhappiness with the bill's specific exclusion of Japanese immigrants.[96] Just before the Republican Convention began, Coolidge signed into law the Revenue Act of 1924, which decreased personal income tax rates while increasing the estate tax, and creating a gift tax to reinforce the transfer tax system.[97] is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ... The Adjusted Service Certificate Law refers to the law passed in 1924 by the US government that granted World War I veterans bonus certificates that would be redeemable for cash in twenty years. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Proponents of strong constitutional signing statements: Ronald Reagan, left, and George H. W. Bush, right. ... The United States Revenue Act of 1924 cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, which was later renamed the Tax Court of the United States in 1942. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Inheritance tax, also known in some countries outside the United States as a death duty and referred to as an estate tax within the U.S, is a form of tax levied upon the bequest that a person may make in their will to a living person or organisation. ... Inheritance tax, also known in some countries outside the United States as a death duty and referred to as an estate tax within the U.S, is a form of tax levied upon the bequest that a person may make in their will to a living person or organisation. ...


1924 election

Electoral votes by state, 1924.
Electoral votes by state, 1924.

The Republican Convention was held from June 10–12, 1924 in Cleveland, Ohio; President Coolidge was nominated on the first ballot.[98] The convention nominated Frank Lowden of Illinois for Vice President on the second ballot, but he declined via telegram.[99] Former Brigadier General Charles G. Dawes, who would win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925, was nominated on the third ballot; he accepted.[99] The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 101 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1924 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 101 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1924 ... The 1924 Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Frank Orren Lowden (1861 - 1943) was a U.S. political figure. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

John W. Davis
John W. Davis

The Democrats held their convention a month later in New York City. The convention soon deadlocked, and after 103 ballots, the delegates finally agreed on a compromise candidate, John W. Davis. Charles W. Bryan was nominated for Vice President. The Democrats' hopes were buoyed when Robert M. La Follette, Sr., a Republican Senator from Wisconsin, split from the party to form a new Progressive Party. Many believed that the split in the Republican party, like the one in 1912, would allow a Democrat to win the Presidency.[100] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The 1924 Democratic National Convention, also called the Klanbake was held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a national ticket created by Robert M. La Follette, Sr. ...


Shortly after the conventions Coolidge experienced a personal tragedy. Coolidge's younger son, Calvin, Jr., developed a blister from playing tennis on the White House courts. The blister became infected, and Calvin, Jr. died. After that Coolidge became even more withdrawn. He later said that "when he died, the power and glory of the Presidency went with him."[101] In spite of his sadness, Coolidge ran his conventional campaign; he never maligned his opponents (or even mentioned them by name) and delivered speeches on his theory of government, including several that were broadcast over radio.[102] It was easily the most subdued campaign since 1896, partly because the President was grieving for his son, but partly because Coolidge's style was naturally non-confrontational.[103] The other candidates campaigned in a more modern fashion, but despite the split in the Republican party, the results were very similar to those of 1920. Coolidge and Dawes won every state outside the South except for Wisconsin, La Follette's home state. Coolidge had a popular vote majority of 2.5 million over his opponents' combined total.[104] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ...


Domestic policy

Coolidge, reporters, and cameramen
Coolidge, reporters, and cameramen

During Coolidge's presidency the United States experienced the period of rapid economic growth known as the "Roaring Twenties." His economic policy has often been misquoted as "generally speaking, the business of the American people is business" (full quotation below, at left). Although some commentators have criticized Coolidge as a doctrinaire laissez-faire ideologue, historian Robert Sobel offers some context based on Coolidge's sense of federalism: "As Governor of Massachusetts, Coolidge supported wages and hours legislation, opposed child labor, imposed economic controls during World War I, favored safety measures in factories, and even worker representation on corporate boards. Did he support these measures while president? No, because in the 1920s, such matters were considered the responsibilities of state and local governments."[105] Image File history File links Coolidge_with_press. ... Image File history File links Coolidge_with_press. ... For the film, see The Roaring Twenties. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

"It is probable that a press which maintains an intimate touch with the business currents of the nation is likely to be more reliable than it would be if it were a stranger to these influences. After all, the chief business of the American people is business. They are profoundly concerned with buying, selling, investing and prospering in the world."
President Calvin Coolidge's address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington D.C., January 25, 1925.[106]
Coolidge with his Vice President, Charles G. Dawes.

Coolidge's taxation policy, and that of his Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, was that taxes should be lower and that fewer people should have to pay them.[107] The Congress concurred, and the tax burden on Americans was reduced in Coolidge's term.[107] In addition to these tax cuts, Coolidge proposed reductions in federal expenditures and retiring some of the federal debt.[108] To that end, Coolidge declined to sign some of the spending that Congress approved. He vetoed the proposed McNary-Haugen Farm Relief Bill of 1926, designed to allow the federal government to purchase agricultural surpluses and sell them abroad at lowered prices. Coolidge declared that agriculture must stand "on an independent business basis," and said that "government control cannot be divorced from political control."[109] He favored Herbert Hoover's proposal to modernize agriculture to create profits, instead of manipulating prices. When Congress re-passed the McNary-Haugen bill in 1927, Coolidge vetoed it again.[110] "Farmers never have made much money," said Coolidge, the Vermont farmer's son, "I do not believe we can do much about it."[111] is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 290 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (391 × 808 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 290 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (391 × 808 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Mellon portrait Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855–August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. ... The history of the United States national debt, relative to gross domestic product, since 1791. ... The McNary-Haugen Farm Relief Bill was a proposed law to limit agricultural sales within the United States, and either store them or export them. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Coolidge has often been criticized for his actions during the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the worst natural disaster to hit the Gulf Coast until Hurricane Katrina in 2005.[112] Although he did eventually name Secretary Hoover to a commission in charge of flood relief, Coolidge's lack of interest in federal flood control has been much maligned.[112] Coolidge did not believe that personally visiting the region after the floods would accomplish anything, but would be seen only as political grandstanding, and he did not want to incur the federal spending that flood control would require.[113] Congress wanted a bill that would place the federal government completely in charge of flood mitigation; Coolidge wanted the property owners to bear much of the costs.[114] When Congress passed a compromise measure in 1928, Coolidge declined to take credit for it and signed the bill in private on May 15.[115] The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in United States history. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Foreign policy

Coolidge's official White House portrait
Coolidge's official White House portrait

While he was not an isolationist, Coolidge was reluctant to enter foreign alliances.[116] Coolidge saw the landslide Republican victory of 1920 as a rejection of the Wilsonian idea that the United States should join the League of Nations.[117] While not completely opposed to the idea, Coolidge believed the League, as then constituted, did not serve American interests, and he did not advocate membership in it.[117] He spoke in favor of the United States joining the Permanent Court of International Justice, provided that the nation would not be bound by advisory decisions.[118] The Senate eventually approved joining the Court (with reservations) in 1926.[119] The League of Nations accepted the reservations, but suggested some modifications of their own.[120] The Senate failed to act; the United States never joined the World Court.[120] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... A reservation, in international law, is defined by the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties as a In effect, a reservation allows a State to avoid or modify a certain obligation detailed in a treaty. ...


Coolidge's best-known initiative was the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, named for Coolidge's Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The treaty, ratified in 1929, committed signatories including the U.S., the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan to "renounce war, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another."[121] The treaty did not actually achieve its intended result — the outlawry of war — but did provide the founding principle for international law after World War II.[122] President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American politician and statesman. ... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Coolidge continued the previous administration's policy not to recognize the Soviet Union.[123] He also continued the United States' support for the elected government of Mexico against the rebels there, lifting the arms embargo on that country.[124] He sent his close friend Dwight Morrow to Mexico as the American ambassador.[125] Coolidge represented the U.S. at the Pan American Conference in Havana, Cuba, making him the only sitting U.S. President to visit the country. The United States' occupation of Nicaragua and Haiti continued under his administration, but Coolidge withdrew American troops from the Dominican Republic in 1924.[126] The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... Time Magazine, October 12, 1925 Dwight Whitney Morrow (January 11, 1873–October 5, 1931) was an American businessman, politician, and diplomat. ... The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Mexico since 1823, when Andrew Jackson was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to that country. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


1928 Election

President Coolidge signed a bill granting Native Americans full U.S. citizenship. Coolidge is shown above on October 22, 1924 holding a ceremonial hat.
President Coolidge signed a bill granting Native Americans full U.S. citizenship. Coolidge is shown above on October 22, 1924 holding a ceremonial hat.

Coolidge did not seek renomination; he announced his decision to reporters, in writing, with typical terseness: "I do not choose to run for President in 1928."[127] After allowing them to take that in, Coolidge elaborated. "If I take another term, I will be in the White House till 1933 … Ten years in Washington is longer than any other man has had it—too long!"[128] In his memoirs, Coolidge explained his decision not to run: "The Presidential office takes a heavy toll of those who occupy it and those who are dear to them. While we should not refuse to spend and be spent in the service of our country, it is hazardous to attempt what we feel is beyond our strength to accomplish."[129] After leaving office, he and Grace returned to Northampton, where he wrote his memoirs. The Republicans retained the White House in 1928 in the person of Coolidge's Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover. The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... Download high resolution version (620x693, 45 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (620x693, 45 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted full U.S. citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. ... Citizen redirects here. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Coolidge had been lukewarm on the choice of Hoover as his successor; on one occasion he remarked that "for six years that man has given me unsolicited advice—all of it bad."[130] Even so, Coolidge had no desire to split the party by publicly opposing the popular Commerce Secretary's nomination.[131] The delegates did consider nominating Vice President Charles Dawes to be Hoover's running mate, but the convention selected Senator Charles Curtis instead.[132] This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Radio and film

A 1938 definitive stamp
A 1938 definitive stamp

Despite his reputation as a quiet and even reclusive politician, Coolidge made use of the new medium of radio and made radio history several times while President. He made himself available to reporters, giving 529 press conferences, meeting with reporters more regularly than any President before or since.[133] His inauguration was the first presidential inauguration broadcast on radio. On 6 December 1923, Coolidge was the first President whose address to Congress was broadcast on radio.[134] On 22 February 1924, he became the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech on radio.[135] On 11 August 1924, Coolidge was filmed on the White House lawn by Lee De Forest in DeForest's Phonofilm sound-on-film process, becoming the first President to appear in a sound film. The title of the DeForest film was President Coolidge, Taken on the White House Lawn.[136] An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Lee De Forest, (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his credit. ... In 1919, Lee De Forest, inventor of the audion tube, filed his first patent on a sound-on-film process, DeForest Phonofilm, which recorded sound directly onto film as parallel lines. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ...


Coolidge was the only president to have his face on a coin during his lifetime, the sesquicentennial commemorative half dollar of 1926. After his death, he also appeared on a stamp.


Major presidential acts

It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Revenue Act of 1924 cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, which was later renamed the Tax Court of the United States in 1942. ... The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted full U.S. citizenship to Americas indigenous peoples. ... The United States Revenue Act of 1926 reduced inheritance and personal income taxes, cancelled many excise imposts, and ended public access to federal income tax returns. ... The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio broadcasts in the United States from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1935. ... The Revenue Act of 1928 (May 29, 1928, ch. ...

Cabinet

Coolidge's cabinet in 1924, outside the White HouseFront row, left to right: Harry Stewart New, John W. Weeks, Charles Evans Hughes, Coolidge, Andrew Mellon, Harry M. Daugherty, Curtis D. Wilbur Back row, left to right, James J. Davis, Henry C. Wallace, Herbert Hoover, Hubert Work
Coolidge's cabinet in 1924, outside the White House
Front row, left to right: Harry Stewart New, John W. Weeks, Charles Evans Hughes, Coolidge, Andrew Mellon, Harry M. Daugherty, Curtis D. Wilbur
Back row, left to right, James J. Davis, Henry C. Wallace, Herbert Hoover, Hubert Work
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Calvin Coolidge 1923–1929
Vice President None 1923–1925
  Charles G. Dawes 1925–1929
Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes 1923–1925
  Frank B. Kellogg 1925–1929
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon 1923–1929
Secretary of War John W. Weeks 1923–1925
  Dwight F. Davis 1925–1929
Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty 1923–1924
  Harlan F. Stone 1924–1925
  John G. Sargent 1925–1929
Postmaster General Harry S. New 1923–1929
Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby 1923–1924
  Curtis D. Wilbur 1924–1929
Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work 1923–1928
  Roy O. West 1928–1929
Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace 1923–1924
  Howard M. Gore 1924–1925
  William M. Jardine 1925–1929
Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover 1923–1928
  William F. Whiting 1928–1929
Secretary of Labor James J. Davis 1923–1929


For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Harry Stewart New (1858–1937) was a U.S. journalist and political figure. ... John Wingate Weeks (April 11, 1860–July 12, 1926) was an American politician in the Republican Party. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Mellon portrait Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855–August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. ... Harry Micajah Daugherty (January 26, 1860–October 12, 1941) (daw-GER-tee) was an American politician. ... The 43rd Secretary of the Navy, Curtis Dwight Wilbur, (10 May 1867–8 September 1954) was born in Boonesboro, Iowa. ... James J. Puddler Jim Davis (October 27, 1873-November 22, 1947), was a U.S. Republican Party politician, He was born in Tredegar, South Wales in the United Kingdom, and emigrated to the United States in 1881 at the age of eight and was apprenticed as a puddlers assistant... For other persons named Henry Wallace, see Henry Wallace (disambiguation). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Hubert Work (July 3, 1860 - December 14, 1942) was a U.S. administrator. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American politician and statesman. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Mellon portrait Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855–August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... John Wingate Weeks (April 11, 1860–July 12, 1926) was an American politician in the Republican Party. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 15, 1924) Dwight Filley Davis (July 5, 1879 - November 28, 1945) was an American tennis player and politician. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Harry Micajah Daugherty (January 26, 1860–October 12, 1941) (daw-GER-tee) was an American politician. ... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872–April 22, 1946) was the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice and later Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... John Garibaldi Sargent (October 13, 1860–March 5, 1939) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Harry Stewart New (1858–1937) was a U.S. journalist and political figure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Edwin Denby Edwin C. Denby (b. ... The 43rd Secretary of the Navy, Curtis Dwight Wilbur, (10 May 1867–8 September 1954) was born in Boonesboro, Iowa. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Hubert Work (July 3, 1860 - December 14, 1942) was a U.S. administrator. ... Roy Owen West (October 27, 1868–November 29, 1958) a Chicagoan and graduate of DePauw University in 1890, was U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1928 until 1929, serving under Calvin Coolidge. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... For other persons named Henry Wallace, see Henry Wallace (disambiguation). ... Howard Mason Gore (born in Harrison County, West Virginia, October 12, 1887; died June 20, 1947) was the United States Secretary of Agriculture during the presidential administration Calvin Coolidge, and later Governor of West Virginia from 1925-1931. ... William Marion Jardine (1879 - 1955) was a U.S. administrator and educator. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1864 births | 1936 deaths ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... James J. Puddler Jim Davis (October 27, 1873-November 22, 1947), was a U.S. Republican Party politician, He was born in Tredegar, South Wales in the United Kingdom, and emigrated to the United States in 1881 at the age of eight and was apprenticed as a puddlers assistant...


Supreme Court appointment

Coolidge appointed one Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1925. Stone was Coolidge's fellow Amherst alumnus and was serving as dean of Columbia Law School when Coolidge appointed him to be Attorney General in 1924. He appointed Stone to the Supreme Court in 1925, and the Senate approved the nomination.[137] Stone was later appointed Chief Justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2842x3606, 648 KB) Description Harlan Fiske Stone, Chief Justice of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2842x3606, 648 KB) Description Harlan Fiske Stone, Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ... Columbia Law School, located in the New York City borough of Manhattan, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League, and one of the leading law schools in the United States. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Retirement and death

After the presidency, Coolidge served as chairman of the non-partisan Railroad Commission, as honorary president of the Foundation of the Blind, as a director of New York Life Insurance Company, as president of the American Antiquarian Society, and as a trustee of Amherst College.[138] Coolidge received an honorary Doctor of Laws from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. The New York Life Insurance Company (NYLIC) is the largest mutual life-insurance company in the United States, and one of the largest life insurers in the world. ... The American Antiquarian Society (AAS) is both a learned society and national research library of pre-twentieth century American History and culture. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... The city of Lewiston to the right, with the twin-city of Auburn on the left. ...


Coolidge published his autobiography in 1929 and wrote a syndicated newspaper column, "Calvin Coolidge Says," from 1930–1931.[139] Faced with looming defeat in 1932, some Republicans spoke of rejecting Herbert Hoover as their party's nominee, and instead drafting Coolidge to run, but the former President made it clear that he was not interested in running again, and that he would publicly repudiate any effort to draft him, should it come about.[140] Hoover was renominated, and Coolidge made several radio addresses in support of him.[141] Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ...

Coolidge addressing a crowd at Arlington National Cemetery's Roman style Memorial Amphitheater in 1924.
Coolidge addressing a crowd at Arlington National Cemetery's Roman style Memorial Amphitheater in 1924.

He died suddenly of a heart attack at his home in Northampton, "The Beeches," at 12:45 p.m., January 5, 1933.[142] Shortly before his death, Coolidge confided to an old friend: "I feel I am no longer fit in these times."[143] Download high resolution version (861x637, 90 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (861x637, 90 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Arlington Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery, near the center of the Cemetery, is the home of the Tomb of the Unknowns where Unknown American Servicemembers from World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam are interred. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Coolidge is buried beneath a simple headstone in Notch Cemetery, Plymouth Notch, Vermont, where the family homestead is maintained as a museum. The State of Vermont dedicated a new visitors' center nearby to mark Coolidge's 100th birthday on July 4, 1972.[144] Calvin Coolidge's Brave Little State of Vermont speech is memorialized in the Hall of Inscriptions at the Vermont State House at Montpelier, Vermont. Small town in Vermont, where Calvin Coolidges father was Justice of the Peace, and where Coolidge was sworn in as president almost immediately upon the death of his tarnished predecessor, Warren G. Harding, who died suddenly at the age of 57 in 1923. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Detail of Coolidges Brave Little State of Vermont speech inscribed in marble at the Hall of Inscriptions of the Vermont State House. ... The Vermont State House The Vermont State House, located in Montpelier, Vermont, is the capitol and seat of government of the U.S. state of Vermont. ...


Film

  • Calvin Coolidge video montage

    Collection of video clips of the president. (4.0 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Calvin Coolidge video montage. ... Calvin Coolidge video montage. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Notes

  1. ^ Sobel, 14
  2. ^ McCoy, 420–421; Greenberg, 49–53
  3. ^ Fuess, 500
  4. ^ McCoy, 418; Greenberg, 146–150; Ferrell, 66–72
  5. ^ Sobel, 12–13; Greenberg, 2–3
  6. ^ Greenberg, 1–7
  7. ^ a b Fuess, 12
  8. ^ Fuess, 7
  9. ^ Fuess, 14
  10. ^ McCoy, 5
  11. ^ Fuess, 16
  12. ^ Fuess, 17
  13. ^ McCoy, 5; White, 11
  14. ^ Vermont Historical Society biography of Calvin Coolidge accessed December 6, 2007
  15. ^ Accomplished alumni. Amherst College, where he was a member of the Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta. Retrieved on 2007-05-18
  16. ^ White, 35
  17. ^ Sobel, 36
  18. ^ Autobiography, 63–70
  19. ^ a b Sobel, 41
  20. ^ Fuess, 74–81; McCoy 22–26
  21. ^ Greenberg, 58–59
  22. ^ Telleen, Maurice. The Days Before Yesterday: 75 years ago. The Draft Horse Journal, Autumn, 2001. Retrieved from Internet Archive on 2007-05-18.
  23. ^ White, 65–66
  24. ^ Fuess, 89–92; Sobel, 57–58. Some biographers disagree with this rosy portrait, see Ferrell, 21–23
  25. ^ Autobiography, 93
  26. ^ Sobel, 49–51
  27. ^ a b Sobel, 51
  28. ^ Fuess, 83
  29. ^ a b Fuess, 84–85
  30. ^ a b c McCoy, 29
  31. ^ Sobel, 61
  32. ^ Sobel, 62; Fuess, 99
  33. ^ Sobel, 63–66
  34. ^ Sobel, 68–69
  35. ^ Sobel, 72
  36. ^ Fuess, 106–107; Sobel, 74
  37. ^ Fuess, 108
  38. ^ Sobel, 76
  39. ^ See also the main article, Lawrence textile strike, for a full description.
  40. ^ Fuess, 110–111; McCoy, 45–46
  41. ^ a b Sobel, 79–80; Fuess, 111
  42. ^ Fuess, 111–113
  43. ^ Fuess, 114–115
  44. ^ Sobel, 80–82
  45. ^ a b Have Faith in Massachusetts: A Collection of Speeches And Messages by Calvin Coolidge, 1919, ISBN 1417926082.
  46. ^ Have Faith in Massachusetts, 7–8
  47. ^ Sobel, 90–92
  48. ^ Sobel, 90; Fuess, 124
  49. ^ Sobel, 92–98; Fuess, 133–136
  50. ^ Fuess, 139–142
  51. ^ Fuess, 145
  52. ^ Fuess, 150; Sobel, 104
  53. ^ Fuess, 151–152
  54. ^ Sobel, 107–110
  55. ^ Sobel, 111; McCall, 75–76
  56. ^ Sobel, 112
  57. ^ Sobel, 115; McCall, 76
  58. ^ Russell, 77–79; Sobel, 129
  59. ^ Russell, 86–87
  60. ^ Russell, 111–113; Sobel, 133–136
  61. ^ Fuess, 226
  62. ^ The exact total was 1,117 out of 1,544. Russell, 113
  63. ^ Russell, 131–170
  64. ^ Russell, 120
  65. ^ Sobel, 141
  66. ^ Sobel, 142
  67. ^ Russell, 182–183
  68. ^ a b Sobel, 143
  69. ^ The tally was Coolidge 317,774, Long 192,673. Fuess, 238.
  70. ^ Fuess, 239–243; McCoy, 102–113
  71. ^ Sobel, 117; Fuess, 195
  72. ^ Fuess, 186
  73. ^ Fuess, 187; McCall, 81
  74. ^ Fuess, 187–188
  75. ^ Sobel, 152–153
  76. ^ Fuess, 259–260
  77. ^ a b Fuess, 261
  78. ^ Fuess, 262–264
  79. ^ Sobel, 204–212
  80. ^ Sobel, 204–207
  81. ^ a b Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (January 18, 2007).; Leip, David. 1920 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (January 18, 2007).
  82. ^ Sobel, 210–211
  83. ^ Sobel, 219; McCoy, 136
  84. ^ Hannaford, 169
  85. ^ Greenberg, 9
  86. ^ Sobel, 217
  87. ^ Sobel, 243
  88. ^ Greenberg, 60
  89. ^ See the main article, Warren Harding#Death in office for a full description
  90. ^ a b Fuess, 308–309
  91. ^ Fuess, 310–315
  92. ^ Sobel, 226–228; Fuess, 303–305; Ferrell, 43–51
  93. ^ a b c Fuess, 320–322
  94. ^ Fuess, 328–329; Sobel, 248–249
  95. ^ Fuess, 341
  96. ^ Fuess, 342; Sobel, 269
  97. ^ Sobel, 278–279
  98. ^ Fuess, 345
  99. ^ a b Fuess, 346
  100. ^ Sobel, 300
  101. ^ Autobiography, 190
  102. ^ Sobel, 300–301
  103. ^ Sobel, 302–303
  104. ^ Leip, David. 1924 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (January 21, 2007)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (January 21, 2007).
  105. ^ Sobel, Robert. Coolidge and American Business. John F. Kennedy Library and Museum. Retrieved from 2006-03-08 version in Internet Archive on 2007-05-18. See also Greenberg, 47.
  106. ^ Hannaford, 42
  107. ^ a b Sobel, 310–311; Greenberg, 127–129
  108. ^ Sobel, 310–311; Fuess, 382–383
  109. ^ Fuess, 383–384
  110. ^ Fuess, 388; Ferrell, 93
  111. ^ Ferrell, 86
  112. ^ a b Sobel, 315; Barry, 286–287; Greenberg, 132–135
  113. ^ McCoy, 330–331
  114. ^ Barry, 372–374
  115. ^ Greenberg, 135
  116. ^ Sobel, 342
  117. ^ a b McCoy, 184–185
  118. ^ McCoy, 360
  119. ^ McCoy, 363
  120. ^ a b Greenberg, 114–116
  121. ^ Fuess, 421–423
  122. ^ McCoy, 380–381; Greenberg, 123–124
  123. ^ McCoy, 181
  124. ^ McCoy, 178–179
  125. ^ Sobel, 349
  126. ^ Fuess, 414–417; Ferrell, 122–123
  127. ^ Sobel, 370
  128. ^ White, 361
  129. ^ Autobiography, 239
  130. ^ Brandes, ___
  131. ^ McCoy, 390–391; Wilson, 122–123
  132. ^ Wilson, 125–127
  133. ^ Greenberg, 7
  134. ^ Sobel, 252
  135. ^ Calvin Coolidge, the first US President to do a radio address 2-22-1924 | Old Radio Shows.org
  136. ^ President Coolidge, Taken on the White House Ground (1924). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  137. ^ Fuess, 364
  138. ^ Coolidge Family Papers, 1802–1932, Vermont Historical Society Library. Retrieved on 2007-05-18
  139. ^ Sobel, 403; Ferrell, 201–202
  140. ^ Fuess, 457–459; Greenberg, 153
  141. ^ Fuess, 460
  142. ^ Greenberg, 154–155
  143. ^ Sobel, 410
  144. ^ President Calvin Coolidge State Historic Site. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.

is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Phi Gamma Delta (also known as FIJI) is a collegiate social fraternity with 107 chapters and 9 colonies across the United States and Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Massachusetts militiamen with fixed bayonets surround a parade of peaceful strikers Flyer distributed in Lawrence, September 1912 The Lawrence textile strike was a strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Primary sources

Scholarly sources

  • Barry, John M., Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How It Changed America (1997), ISBN 0684840022.
  • Brandes, Joseph, Herbert Hoover and Economic Diplomacy. (1962)
  • Ferrell, Robert H., The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge (1998), ISBN 0700608923.
  • Fuess, Claude M., Calvin Coolidge: The Man from Vermont (1940), ISBN 0837193206.
  • Greenberg, David, Calvin Coolidge, The American Presidents Series, (2006), ISBN 0805069577.
  • Hannaford, Peter, The Quotable Calvin Coolidge (2001), ISBN 1884592333.
  • McCoy, Donald, Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President (1967), ISBN 0945707231.
  • Russell, Francis, A City in Terror: Calvin Coolidge and the 1919 Boston Police Strike (1975), ISBN 0807050334.
  • Silver, Thomas B., Coolidge and the Historians (1983), ISBN 0890890382.
  • Sobel, Robert, Coolidge: An American Enigma (1998), ISBN 0895264102.
  • White, William Allen, A Puritan in Babylon: The Story of Calvin Coolidge (1938), ASIN B000O16342.
  • Wilson, Joan Hoff, Herbert Hoover, Forgotten Progressive (1975), ISBN 0316944165.

Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... William Allen White Born in Emporia, Kansas, on February 10, 1868, William Allen White was a nationally known newspaper editor for much of his life. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ...

Other

An academic conference on Coolidge was held July 30–31, 1998, at the John F. Kennedy Library to mark the 75th anniversary of his lantern-light homestead inaugural. The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ...


See also

Coolidge is a city located in Pinal County, Arizona. ... The Coolidge Dam is a reinforced concrete multiple dome and buttress dam 31 miles east of Globe, AZ on the Gila River. ... In biology, the term Coolidge effect describes the re-arousal of a male animal by the introduction of a new female. ... The SS President Coolidge was a luxury ocean liner that messured 654ft in length and was originally built, along with her sister ship the SS President Hoover, for Dollar Steamship Lines. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Calvin Coolidge
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Calvin Coolidge
Political offices
Preceded by
Grafton D. Cushing
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
1916 - 1919
Succeeded by
Channing H. Cox
Preceded by
Samuel W. McCall
Governor of Massachusetts
1919 – 1921
Preceded by
Thomas R. Marshall
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923¹
Succeeded by
Charles G. Dawes
Preceded by
Warren G. Harding
President of the United States
August 2, 1923² – March 4, 1929
Succeeded by
Herbert Hoover
Party political offices
Preceded by
Charles W. Fairbanks
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1920
Succeeded by
Charles G. Dawes
Preceded by
Warren G. Harding
Republican Party presidential candidate
1924
Succeeded by
Herbert Hoover
Honorary titles
Preceded by
William Howard Taft
Oldest U.S. President still living
March 8, 1930 – January 5, 1933
Succeeded by
Herbert Hoover
Notes and references
1. President Harding died on August 2.
2. Coolidge took the oath of office on August 3.
Persondata
NAME Coolidge, Calvin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Coolidge, John Calvin Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION 30th U.S. President
DATE OF BIRTH July 4, 1872(1872-07-04)
PLACE OF BIRTH Plymouth, Vermont, United States of America
DATE OF DEATH January 5, 1933
PLACE OF DEATH Northampton, Massachusetts, United States of America
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Grafton D. Cushing was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1915 to 1916. ... John Hancock, first Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 _ August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... Samuel Walker McCall (February 28, 1851 - November 4, 1923) was Governor of Massachusetts. ... This is a complete list of the governors of Massachusetts, including: governors of the Plymouth Colony, governors of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, presidents of the Dominion of New England, colonial governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and governors of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... [1] Died in office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... [1] Died in office. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... 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Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the U.S. politician. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... 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Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... Nixon redirects here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... [1] Died in office. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... McCain redirects here. ... [1] Died in office. ... William Lewis Dayton (February 17, 1807 – December 1, 1864) was an American politician. ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Whitelaw Reid Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary (June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... John Endecott (c. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... Gov. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... Richard Bellingham (1592 - December 7, 1672) was a colonial magistrate, laywer, and several-time governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... John Endecott (c. ... Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... John Endecott (c. ... Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Endecott (c. ... Richard Bellingham (1592 - December 7, 1672) was a colonial magistrate, laywer, and several-time governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Endecott (c. ... Richard Bellingham (1592 - December 7, 1672) was a colonial magistrate, laywer, and several-time governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... John Leverett (1616 - March 16, 1679) was a colonial magistrate, merchant, soldier and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony John Leverett was born, perhaps, in Boston, England. ... Simon Bradstreet (March 18, 1603–March 27, 1697) was a colonial magistrate, businessman and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. ... Joseph Dudley (September 23, 1647 - April 2, 1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1702 to 1715, the son of Thomas Dudley, was born and died in Roxbury, Massachusetts. ... Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... Simon Bradstreet (March 18, 1603–March 27, 1697) was a colonial magistrate, businessman and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony organized October 7, 1691 in North America by the monarch of England. ... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... William Stoughton (30 September 1631 – 7 July 1701) was in charge of what has come to be known as the Salem Witch Trials, first as the Chief Magistrate of the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692, and then as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature... Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, (1636–5 March 1701) was colonial governor of New York from 1698 to 1701 and of Massachusetts from 1699 to 1700. ... William Stoughton (30 September 1631 – 7 July 1701) was in charge of what has come to be known as the Salem Witch Trials, first as the Chief Magistrate of the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692, and then as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature... The Governors Council (also known as the Executive Council) of Massachusetts is a popularly-elected board which oversees judicial nominations. ... Joseph Dudley (September 23, 1647 - April 2, 1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1702 to 1715, the son of Thomas Dudley, was born and died in Roxbury, Massachusetts. ... The Governors Council (also known as the Executive Council) of Massachusetts is a popularly-elected board which oversees judicial nominations. ... Joseph Dudley (September 23, 1647 - April 2, 1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1702 to 1715, the son of Thomas Dudley, was born and died in Roxbury, Massachusetts. ... William Tailer (1676 - March 8, 1732) was the son of Bostonian William Tailer and a Colonial-era politician. ... Samuel Shute (January 12, 1662 - April 15, 1742) was born in London. ... William Dummer was born in Newbury, Massachusetts in 1677, and died there on October 10, 1761. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into William Burnet (1688-1728). ... William Dummer was born in Newbury, Massachusetts in 1677, and died there on October 10, 1761. ... William Tailer (1676 - March 8, 1732) was the son of Bostonian William Tailer and a Colonial-era politician. ... Jonathan Belcher (1682-1757) was colonial governor of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New Jersey. ... William Shirley (1694-1771) William Shirley (1694-1771) was the British governor of Massachusetts from 1741 to 1759. ... Spencer Phips (1685–April, 1757) took office twice as acting Governor of Massachusetts in the absence of William Shirley. ... William Shirley (1694-1771) William Shirley (1694-1771) was the British governor of Massachusetts from 1741 to 1759. ... Spencer Phips (1685–April, 1757) took office twice as acting Governor of Massachusetts in the absence of William Shirley. ... The Governors Council (also known as the Executive Council) of Massachusetts is a popularly-elected board which oversees judicial nominations. ... Thomas Pownall (1722 - February 25, 1805), British colonial statesman and soldier, was born at Saltfleetby, Lincolnshire, England. ... Sir Francis Bernard (1712-1779) was a British colonial administrator who served as Governor in New Jersey and Massachusetts. ... Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... Thomas Cushing (March 24, 1725 – February 28, 1788) was an American lawyer and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. ... James Bowdoin (August 7, 1726 – November 6, 1790) was an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts during the American Revolution. ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... For other uses, see Samuel Adams (disambiguation). ... Increase Sumner (November 27, 1746 – June 7, 1799) was a U.S. political figure. ... Moses Gill (1746 - May 20, 1800) was a U.S. political figure. ... The Governors Council (also known as the Executive Council) of Massachusetts is a popularly-elected board which oversees judicial nominations. ... Caleb Strong (January 9, 1745 - November 7, 1819) was a U.S. political figure. ... For the Olympic athlete, see James P. Sullivan. ... Levi Lincoln, Sr. ... Christopher Gore (September 21, 1758 - March 1, 1827) was a prominent Massachusetts lawyer, Federalist politician, and diplomat. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Caleb Strong (January 9, 1745 - November 7, 1819) was a U.S. political figure. ... John Brooks, Jr. ... William Eustis (June 10, 1753–February 6, 1825) was an early American statesman. ... Marcus Morton, painted c. ... Levi Lincoln, Jr. ... John Davis (January 13, 1787 – April 19, 1854) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Samuel Turell Armstrong (1784 - 1850) was a U.S. political figure. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... Marcus Morton, painted c. ... John Davis (January 13, 1787 – April 19, 1854) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Marcus Morton, painted c. ... George N. Briggs was a member of the Whig Party and seven-term Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, from 1844 to 1851. ... George Sewall Boutwell (January 28, 1818–February 27, 1905) was an American statesman who served as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Ulysses S. Grant. ... John H. Clifford was Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for a single term, from 1853 to 1854. ... Emory Washburn (1800–1877) was a United States political figure. ... Nathaniel P. Banks, engraving from a Mathew Brady Carte de visite Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss)[1] Banks (January 30, 1816 – September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, served as Governor of Massachusetts, Speaker of the House of the United States House of Representatives, and as a Union general in the... John Albion Andrew (1818 - 1867) was a U.S. political figure. ... Alexander Hamilton Bullock (March 2, 1816–January 17, 1882) was Governor of Massachusetts from 1866 to 1868. ... William Claflin (1818-1905) was an industrialist and philanthropist who served as Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1869-1872 and as a member of Congress from 1877-1881. ... William Barrett Washburn (January 31, 1820–October 5, 1887) was an American politician from Massachusetts, serving in the United States House of Representatives and as Governor of Massachusetts. ... Thomas Talbot (September 7, 1818 – October 6, 1886) was a governor of Massachusetts. ... William Gaston (1820-1894) was Governor of Massachusetts in 1875-1876. ... Alexander Hamilton Rice (August 30, 1818 – July 22, 1895) was Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1856-1857, a U.S. Congressman during the American Civil War, and the Governor of Massachusetts from 1876–78. ... Thomas Talbot (September 7, 1818 – October 6, 1886) was a governor of Massachusetts. ... John Davis Long (October 27, 1838–August 28, 1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... George Dexter Robinson (born George Washington Robinson) (January 20, 1834–February 22, 1896) was born in Lexington, Massachusetts. ... Oliver Ames (February 4, 1831 - October 22, 1895) was a U.S. political figure. ... John Quincy Adams Brackett (June 8, 1842–April 6, 1918) was born in Bradford, New Hampshire to Ambrose S. Brackett and Nancy (Brown) Brackett. ... William Eustis Russell (January 6, 1857 - July 16, 1896) was a U.S. political figure. ... Frederic Thomas Greenhalge (born Greenhalgh) (July 19, 1842–March 5, 1896) was born in Clitheroe, England and immigrated with his parents to the United States in early childhood. ... Roger Wolcott (September 2, 1847 - December 21, 1900) was a significant U.S. political figure. ... Winthrop Murray Crane (April 23, 1853 – October 2, 1920) was a U.S. political figure. ... John Lewis Bates (September 18, 1859–June 8, 1946) was born in North Easton, Massachusetts to Rev. ... William Lewis Douglas (1845 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... Curtis Guild, Jr. ... Ebenezer Sumner Draper (1858 - 1915) was a U.S. political figure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... David Ignatius Walsh (November 11, 1872 - June 11, 1947) was a United States politician from Massachusetts. ... Samuel Walker McCall (February 28, 1851 - November 4, 1923) was Governor of Massachusetts. ... Channing Harris Cox (October 28, 1879 _ August 20, 1968) was a Massachusetts Republican politician and Governor born in Manchester, New Hampshire. ... Alvan Tufts Fuller (February 27, 1878-April 30, 1958) was an American political figure, and Governor of Massachusetts from 1925 until 1929. ... Frank G. Allen (October 6, 1874-October 5, 1950) was a governor of the state of Massachusetts. ... Joseph Buell Ely (February 22, 1881-June 13, 1956) was a governor of the state of Massachusetts. ... James Michael Curley (November 20, 1874-November 12, 1958) was an American political figure who served in the United States House of Representatives, as the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, and as governor of Massachusetts. ... Charles Francis Hurley (November 24, 1893-March 24, 1946) was a governor of the state of Massachusetts. ... Leverett A. Saltonstall (September 1, 1892 – June 17, 1979) was an American politician who served as Governor of Massachusetts (1939 - 1945) and as a United States Senator (1945 - 1967). ... Maurice Joseph Tobin (May 22, 1901–July 19, 1953) was a Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, governor of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, and U.S. Secretary of Labor. ... Robert Fiske Bradford (December 15, 1902–March 18, 1983) was an American politician who served one term as Governor of Massachusetts, from 1947 to 1949. ... Paul Andrew Dever (January 15, 1903 - April 11, 1958) was a Democratic politician from Boston, Massachusetts. ... For the American physician (1865–1910), see Christian Archibald Herter (physician). ... John Foster Furcolo (July 29, 1911 - July 5, 1995) was born in New Haven, Connecticut. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - November 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... For his grandfather, the educator, see Endicott Peabody (educator). ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - November 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Francis William Sargent (July 29, 1915 - October 21, 1998) was Governor of Massachusetts from 1969 to 1975. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... Edward Joseph King (born May 11, 1925) was the Governor of the U.S. state of Massachusetts from 1979 to 1983. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paul Cellucci Argeo Paul Cellucci (born April 24, 1948) better known as Paul Cellucci, is an American politician and diplomat, former Governor of Massachusetts, and former Ambassador to Canada. ... Jane Maria Swift (born February 24, 1965) is an American politician from Melrose, Massachusetts. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Deval Laurdine Patrick (born July 31, 1956) is an American politician and the current Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Plymouth, Vermont Plymouth is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled and Charter granted 1654 Incorporated as a city 1884 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins Area  - City  35. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

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Calvin Coolidge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2196 words)
Coolidge was elected mayor of Northampton in 1910 and 1911 and was a member of the state Senate 1912-1915, serving as president of that body in 1914 and 1915.
Coolidge was the last President of the United States who did not attempt to intervene in free markets, letting business cycles run their course—summed up in the quote "the business of America is business".
Coolidge is buried beneath a simple headstone in Notch Cemetery, Plymouth Notch, Vermont, where the family homestead is maintained as a museum.
Calvin Coolidge - MSN Encarta (991 words)
Coolidge opposed federal government intervention or relief for workers and was equally against any measures that would interfere with business.
John Calvin Coolidge was the only son of a Vermont storekeeper, John Calvin Coolidge, and his wife, Victoria Josephine Moor Coolidge.
Governor Coolidge, who had earlier declined to take action, brought in additional troops on the third day of the strike and asked for federal soldiers in case a general strike should occur.
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