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Encyclopedia > Calligraphy
Contemporary Western Calligraphy.

Calligraphy (from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty" + γραφή graphẽ "writing") is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and materials limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet (Fraser & Kwiatkowski 2006; Johnston 1909: Plate 6). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Illustration of a scribe writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation of and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ...


Calligraphy ranges from functional hand lettered inscriptions and designs to fine art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not supersede the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, improvised at the moment of writing (Pott 2006 & 2005; Zapf 2007 & 2006). So, many calligraphers are as happy with "jazz" as "classical" for musical analogy and represents differing emphasis between artists. Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design/ typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art,various announcements/ graphic design/ commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, props and moving images for film and television, testimonials, birth and death certificates/maps, and other works involving writing (see for example Letter Arts Review; Propfe 2005; Geddes & Dion 2004).

Contents

East Asian calligraphy

Chinese calligraphy written by Song Dynasty (A.D. 1051-1108) poet Mi Fu. For centuries, the Chinese literati were expected to master the art of calligraphy.
Chinese calligraphy written by Song Dynasty (A.D. 1051-1108) poet Mi Fu. For centuries, the Chinese literati were expected to master the art of calligraphy.

Asian calligraphy typically uses ink brushes to write Chinese characters (called Hanzi in Chinese, Hanja in Korean, Kanji in Japanese, and Hán Tự in Vietnamese). Calligraphy (in Chinese, Shufa 書法, in Korean, Seoye 書藝, in Japanese Shodō 書道, all meaning "the way of writing") is considered an important art in East Asia and the most refined form of East Asian painting. Image File history File links Mifu01. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Mi Fu(1051-1107) was a native of Shanxi who was noted as a Chinese painter, poet, and calligrapher. ... The art of calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian civilizations that use Chinese characters. ... Ink brushes (筆, in Japanese fude) are speciality brushes used in East Asian calligraphy. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Painter redirects here. ...


Calligraphy has also influenced ink and wash painting, which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques. Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including sumi-e, a style of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting based entirely on calligraphy. Ink and wash painting, also known as wash painting or (by its Japanese name) sumi-e, is an East Asian school of brush painting. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Japanese painting ) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety on genre and styles. ...

The main categories of Chinese-character calligraphy
English name Hanzi(Pinyin) Hangul(RR) Rōmaji Quốc ngữ
Seal script 篆書(Zhuànshū) 전서(Jeonseo) Tensho Triện thư
Clerical script (Official script) 隸書
(隷書)(Lìshū)
예서(Yeseo) Reisho Lệ thư
Regular Script (Block script) 楷書(Kǎishū) 해서(Haeseo) Kaisho Khải thư
Semi-cursive Script (Running script) 行書(Xíngshū) 행서(Haengseo) Gyōsho Hành thư
Cursive script (Grass script) 草書(Cǎoshū) 초서(Choseo) Sōsho Thảo thư

Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Jamo redirects here. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category Rōmaji (ローマ字 Roman characters, sometimes misunderstood as romanji in English), is a Japanese term for the Latin alphabet. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... The clerical script or chancery script (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: lìshu; Japanese: 隸書体, Reishotai;) is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which, due to its high legibility to modern readers, is still being used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards and advertisements. ... Sheng Jiao Xu by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style The Regular Script, or in Chinese Kaishu (楷書 Pinyin: kÇŽishÅ«) and Japanese Kaisho, also commonly known as Standard Regular (正楷), is the newest of the Chinese calligraphy styles (peaked at the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and... Semi-cursive script (Chinese: 行書, Pinyin: XíngshÅ«, Japanese: gyōsho, Korean: haengseo) is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. ... Chinese characters of Cursive Script in regular script (left) and cursive script (right). ...

Indian calligraphy

Main article: Indian calligraphy

// A fragment of Ashokas 6th pillar edict. ...

Tibetan calligraphy

Calligraphy is central in Tibetan culture. The script is derived from Indic scripts. As in China, the nobles of Tibet, such as the High Lamas and inhabitants of the Potala Palace, were usually capable calligraphers. Tibet has been a center of Buddhism for several centuries, and that religion places a great deal of significance on written word. This does not provide for a large body of secular pieces, although they do exist (but are usually related in some way to Tibetan Bhuddism). Almost all high religious writing involved calligraphy, including letters sent by the Dalai Lama and other religious and secular authority. Calligraphy is particularly evident on their prayer wheels, although this calligraphy was forged rather than scribed, much like Arab and Roman calligraphy is often found on buildings. Although originally done with a reed, Tibetan calligraphers now use chisel tipped pens and markers as well. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Lama (Tibetan: བླ་མ་; Wylie: bla-ma) is a title for a Tibetan religious teacher. ... The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ།) located in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala, India after a failed uprising in 1959. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... Prayer wheels bring good luck Prayer wheels in Samye Prayer wheels are called Mani wheels by the Tibetans. ...


Persian calligraphy

Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportional rules.
Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportional rules.
Main article: Persian calligraphy

Persian calligraphy is the calligraphy of Persian writing system. The history of calligraphy in Persia dates back to the pre-Islam era. In Zoroastrianism beautiful and clear writings were always praised. The main types of Persian calligraphy are: Nasta'liq script, Shekasteh-Nasta'liq script and Naghashi-khat. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 577 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1701 × 1768 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 577 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1701 × 1768 pixel, file size: 1. ... Persian calligraphy is the calligraphy of Persian writing system. ... Old Persian: Old Persian cineiform script, Middle Persian (or Pahlavi): Pahlavi, Manichean script—by Persian-speaking Manichees, Modern Persian: Persian variant of the Arabic alphabet. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Chalipa panel, Mir Emad. ...


Islamic calligraphy

Main article: Islamic calligraphy
A page of a 12th century Qur'an written in the Andalusi script
A page of a 12th century Qur'an written in the Andalusi script

Islamic calligraphy (calligraphy in Arabic is Khatt ul-Yad خط اليد) is an aspect of Islamic art that has evolved alongside the religion of Islam and the Arabic language. The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty. ... Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Arabic/Persian calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spiritual world. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'an, has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There was a strong parallel tradition to that of the Islamic, among Aramaic and Hebrew scholars, seen in such works as the Hebrew illuminated bibles of the 9th and 10th centuries. Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Islamic Calligraphy was a form of art. Muslims believed that only Allah could create images of people and animals.


Western calligraphy

Main article: Western calligraphy
Historical evolution of Western calligraphy[1]

Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Roman alphabet. The alphabet came from the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan alphabets. The first Roman alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome. About the first century we can see Roman square capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use. This trend continued into the second and third centuries using the Uncial, however writing withdrew to monasteries and was preserved there during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire finally fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages. Western calligraphy is the calligraphy of the Latin writing system, and to a lesser degree the Greek and Cyrillic writing systems. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Antiqua A facsimile of Nicholas Jensons roman type used in Venice circa 1470. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Arch of Titus, with an inscription in Roman square capitals Roman square capitals, also called elegant capitals and quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters. ... shoe ... A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets:[1] Hoc gracili currenteque / vix hodie patefactas / Romani tabulas ornarunt calamo (With this slender and running pen the Romans decorated writing tablets, which today scarcely have been brought to light. ... The Book of Kells, c. ...


At the height of the Roman Empire its power reached as far as Great Britain, when the empire fell, its literary influence remained. The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon. In fact, each region seemed to have develop its own standards following the main monastery of the region (i.e. Merovingian script, Laon script, Luxeuil script, Visigothic script, Beneventan script) which are mostly cursive and hardly readable. The Book of Kells, c. ... Merovingian script was a medieval script so called because it was developed in France during the Merovingian dynasty. ... Luxeuil Abbey was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in the département of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France. ... Visigothic script was a type of medieval script, so called because it originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. ... Rule of St. ...


The raising of the Carolingian Empire encouraged to set a new standardized script, developed by several famous monasteries (Corbie Abbey, Beauvais,...) around the eighth century, it's finally the script from Saint Martin de Tours which is set as the new Imperial standard, named the Carolingian script (or "the Caroline"). From the Carolingian powerful Empire, this standard also conquered neighbouring kingdoms. Abbey church of Corbie. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ...


About the seventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, more cursive and for daily use. After the invention of Gutenberg (1455), the Gutenberg script spread across Europe. Gothic script was a medieval script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to 1500. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... ... no changes . ...


In the sixteenth century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the Antiqua script (about 1470). The seventeenth century saw the Batarde script from France, and the eighteenth century saw the English script spread across Europe and world by their books. Antiqua A facsimile of Nicholas Jensons roman type used in Venice circa 1470. ... English script is a cursive style, especially for capital letters, first used in the 18th century in England, and later across the world. ...


From this, hand written Latin calligraphy hasn't really changed. But we can notice that this evolution was accelerated by the printing press (Times New Roman) in the nineteenth century and by computer fonts in the late twentieth century. The Times New Roman typeface, on top at 88. ...


Nowadays, computers allow an unskilled user to easily output dozens of scripts, but the result hasn't the same spontaneity that handwritten calligraphy has.

Features of Western Calligraphy and modern Western Calligraphy

Western calligraphy has some special features, such the illumination of the first letter of each page in medieval times, either by making it bigger, colored, and/or more complex.


As Chinese or Arabian calligraphies, western calligraphic script had strict rules and shapes. The quality of a text was according to the regularity of the letters, and the "geometrical" good order of the lines on the pages. Each character had, and still has, a precise stroke order. Outline of the character æ°¸, showing stroke order. ...


Current Modern Western calligraphy have evolved into an art where creativity is paramount, allowing use of highly colored and/or cursive characters, while the sentences are commonly curves or crossing each other to add odd visual effects.


Tools

Main article: Writing implement

The principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen, which may be flat- or round-nibbed and the brush (Reaves & Schulte 2006; Child 1985; Lamb 1956). For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens — steel brushes — can be used. However, works have also been made with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. Ink for writing is usually water-based and much less viscous than the oil based inks used in printing. High quality paper, which has good consistency of porousness, will enable cleaner lines,[citation needed] although parchment or vellum is often used, as a knife can be used to erase work on them and a light box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. In addition, light boxes and templates are often used in order to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Lined paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most often lined every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are occasionally used, such as with litterea unciales (hence the name), and college ruled paper acts as a guideline often as well. [1] Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... For other uses, see Pen (disambiguation). ... Different styles of paintbrushes The term brush refers to a variety of devices mainly with bristles, wire or other filament of any possible material used mainly for cleaning, grooming hair, painting, deburring and other kinds of surface finishing, but also for many other purposes like (but not limited to) seals... Categories: Stub | Writing instruments ... Ballpoint pen, disassembled (top) and complete (bottom) A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. ...


See also

  1. ^ V. Sabard, V. Geneslay, L. Rébéna, Calligraphie latine, initiation, ed. Fleurus, Paris. 7th edition, 2004, pages 8 to 11

Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ... OpenType Typographic Features All Alternates [aalt] Alternate Annotation [nalt] Alternative Fractions [afrc] Capitals to Petite Caps [c2pc] Capitals to Small Caps [c2sc] Case Sensive Forms [case+cpsp] Contextual Alternates [calt] Contextual Ligatures [clig] Contextual Swash [cswh] Denominator [dnom] Discretionary Ligatures [dlig] Expert Forms (Asian) [expt] Fractions [frac] Full Widths (Asian... Bold and Boldface redirect here. ... In traditional typography, punchcutting is the process by which matrices were made in hard metal for type founding in the early days. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Typographic units are the units of measurement used in typography or typesetting. ... // Chirography See also: Penmanship, Calligraphy. ... Aizu Yaichi Edward Johnston Rudolf Koch Karl-Erik Forsberg Robert Haas Onoe Saishu Alison Furminger Karlgeorg Hoefer Fernando Lembo di Pino Ingen Ryuki Thomas Ingmire Ono no Michikaze Qu Leilei Uragami Gyokudo Timothy Botts Jean Larcher Herman Zapf Arthur Baker Deirdre Hassed Heera Lal Bhargava Hattat Aziz Efendi Jiang Kui...

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  • Williams, R.B. (2004) Williams On South Asian Religions And Immigration: Collected Works By Raymond Brady Williams. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., p. 61
  • Zapf, H. (2007) Alphabet Stories: A Chronicle of Technical Develoments Cary Graphic Arts Press Rochester New York
  • Zapf, H. (2006) The world of Alphabets: A kaleidoscope of drawings and letterforms, CD-ROM

External links

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Islamic calligraphy


  Results from FactBites:
 
Calligraphy (442 words)
Shu (calligraphy), Hua (painting), Qin (a string musical instrument), and Qi (a strategic boardgame) are the four basic skills and disciplines of the Chinese literati.
During the imperial era, calligraphy was used as an important criterion for selection of executives to the Imperial court.
In contrast to western calligraphy, diffusing ink blots and dry brush strokes are viewed as a natural impromptu expression rather than a fault.
Calligraphy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1216 words)
Calligraphy today ranges from functional inscriptions and hand lettering to fine art pieces where the expression of the handwritten mark frequently takes precedence over the legibility of the letters.
Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day.
Calligraphy (in Chinese, Shufa 書法, in Japanese Shodō 書道, in Korean, Seoyae 書藝, all meaning "the way of writing") is considered an important art in East Asia and the most refined form of East Asian painting.
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