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Encyclopedia > Callao

El Callao

Location in Perú Coat of Arms
City flag
 City nickname El Primer Puerto
(the first port)
 Founded 1537
 Government:  
 - Region Callao
 - Province Constitutional Province
of Callao
 - Mayor Félix Moreno
 Area:  
 - Total 146.98 km²
 - Subdivisions 6 districts
 - Latitude/Longitude 12°2.5′S, 77°8′W
 Population:  
 - Urban (2005 est.)[1] 813,264
 - Metropolitan 8,187,398
 - Density 5,608.4/km²
 Demonym chalaco/a
 City calling code 14
 Time zone UTC/GMT-5
 Official website www.municallao.gob.pe

Callao (Spanish: El Callao) is the largest and most important port in Peru. The city is coterminous with the Constitutional Province of Callao, the only province of the Callao Region. Callao is located west of Lima, the country's capital, and is part of the Lima Metropolitan Area, a large metropolis that concentrates almost one-third of Peru's population. Callao borders Lima Province on the north, east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... The Subdivisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century. ... Map of the Peruvian provinces The provinces of Peru, known in Spanish as provincias, are the second-level administrative subdivisions of the country. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda),[1][2] describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Nickname: Location within Lima Region Lima shown within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Lima and Callao from space The Lima Metropolitan Area (Spanish: Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Gran Lima (Greater Lima) or Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nations capital) and Callao. ... Cities with atleast a million inhabitants in 2006 A metropolis (in Greek μήτηρ, mÄ“tÄ“r = mother and πόλις, pólis = city/town) is a big city[1], in most cases with over half million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living in its...

Contents

History

Callao was founded in 1537, just two years after Lima (1535), and soon became the main port for Spanish commerce in the Pacific. The origin of its name is unknown; both Indian (particularly Yunga, or Coastal Peruvian) and Spanish sources are credited, but it is certain that it was known by that name since 1550. Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earths oceanic subdivisions. ...


At the height of the Viceroyalty, virtually all goods produced in Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina were carried over the Andes by mule to Callao, to be shipped to Panama, carried overland, and then transported on to Spain via Cuba. Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... A barren of mules. ...


On August 20, 1836, during the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, President Andrés de Santa Cruz mandated the creation of the Callao Littoral Province (Provincia Litoral del Callao), which had political autonomy in its internal affairs. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Capital Tacna Created 1836 Dissolved 1839 Demonym Peru-bolivian The Peru-Bolivian Confederation (or sometime - Confederacy) was a short-lived confederal state that existed in South America between the years 1836 and 1839. ... Andrés de Santa Cruz Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana (1792-1865) Served as President of Peru in 1827 and President of Bolivia from 1829 until 1839, where he was elected after the resignation of Antonio José de Sucre. ...


During the government of President Ramón Castilla, Callao was given the name of Constitutional Province (Provincia Constitucional), on April 22, 1857. The province's first mayor was Col. Manuel Cipriano Dulanto. However, this new name had no practical difference as the status of Callao was the same as that of any other province, and it belonged, just like all others, to a department (in this case, the Lima Department). The only difference was that all Peruvian provinces had been given that name by law, while Callao was given it by constitutional mandate. As part of the decentralization process promoted by President Alejandro Toledo in 2002, the Callao Region was created, and the Constitutional Province of Callao was no longer part of the Lima Department (now Lima Region). Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (31 August 1797 – 25 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo and President of Peru four times. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Categories: Departments of Peru ... The Lima Region, also known as Lima Provincias, is one of twenty-five regions in Peru. ...


Notable events

// Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Spain Peru and allies Commanders Casto Méndez Núñez Mariano Ignacio Prado; various commanders Strength 14 ships several ships, infantry, cavalry, townspeople Casualties around 50 dead, 83 wounded around 200 The Battle of Callao (in Spanish, sometimes called el Combate del Dos de Mayo) occurred on May 2... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The most famous Peruvian prison massacres occurred on June 18 and 19, 1986, after a series of prison riots in the prisons in San Juan de Lurigancho, Santa Mónica, and El Frontón in Lima and Callao, Peru. ...

City highlights

The port of Callao.

Callao is built on and around a peninsula, the district of La Punta, once a wealthy residential neighborhood. An historical fortress, the Castillo de Real Felipe (site of "Rodil's Last Stand"), stands on the promontory overlooking the harbor. Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 749 KB) This image is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 749 KB) This image is copyrighted. ... La Punta is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, Spanish general and statesman, born in Santa María del Trovo, Galicia region. ...


There is also a large naval base in Callao, in which the leader of the Shining Path rebel movement, Abimael Guzmán, and Vladimiro Montesinos, the ex-director of internal security during the Fujimori regime are currently imprisoned. The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. ... Guzmán as a prisoner Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, also known by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Maoist insurgency often referred coloquially to as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish). ... Vladimiro Montesinos Vladimiro Lenin Montesinos Torres (born May 20, 1945) was the long-time, powerful head of Perus intelligence service, Servicio de Inteligencia Nacional (SIN), under President Alberto Fujimori. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori (born in Lima, Peru on July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori ) or Chino called that by oponents, wich means Chinese, was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ...


Lima's Jorge Chávez International Airport is located in Callao. Jorge Chávez International Airport (IATA: LIM, ICAO: SPIM) is Perus main international and domestic airport, serving almost 6 million passengers per year. ...


On a bluff overlooking the harbor sits Colegio Militar Leoncio Prado, the military high school Peruvian author Mario Vargas Llosa attended and made famous in his first novel, La Ciudad y los Perros (1962) (published in English as The Time of the Hero in 1963). The book was later filmed as The City and the Dogs and featured exterior shots of the school. The city also has a university, the National University of Callao. Mario Vargas Llosa in his youth. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National University of Callao is a post-secondary institution in the Bellavista District of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the country of Peru. ...


Callao also has several islands, San Lorenzo (currently a military base), El Frontón (a former high security prison), the Cavinzas, and the Palominos, where a large number of sea lions and sea birds live in a virtually untouched ecosystem. There is currently proposed plans to build a huge naval, terrestrial, and air port on San Lorenzo Island. This project is called the San Lorenzo Megaport Project. Isla San Lorenzo is the largest island off the direct coast of Callao Region, Peru. ... El Frontón is an island off of the coast of Callao, Peru. ... Genera Eumetopias Zalophus Otaria Neophoca Phocarctos Hundreds of California Sea Lions sunbathing on Pier 39 in San Francisco. ... Seabirds are birds that spend much of their lives, outside the breeding season at least, at sea. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The San Lorenzo Megaport Project is a proposed plan to build a huge air, naval, and terrestrial port on the island of San Lorenzo in Callao, Peru using land land reclamation techniques. ...


Residents of Callao are known as chalacos.


Districts

Map of the Constitutional Province of Callao

Callao is divided into six districts, (Spanish: distritos; singular: distrito), each of which is headed by a mayor (alcalde). Image File history File links Map_of_Callao. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Callao. ... Districts (span: distrito, distritos) form the third level of Peruvian territorial subdivisions. ...

* The rest of Callao Region is composed of the islands of San Lorenzo, El Frontón and Cavinzas, which all together have an area of 17.63 km². Bellavista is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... Callao is one of the six districts of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the Callao Region, Peru. ... Carmen de la Legua Reynoso is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... La Perla is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... La Punta is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... Ventanilla is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... Isla San Lorenzo is the largest island off the direct coast of Callao Region, Peru. ...


Government

Local government affairs are divided into two levels. Regional matters are handled by the Regional Government of Callao (Gobierno Regional del Callao), which is located in the Bellavista District. Affairs such as city cleaning, promoting of sports and basic services are handled by the Provincial Municipality of Callao, which is headquartered in the Callao District. Also, each of the six district has its own Municipality which handles matters in their respective jurisdictional areas. Bellavista is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. ... Callao is one of the six districts of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the Callao Region, Peru. ...


Railway

The port is served by the Ferrocarril Central Andino railway, which in 2006 is to be modernised from narrow gauge of 914mm to the world standard gauge of 1435mm. Ferrocarril Central Andino To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Comparison of standard gauge (blue) and one common narrow gauge (red) width. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ...


References

  1. ^ INEI – Censo INEI (2005)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chim Pum Callao Homepage: History (482 words)
During the colony, Lima was defended from incursions by pirates by the fortress-port of Callao.
Another Callao expedition on the XX century was the one by texan sailor William Willis in 1954.
Callao history is still being told and it is a history related to the sea.
Callao at AllExperts (785 words)
Callao is located west of Lima, the country's capital, and is part of the Lima Metropolitan Area, a large metropolis that concentrates almost one-third of Peru's population.
Callao borders Lima Province on the north, east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Callao is built on and around a peninsula, the district of La Punta, once a wealthy residential neighborhood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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