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Encyclopedia > Callisto (moon)
There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto.

Callisto
Callisto
Click image for description
Discovery
Discovered by: G. Galilei
S. Marius
Discovery date: January 7, 1610
Orbital characteristics
Periapsis: 1,869,000 km
Apoapsis: 1,897,000 km
Mean radius of orbit: 1,882,700 km
Orbital circumference: 11,829,000 km
Eccentricity: 0.0074
Orbital period: 16.6890184 d
Avg. orbital speed: 8.204 km/s
Max. orbital speed: 8.265 km/s
Min. orbital speed: 8.143 km/s
Inclination: 2.02° (to the ecliptic)
0.21° (to Jupiter's equator)
Satellite of: Jupiter
Physical characteristics
Mean radius: 2410.3 ± 1.5 km (0.378 Earths)[1]
Surface area: 7.30×107 km² (0.143 Earths)
Volume: 5.9×1010 km³ (0.0541 Earths)
Mass: 1.0759×1023 kg (0.018 Earths)[1]
Mean density: 1.8344 ± 0.0034 g/cm³ [1]
Equatorial surface gravity: 1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g)
Escape velocity: 2.440 km/s
Rotation period: synchronous
Axial tilt: zero
Albedo: 0.17
Temperature: ~120 K
Apparent magnitude: 5.7
Atmosphere
Surface pressure: ~7.5 pbar
Composition: 100% carbon dioxide

Callisto (kə-lis'-toe, IPA: [kəˈlɪstoʊ]; Greek Καλλιστώ) is a moon of the planet Jupiter, discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei.[2] It is the third-largest moon in the solar system, about 99% the size of the planet Mercury but much less massive. It has been suggested that minor planet be merged into this article or section. ... 204 Kallisto is a fairly typical, altough sizeable Main belt asteroid. ... Download high resolution version (740x753, 71 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Simon Marius Simon Marius (January 10, 1573 – December 26, 1624) was a German astronomer. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... m. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Circle illustration In classical geometry, a radius (plural: radii) of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its boundary. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The volume of a solid object is the three-dimensional concept of how much space it occupies, often quantified numerically. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The surface gravity of a Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point basicly. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... In astronomy, a rotation period is the time an astronomical object takes to complete one revolution around its rotation axis. ... In astronomy, synchronous rotation is a planetological term describing a body orbiting another, where the orbiting body takes as long to rotate on its axis as it does to make one orbit; and therefore always keeps the same hemisphere pointed at the body it is orbiting. ... In astronomy, Axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation power. ... Fig. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... KDFSAJFKASJDKFJASDKLJFDKLASJFLKJASKLFJLAKSJFLKSJALFKJSKLJFto the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... This article is about the planet. ...

Contents

Name

Callisto is named after Callisto, one of Zeus's many love interests in Greek mythology. In Jupiter and Callisto by François Boucher, Jupiter/Zeus takes the form of Diana/Artemis (Pushkin Museum, Moscow) This article is about the mythological figure. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and their own cult and ritual practices. ...


Although the name "Callisto" was suggested by Simon Marius soon after the moon's discovery[3] (he attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler), this name and the names of the other Galilean satellites fell into disfavour for a considerable time, and were not revived in common use until the mid-20th century. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Callisto is simply referred to by its Roman numeral designation (a system introduced by Galileo), Jupiter IV or as "the fourth satellite of Jupiter". Simon Marius Simon Marius (January 10, 1573 – December 26, 1624) was a German astronomer. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In scientific writing, the adjectival form of the name is usually Callistoan. In grammar, an adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. ...


Physical characteristics

Interior of Callisto
Interior of Callisto

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1700, 479 KB) Interior of Callisto original description: This artists concept, a cutaway view of Jupiters moon Callisto, is based on recent data from NASAs Galileo spacecraft which indicates a salty ocean may lie beneath Callistos icy... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1700, 479 KB) Interior of Callisto original description: This artists concept, a cutaway view of Jupiters moon Callisto, is based on recent data from NASAs Galileo spacecraft which indicates a salty ocean may lie beneath Callistos icy...

Internal structure

Callisto's battered surface lies on top of an icy layer that is about 80-150 kilometers thick. A salty ocean in excess of 10 kilometers thickness may lie beneath the crust. Its presence is indicated by studies of the magnetic fields around Jupiter and its moons.[4][5] It was found that the Callistoan magnetic field varies (flows in various directions at different times) in response to the background magnetic field generated by Jupiter; this suggests a layer of highly conductive fluid within the moon. The existence of the ocean seems to be possible only if water contains a small amount of ammonia (or other salt) up to 5% by weight.[6] In this case the ocean can be as thick as 250-300 km. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... In physics, a magnetic field is an pseudovector field that traces out solenoidal lines of force in and around closed electric circuits and bar magnets. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


Beneath the ocean, Callisto seems to have a strange interior that is not entirely uniform but does not vary dramatically. Galileo orbiter data[1] (especially the dimensionless moment of inertia 0.3549 ± 0.0042 determined during close flybys) suggest[7] that its interior is composed of compressed rock and ice, with the amount of rock increasing with depth due to partial settling of its constituents. Callisto has the lowest density of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter, only 1.83 g/cm³, and is about 40% ice and 60% rock/iron. Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Moment of inertia, also called mass moment of inertia and, sometimes, the angular mass, (SI units kg m², Former British units slug ft2) quantifies the rotational inertia of a rigid body, i. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...

Closeup of terrain within the impact basin Asgard; craters and mysterious icy bumps are visible.
Closeup of terrain within the impact basin Asgard; craters and mysterious icy bumps are visible.

Download high resolution version (800x799, 184 KB)Closeup of Callistos landscape. ... Download high resolution version (800x799, 184 KB)Closeup of Callistos landscape. ... Categories: Stub | Craters on Jupiters moons ...

Surface features

The surface of Callisto is very old (>4 Ga[8]) and appears to be one of the most heavily cratered in the solar system. In fact, the crater density is close to saturation, i.e., any new crater will erase an older one. The geology of Callisto is relatively simple. There are no large callistoan mountains and other endogenic tectonic features.[9] The impact craters, multi-ring structures together with associated fractures and deposits are the only features to be found on the surface of Callisto. The albedo is only ~20% implying that the surface material is a mixture of 30-40% (by weight) of rocks and 60-70% of ice.[9] There is a slight difference between the leading and trailing hemispheres. Look up crater in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation power. ...


The surface of Callisto can be subdivided into several geologically different parts:[9][10] cratered plains, light plains and smooth plains. The cratered plains constitute most of the surface area and represent the ancient lithosphere consisting of ice and rocky material with composition close to D-type asteroids. The light plains include bright craters termed palimpsests (for instance Burr and Lofn), parts of multi-ring structures, and patches in the cratered plains. They are thought to be icy impact deposits. The smooth plains constitute a small fraction of the callistoan surface and are found in Valhalla and Asgard formations and as isolated spots in the cratered plains. They were supposed to be connected with endogenic activity but the high resolution Galileo images showed that the bright smooth plains correlate with heavily fractured terrain and do not show any signs of resurfacing. The Galileo images also revealed small (<10000 km2) dark smooth areas which appear to embay (embay: to shut in, or shelter, as in a bay) surrounding terrain. They are possible cryovolcanic deposits.[10] Both light and smooth plains are somewhat younger and less cratered.[10][11] The callistoan craters are generally shallower than those on the Moon. D-type asteroids have a very low albedo and a featureless reddish spectrum. ... It has been suggested that minor planet be merged into this article or section. ... Categories: Stub | Craters on Jupiters moons ... Lofn crater is in the center of the image. ... Valhalla crater, on Callisto Valhalla is the largest impact crater on Jupiters moon Callisto. ... Categories: Stub | Craters on Jupiters moons ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...

Valhalla crater, on Callisto

The distinct feature of the callistoan surface is the presence of large multi-ring basins.[9][10] Two of them are really enormous. Valhalla is the largest one with a bright central region that is 600 kilometers in diameter and rings extending up to 3000 kilometers in diameter (see figure).[12] The second largest multi-ring basin is Asgard, measuring about 1600 kilometers in diameter.[12] They probably originated as a result of concentric fracturing of the lithosphere lying on the ocean. Another interesting feature of the callistoan surface is catenae (for example Gomul Catena) –long chains of impact craters lined up in straight lines across Callisto's surface. They were probably caused by objects that were tidally disrupted as they passed close to Jupiter (much like Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9) before the impacts. Download high resolution version (1196x714, 370 KB)Valhalla crater on Callisto. ... Download high resolution version (1196x714, 370 KB)Valhalla crater on Callisto. ... Valhalla crater, on Callisto Valhalla is the largest impact crater on Jupiters moon Callisto. ... Categories: Stub | Craters on Jupiters moons ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Gomul Catena on Callisto. ... Hubble Space Telescope image of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, taken on May 17, 1994. ...


The absolute ages of different units of Callisto's crust are not known. The cratered plains are thought to be ~4.5 billion years old, dating back almost to the formation of the solar system. The ages of multi-ring structures and craters depend on chosen cratering rates and are estimated by different authors to vary between 1 and 4 Ga.[8][10] Billion may mean: 1,000,000,000 (one thousand million; ), used by most English-speaking countries (American and usual modern British meaning) 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ), used by most other countries outside Asia (older British meaning). ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ...


While Callisto is very similar in bulk properties to Ganymede, it apparently had a much simpler geological history. The surface of Callisto seems to form mainly under the influence of impacts and other exogenic forces.[10] Unlike neighbouring Ganymede with its tectonic grooved terrain, there is little evidence of tectonic activity. The endogenic activity, even if confirmed, has had insignificant influence on the callistoan geology. The different geological histories of the two satellites has been an important problem for planetary scientists. "Simple" Callisto is a good reference for comparison with other more complex worlds. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Atmosphere and ionosphere

Callisto has a very tenuous atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide.[13] It was detected by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) at ~4.2 μm. The surface pressure is estimated to be 7.5 pbar and density of 4×108 cm-3. Because such a thin atmosphere will be lost in ~4 days[13] (see atmospheric escape), scientists believe that it is constantly replenished, possibly by slow sublimation of carbon dioxide ice from the satellite's icy crust. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... There are several different processes that can lead to the escape of a planetary atmosphere. ...


The ionosphere of Callisto was detected during Galileo flybys.[14] It appears to have rather a high electron density of ~104 cm-3, which cannot be explained by the ionization of CO2 alone. So it is possible that the atmosphere of Callisto contains significant (10-100 times more than CO2) amounts of O2.[15]


Possibility of extraterrestrial life

Like with Europa and Ganymede, the idea has been brought up that extraterrestrial microbial life may exist on Callisto due to the salty ocean under its surface. However, scientist Torrence Johnson said the following about comparing the odds of life on Callisto with the odds on other Galilean moons:[16] Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A 1967 Soviet Union 16 kopeks stamp. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ...

"The basic ingredients for life -- what we call 'pre-biotic chemistry' -- are abundant in many solar system objects, such as comets, asteroids and icy moons. Biologists believe liquid water and energy are then needed to actually support life, so it's exciting to find another place where we might have liquid water. But, energy is another matter, and currently, Callisto's ocean is only being heated by radioactive elements, whereas Europa has tidal energy as well, from its greater proximity to Jupiter."

Based on the considerations mentioned above and on other scientific observations, it is thought that of all of Jupiter's Galilean moons, Europa has the greatest chance of supporting microbial life. Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


HOPE: NASA performed a study called HOPE (Revolutionary Concepts for Human Outer Planet Exploration) regarding the future exploration of the solar system. The target chosen was Callisto. It could be possible to build a surface base that would produce fuel for further exploration of the solar system. Since it is outside of Jupiter's radiation belt and also geologically very stable, it could prove to be a suitable place for a base. This base would also be a centre for exploration of the Jovian system, for example remote exploration of Europa. It would also be the ideal location for a Jovian system way station that could service spacecraft headed farther into the outer Solar System, using a gravity assist from a close fly-by of Jupiter after departing Callisto.


See also

Callisto, one of the many moons of Jupiter, is the most heavily cratered moon in the solar system. ... This is a list of named geological features on Callisto. ... Some of the moons of the outer planets of the solar system are large enough to be suitable places for colonization. ...

Callisto in fiction

See Callisto in fiction.

Galilean moons of Jupiter Jupiters extensive system of natural satellites – in particular the four large Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) – has been a common science fiction setting. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; McElrath, T. P.; et al. (2001). "Shape, mean radius, gravity field and interior structure of Callisto". Icarus 153: pp. 157-161. 
  2. ^ Galilei, G.; Sidereus Nuncius (March 13, 1610)
  3. ^ Marius, S.; Mundus Iovialis anno M.DC.IX Detectus Ope Perspicilli Belgici (1614)
  4. ^ Khurana, K. K.; et al. (1998). "Induced magnetic fields as evidence for subsurface oceans in Europa and Callisto". Nature 395: pp. 777-780. 
  5. ^ Zimmer, C.; Khurana, K. K. (2000). "Subsurface Oceans on Europa and Callisto: Constraints from Galileo Magnetometer Observations". Icarus 147: pp. 329–347. 
  6. ^ Spohn, T.; Schubert, G. (2003). "Oceans in the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter?". Icarus 161: pp. 456–467. 
  7. ^ Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Jacobson, R. A.; et al. (1998). "Distribution of Rock, Metals and Ices in Callisto". Science 280: pp. 1573-1576. 
  8. ^ a b Zahnle, K.; Dones, L. (1998). "Cratering Rates on the Galilean Satellites". Icarus 136: pp. 202–222. 
  9. ^ a b c d Bender, K. C.; Rice, J. W.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R. (1997). "Geological map of Callisto". U.S. Geological Survey.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Wagner, L.; et al. (2000). "Galileo views of the geology of Callisto". Planetary and Space Science 48: 829-853. 
  11. ^ Wagner, R.; Neukum, G.; Greeley, R; et al. (March 12-16, 2001). "Fractures, Scarps, and Lineaments on Callisto and their Correlation with Surface Degradation". 32nd Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 
  12. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey. Controlled Photomosaic Map of Callisto JC 15M CMN [map], 2002 edition.
  13. ^ a b Carlson, R. W.; et al. (1999). "A Tenuous Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere on Jupiter's Moon Callisto". Science 283: pp. 820-821. 
  14. ^ Kliore, A. J.; Anabtawi, A; Herrera, R. G.; et al. (2002). "Ionosphere of Callisto from Galileo radio occultation observations". Journal of Geophysics Research 107: p. 1407. 
  15. ^ Liang, M. C.; Lane, B. F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; et al. (2005). "Atmosphere of Callisto". Journal of Geophysics Research 110: p. E02003. 
  16. ^ Phillips, T.; Callisto makes a big splash Science@NASA (23 October 1998)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Callisto (455 words)
Jupiter IV Callisto ("ka LIS toh") is the eighth of Jupiter's known satellites and the second largest.
Callisto was a nymph, beloved of Zeus and hated by Hera.
Unlike Ganymede, Callisto seems to have little internal structure; however there are signs from recent Galileo data that the interior materials have settled partially, with the percentage of rock increasing toward the center.
Callisto (moon) (506 words)
Two enormous concentric ring impact basins are found on Callisto; Valhalla[?] is the largest with a bright central region that is 600 kilometers in diameter and rings extending to 3000 kilometers in diameter, and the second-largest impact basin is Asgard[?] measuring about 1600 kilometers in diameter.
Callisto's crust is thought to be approximately 4 billion years old, dating back almost to the formation of the solar system.
Galileo probe data suggest that the interior is composed of compressed rock and ice, with the percentage of rock increasing with depth due to partial settling of its constituents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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